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Washington, D.C., World Bank, Urban Sector Board, 2008.  p.This paper provides an overview on what has been learned about urban poverty over the past decade with a focus on what is new and what the implications are for the World Bank going forward in an increasingly urbanized world. Coverage includes current information on the scope of urban poverty, identification of the key issues for the urban poor, a summary of regional characteristics of urban poverty, what has been learned from programs and policies aimed at the urban poor, and finally, the paper identifies priorities for urban poverty reduction within the context of an overall urban strategy.
Journal of Urban Health. 2008 Mar; 85(2):151-153.In the coming decades, the global population will urbanize and age at high rates. Today, half of the world's populations lives in cities.1 By 2030, that proportion will rise to 60%, and urbanization will occur most greatly in developing countries. At the same time, the world's population aged 60 and over will double from 11% to 22% by 2050, and that growth will be concentrated in urban areas in less developed countries. All of these trends challenge public health workers, doctors, researchers, and urban planners to ensure healthy livable cities for older people. (excerpt)
Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Mar. 15 p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)In 2002, Rwanda's Ministry of Health carried out a survey on the performance of the logistics system for contraceptives, with technical support from DELIVER. In 2003 and 2004, routine surveys were undertaken as a follow-up to the program to ensure the availability of contraceptives and to strengthen the contraceptive logistics management system. This 2006 assessment report identifies areas where improvements have since been achieved and suggests remedial recommendations as well as actions to improve the logistics system. Information on the performance of the logistics system, the availability of products, and the availability and quality of logistics data is also presented. The report notes that Rwanda's logistics management system for contraceptives is in place, and that it correctly fulfills expected tasks. Products are available and the system runs smoothly. Critical logistics data are sent to the central level on a regular basis, and the reporting rate has reached 100 percent. Stockouts are marginal. This report illustrates the conditions that contributed to the satisfactory results achieved by the existing contraceptive management system. (author's)
UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23: p..Five priority areas for national and international action are highlighted in a 53-page report of the Secretary-General on the critical economic situation in Africa (A/S-13/2) placed before the General Assembly's thirteenth special session. The priority areas include: national and collective self-sufficiency in food production and agricultural development in general; efforts to meet drought and desertification; rehabilitation and development of transport and other structures; development of human resources and social services, with attention to the role of women and the need to protect vulnerable groups; and external financial resources and the problem of external debt. The report states that droughts and famines suffered by many African countries from 1983 through 1985 attracted the world's attention to the plight of Africa. Emergency aid and good rains brought some relief, and although the food situation remains "precarious' and in some areas "quite serious', the immediate threat of mass starvation has subsided. (excerpt)
International Organization for Migration: experience on the need for medical evacuation of refugees during the Kosovo crisis in 1999.
Croatian Medical Journal. 2002; 43(2):195-198.The International Organization for Migration (IOM) developed and implemented a three-month project entitled Priority Medical Screening of Kosovar Refugees in Macedonia, within the Humanitarian Evacuation Program (HEP) for Kosovar refugees from FR Yugoslavia, which was adopted in May 1999. The project was based on an agreement with the office of United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and comprised the entry of registration data of refugees with medical condition (Priority Medical Database), and classification (Priority Medical Screening) and medical evacuation of refugees (Priority Medical Evacuation) in Macedonia. To realize the Priority Medical Screening project plan, IOM developed and set up a Medical Database linked to IOM/UNHCR HEP database, recruited and trained a four-member data entry team, worked out and set up a referral system for medical cases from the refugee camps, and established and staffed medical contact office for refugees in Skopje and Tetovo. Furthermore, it organized and staffed a mobile medical screening team, developed and implemented the system and criteria for the classification of referred medical cases, continuously registered and classified the incoming medical reports, contacted regularly the national delegates and referred to them the medically prioritized cases asking for acceptance and evacuation, and co-operated and continuously exchanged the information with UNHCR Medical Co-ordination and HEP team. Within the timeframe of the project, 1,032 medical cases were successfully evacuated for medical treatment to 25 host countries throughout the world. IOM found that those refugees suffering from health problems, who at the time of the termination of the program were still in Macedonia and had not been assisted by the project, were not likely to have been priority one cases, whose health problems could be solved only in a third country. The majority of these vulnerable people needed social rather than medical care and assistance - a challenge that international aid agencies needed to address in Macedonia and will need to address elsewhere. (author's)
Forced Migration Review. 2005 Nov; (24):61.The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) reports that there are currently 1,100 vehicles used by the 81 agencies meeting the needs of over two million displaced people in Darfur. Are the vehicles the right type to do the job as safely and reliably as possible? How should they be maintained in a place where there are no garages or mechanics trained to service imported high-tech trucks? Do drivers understand how to use their vehicles in the very insecure environment along roads – if they exist at all – that are among the worst in the world? If more attention were paid to the procurement, management and maintenance of vehicle fleets, could agencies use fewer vehicles and ensure they are not worn out after two years – the estimated life-span of trucks used in the rigorous Darfur conditions? (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2005 Nov; (24):42.Provision of services along the whole returnee route is critical to the return process: at points of displacement (such as Khartoum and Kosti IDP camps and squatter areas), at key transition points which IDPs will pass through to return home (Kosti ferry embarkation) and at destination points (such as Northern Upper Nile and the Nuba mountains). Most of the IDPs have been displaced for 20 years. Many who have grown up in Khartoum can no longer speak their native language – potentially problematic for reintegration in their home areas. In addition, through isolation from their communities and interaction with other ethnic groups and cultures, they have lost knowledge of traditional customs and have adopted new traditions and customs. One prime example of this is food. Many IDPs returning from the North may not have had access to foods grown in the South and no longer know how to prepare them. To remedy this, one of FAR’s activities is organising cooking demonstrations – especially for young girls who have grown up and married in the North – focusing on foods grown in southern Sudan. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1): p..In all societies, men have better access to superior transport, be it more regular use of the family car or disposable income to take public transport instead of walking. The lack of mobility generally, let alone poorer job and educational opportunities, plays an important and under-appreciated role in perpetuating the economic disadvantages of women. Gender inequality in transport is a consequence of social organization and the outcome of differential access to economic, time and other resources. The greater domestic responsibilities of women, coupled with weaker access to household resources, have significant consequences for their transport an travel status. In many parts of the world, women also face customary or legal restraints, their rights to travel or a particular mode of transport with violations often resulting in physical harassment. Personal safety and avoiding harassment are major preoccupations whether women drive, use public transport, cycle or walk. They are especially vulnerable to violent attacks or sexual abuse when transporting heavy goods or with accompanying children. (excerpt)
Women seafarers: fighting against the tide? As on land, so by sea: women join the ranks of seafarers.
World of Work. 2003 Dec; (49):14-16.Once only figureheads on the world's ocean-going ships, the entrance of women into the seafaring trade is a small, but growing phenomenon. Yet, as women work their way onto the world's great ships, salt and the sea are only part of the challenges they face. As a new landmark ILO study points out, discrimination, sexual harassment and deep skepticism over their strengths and capabilities can be equally challenging. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2004 Feb; 82(2):99-105.To document and characterize freezing temperatures in the Indonesian vaccine cold chain and to evaluate the feasibility of changes designed to reduce the occurrence of freezing. Data loggers were used to measure temperatures of shipments of hepatitis B vaccine from manufacturer to point of use. Baseline conditions and three intervention phases were monitored. During each of the intervention phases, vaccines were removed progressively from the standard 2–8 °C cold chain. Freezing temperatures were recorded in 75% of baseline shipments. The highest rates of freezing occurred during transport from province to district, storage in district-level ice-lined refrigerators, and storage in refrigerators in health centres. Interventions reduced freezing, without excessive heat exposure. Inadvertent freezing of freeze-sensitive vaccines is widespread in Indonesia. Simple strategies exist to reduce freezing — for example, selective transport and storage of vaccines at ambient temperatures. The use of vaccine vial monitors reduces the risk associated with heat-damaged vaccines in these scenarios. Policy changes that allow limited storage of freezesensitive vaccines at temperatures >2–8 °C would enable flexible vaccine distribution strategies that could reduce vaccine freezing, reduce costs, and increase capacity. (author's)
BBC News. World Edition. 2002 Dec 9;  p..Villagers in parts of Western Africa have come up with an ingenious way of helping pregnant women get to hospital. They place yellow flags on the side of major roads to literally flag down passing truck drivers. The drivers transport the women to hospital, which can sometimes be hundreds of miles away. (excerpt)
National Seminar on Population and Development in Malawi, 5 - 9th June, 1989, Chancellor College, Zomba. Report.
Zomba, Malawi, University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Demographic Unit, 1989. ix, 223 p. (UNFPA Project MLW/87/PO1)The role of population in planning for socioeconomic development in Malawi was the topic of a National Seminar held by the Demographic Unit of the University of Malawi in June 1989. 64 participants from the University, Government departments, parastatal, non-governmental and international agencies presented 41 papers. Each of these background and seminar papers are summarized, and 64 recommendations are outlines. The seminar was considered further evidence that the government is becoming aware that fertility, 7.6 children per woman, and related infant mortality, 150/1000, are excessive, according to the UNFPA representative in his keynote address, and the hope that future planning will take population into account. The range of topics covered in the papers included demography, spatial distribution, macroeconomic factors in development, refugees, industry, small enterprises, health services, water supply, education, rehabilitation, status of women, food supply, land ownership, sustainable resources and manpower development. Recommendations specified actions on rural development, roads, legalizing tobacco growing, fuelwood, equalizing food security, taxes, savings, finance, antitrust regulations, incentives for health service in rural areas, housing, female education, handicapped persons, refugees, data and research and many other issues.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 93 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origin, Development and Characteristics," describes Darwin's theory of evolution and explains how overproduction causes problems of rapid population growth and poor quality of life. Special attention is given to the problem of high infant mortality in Sierra Leone. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the interrelationships and interdependence among elements in the ecosystem, the food pyramid, and the effects of man's activities and numbers on the ecosystem. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," focuses on the processes of socialization and the different agents of socialization: the family, the group, the school, and the community. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," discusses human and natural resources as well as conservation measures. It also discusses the population composition, its effect on resources, and the uses and significance of population data. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," covers land, water and air transport; the effects of transport developments in Sierra Leone; and implications for population of changes in transport activities. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," deals with the young population, characteristics of the adolescent, common social problems among young people, and the role of the family unit. National and international action is also discussed.
POPULI. 1999 Jan; 25(4):4.According to the UNFPA, Haiti's estimated population of 8 million people is growing by about 200,000 people (2.3%) per year. Total population in Haiti is already larger than that projected in 1980 for the country in 2003. At the current rate of growth, Haiti's population will reach 10 million people by 2010 and 20 million by 2040. The country is becoming increasingly urbanized, with 55% of the population projected to be living in cities in 2010. Massive in-migration from rural areas to cities has destabilized urban life in terms of employment, housing, and transportation. Only 30% of jobs lost in Port-au-Prince after the 1991 military coup d'etat has been revived. Rents are increasing, homeless people abound, and numerous unregulated structures are being built. Traffic and pollution choke Port-au-Prince. Although the agricultural sector employs 70% of the work force, it earns only 31% of national income. 63% of the original forest in Haiti has been destroyed and 63% of the land cannot be cultivated because it slopes at an angle of greater than 20 degrees. The availability of potable water is growing increasingly scarce. Haiti's rapid population growth could impede social, economic, and environmental progress.
Lancet. 1997 Nov 29; 350(9091):1608.A World Bank-funded oil pipeline project, in Chad and Cameroon, is the first large-scale construction project in sub-Saharan Africa to incorporate an HIV/AIDS prevention component. The project entails the development of oil fields in southern Chad and construction of 1100 km of pipeline to port facilities on Cameroon's Atlantic coast. 3000 construction workers from the two countries will be employed between 1998 and 2001, including about 600 truck drivers. In some areas along the pipeline route, 50% of the prostitutes (who are frequented by truck drivers) are HIV-infected. The HIV/AIDS intervention aims to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among project workers through social marketing of condoms, treatment of STDs in prostitutes along the route, and health education to modify high-risk behaviors. The program is considered a test case for African governments and donors interested in whether the integration of a health component in major construction projects can avoid AIDS epidemics in affected countries.
AL-AHRAM. 1994 Jul 7-13;  p.An estimated 20,000 people will attend the UN International Conference on Population and Development to be held in Cairo, Egypt, in September 1994. The group of attenders will include approximately 5000 representatives of 191 countries and 57 international organizations, representatives of 1200 accredited nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and 3000 journalists. As the conference approaches, the people charged with managing the logistics of this large group of visitors are gearing up. The official UN conference will be held in the Cairo International Conference Center (CICC), while a parallel NGO forum takes place in the neighboring indoor stadium in Nasr City. Participants will welcome the proximity of the two conference sites to each other. Transporting conference attenders from downtown Cairo to Heliopolis, the tendency for conferees to book late, staffing, and the youth volunteer group Friends of the Forum are discussed.
RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-EIGHTH SESSION. 1994; 1:214-5.On December 20, 1993, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution which addressed the problems involved with the smuggling of aliens and contained measures designed to prevent such smuggling. The resolution notes that criminal organizations are endangering the lives of migrants by convincing them to embark on illegal migration and that such organizations often treat the migrants as slaves in the countries of destination. This criminal activity is costly for all involved. The resolution recalls the 1960 and 1974 International Conventions for the Safety of Life at Sea and requires each State party to the conventions to ensure that no vessel covered by the Conventions be permitted to carry passengers on international voyages unless it meets the safety standards of the convention and that no State party to the Conventions allow a foreign vessel to sail unless it is in compliance with the Conventions. States which are party to the 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery are asked to take steps to abolish the practice of debt bondage.
New York, New York, W.W. Norton, 1994. xvi, 265 p.A net 1.5 billion people have been added to world population since the first UN-sponsored International Conference on Population and Development held in Bucharest 20 years ago. 78% of world population lives in developing countries and poverty is widespread around the globe. Papers contained in this report consider some of the critical issues which will face delegates to the 1994 international conference scheduled for September in Cairo. It is of paramount importance that efforts be made to reduce levels of poverty along with population growth and current high rates of resource consumption. The text also considers how the World Bank might be redirected toward efforts to achieve a sustainable society. Different sections consider the Earth's carrying capacity, redesigning the forest economy, safeguarding oceans, reshaping the power industry, reinventing transport, using computers for the environment, assessing environmental health risks, cleaning up after the arms race, rebuilding the World Bank, and food insecurity. Chart and graph data from the report are available on diskette.
In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 25-38.The public debate on the environment leading to the 1992 Earth Summit in Brazil has been restricted to global climate change instead of global change. The Summit should be part of an ongoing process and not a framework convention followed by protocols. Separate conventions for biodiversity and deforestation are likely to emerge, even though one convention integrating both biodiversity and deforestation is needed. Many environmental and development issues overlap, suggesting a need for an international group to coordinate these issues. Negotiating separate conventions for the various issues is costly for developing countries. Rapid population growth contributes to environmental degradation, but no coordinated effort exists to reduce it. The US continues to not support the UN Population Fund which, along with threats of US boycotts and disapproval, curbs initiatives to reduce population. At present population and economic growth rates, an environmental disaster will likely happen in the early 2000s. Developing countries, which also contribute greatly to global warming, will not take actions if industrialized nations do not initiate reductions of greenhouse gases. Developed countries emit the most greenhouse gases, have been responsible for most past emissions, and have the means to initiate reductions. Of industrialized nations, the US stands alone in setting targets to reduce carbon dioxide. Unlike some European nations, the US does not have an energy policy. The US abandoned public transportation for the automobile while Europe has a strong public transportation system. The World Bank has improved greatly in addressing global environmental issues, but only 1% of its energy lending is for energy efficiency. The Bank knows that projects implemented by nongovernmental organizations are more successful than those implemented by governments, yet it continues to lend money to governments. Humans need to redesign existing linear systems to be like nature's circular systems in which by-products are starting products for another reaction.
Nairobi, Kenya, UNEP, 1992. , 200 p. (UNEP/GCSS.III/2)Current knowledge and issues between 1972-92 on the environment, development activities, human conditions and well being, perceptions and attitudes, and challenges and priorities for action are addressed. 10 major environmental issues are discussed: atmospheric pollution, ozone depletion, climate change, marine pollution, freshwater resources and water quality, land degradation and desertification, deforestation and degradation of forests, loss of biological diversity, environmental hazards, and toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes. Development activities that impinge on the environment are agriculture and food production, industry, energy use and production, transport, and tourism. The human conditions affected by management of population, the environment, and development are population growth, human settlements, human health, and peace and security. The historical changes that have occurred in 20 years are reported. Government's and individual's changes in perceptions and attitudes to environmental changes are also represented. 20 years after the Stockholm conference, there are still gaps in the understanding of the environment. Governments are limited in their ability to estimate the cost of repair, or to gauge the cost of failing to take rapid action to stop the degradation. There is a lack of confidence in the capacity of national and international managerial systems to apply what is known or to mobilize effective action. There has been a squandering of the world's stock of productive natural resources and a degradation of the environment; the geopolitical map has changed. The planning and implementation of development programs must change significantly; the global economy must be restructured. International cooperation is crucial. Multinational forums have not been successful in concrete action which promotes global economic recovery. National governments have been able to proceed from good intentions to more positive actions. There is growing concern about conflicts between international trade and environmental objectives. Regulatory measures by 1995 are needed for reforestation, marine pollution, hazardous waste removal, chemical risk assessment, environmental emergencies technology transfers, environmental impact assessment, and policies of environmental agreements which lead to major deterioration; by 2000 a means of compliance and verification of environmental treaties will be required. Goals for assessment and management are identified as well as the development of global costs for further degradation and additional resources.
In: Environmental management and urban vulnerability, edited by Alcira Kreimer, Mohan Munasinghe. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. 187-236. (World Bank Discussion Papers 168)Since 1950, only 13 acute chemical disasters in developing countries have resulted in more than 100 facilities or 1000 injured. The Bhopal, Indian, chemical poisoning that killed at least 2000 people is atypical. Some other accidents were unnoticed: 1) 10,000 people in Morocco in 1959 suffered from cooking oil contaminated with degraded lubricating oil, 2) 50,000 people were affected in Iraq in 1971 from exposure to methyl mercury, and 3) 7500 people were made ill in Pakistan in 1976 from a misuse of the insecticide malathion. Multiple risks are associated with producing, transporting, storing, using and disposing of dangerous chemicals. Nuclear plants, the transport of nuclear wastes over long distances, and the increasing byproducts of the deactivation of nuclear plants also pose risks. In the United States, by the year 2000, there will be about 47,900 metric tons of spent fuel, compared with 12,900 tons in 1985. There were 435 commercial nuclear plants in existence at the start of the 1990s with nearly 100 more under construction. Several computer-linked disasters in the United States as well as Japan have had negative chain reactions. In the 1970s the world became aware of nuclear power threats, in the 1980s of the chemical hazards risks, and the 1990s could witness a biotechnological disaster on the scale of Chernobyl or Bhopal in some developing country that has imported this new technology without instituting the safeguards. 96% percent of population growth is in developing countries with the growth of hugh cities by massive migration from rural to urban areas. The general implication is that to import more and improved disaster technology into developing countries can only address technological problems, and social problems can only be dealt with socially.
In: Environmental management and urban vulnerability, edited by Alcira Kreimer, Mohan Munasinghe. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. 175-86. (World Bank Discussion Papers 168)The categories of conventional and greenhouse pollutants include gases, aerosols and particles associated with atmospheric contamination. Conventional pollutants include the harmful automotive emissions such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), sulfur oxides (SO2), suspended particulate matter (SPM), and lead (Pb). Greenhouse pollutants include emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Motor vehicles account for some 14% of global CO2 emissions. Almost 80% of new U.S. domestic cars and trucks and 50% of imports are air conditioned, compared to 20% of new vehicles sold in the rest of the world. Motor vehicles contribute as much as 50-60% of CO, HC, and lead total world emissions. Motor vehicles are responsible for about 10-20% of particulate emissions. The higher transport share of SO2 emissions in developing countries is caused by the poor fuel quality and the extensive use of diesel powered vehicles for passenger transport. Industrial countries collectively consume about 90% of CFC-12 used in automotive air conditioning and generate nearly 3/4 of CO2, CO, NOx and HC, 1/2 of lead, and a substantial share of SO2 and particulate emissions from motor vehicles. The global vehicle fleet has grown 10-fold over the last 40 years, estimated to number some 630 million vehicles in 1988. Motor vehicle use in developing countries currently contributes 2-3% to the greenhouse effect compared to a 10-12% contribution by industrial countries. In 1985, 8 of the world's 12 cities with a population of 10 million or more were in developing countries; they will rise to 17 out of 23 by the year 2000. The Pan American Health Organization estimates that 81 million urban people in Latin America (36% of the region's urban population) is currently exposed to severe levels of motor vehicle-induced air pollution. 500 million urban residents in developing countries will be exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution by the turn of the century, unless effective measures are taken to curb pollutant emissions from motor vehicles.
AIDS ANALYSIS AFRICA. 1992 Sep-Oct; 2(5):7.The Ministry of Health and WHO recommend establishment of a National AIDS Advisory Council in Zambia with that country's president or vice president leading it to strengthen AIDS prevention efforts. They conclude that HIV/AIDS is a major health problem in Zambia. Other advice includes more resources for caring for AIDS cases, improvement of AIDS reporting, and creation of a national board or committee on blood transfusion. The National Council would unify policies and activities of the National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme (NAPCP) and guarantee more government funding for NAPCP. Yet the Deputy Minister of Health does not support its creation because the country's new government, which came into power in late 1991, wants to create a National Health Council with various committees centering on different health issues including AIDS. Yet the new government has not paid any more attention to AIDS than the prior government. Instead it puts most of its efforts into reconstructing the bankrupt economy and paying off the country's debt. The new Minister of Health claims health workers are putting too much emphasis on AIDS while malaria kills more people than does HIV. The new government has tried to distribute more drugs in the health care system, however. AIDS health workers always face shortages in medical supplies, drugs, transportation, and accommodation. 75% of patients at urban hospitals are at least HIV infected, up from 13% in 1986. This is evidence of how HIV/AIDS is already burdening the system. By December 1991, the number of recorded AIDS and AIDS Related Complex cases was 24,519 but the actual number is probably much higher. The new government hopes to engage private companies in the fight against AIDS. It also intends to mainstream AIDS into the health care and education system particularly in rural areas.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1992; 13(2-3):232-6.In 1989, the city of Rennes, France created its healthy city committee consisting of people from different sectors to strengthen health and the environment and to encourage public participation. It organized existing activities and integrated the health dimension into municipal decisions at all levels to create joint healthy city projects. For example, over 18 months, the Brittany Youth Information Center, the city of Rennes, the National School of Public Health, representatives of about 60 groups, teenagers, and private citizens organized and implemented an adolescent health week in November 1990. The intersectoral and participative approach of preparation resulted in new working relationships contributing to health for all. Some other healthy city projects included noise abatement actions, family gardens, a health information and documentation center, creation of a sexually transmitted disease/AIDS group, and roof safety campaigns. Organizers of all projects considered the health criteria including quality of the environment, support for the disabled, safety, and access to health care. Rennes became part of national and regional networks in France consisting of 30 cities. It also joined the WHO-European network and the French-speaking network where cities shared information via meetings and symposia. WHO emphasized a different health promotion topic each year such as community participation and equity. Issues discussed at the 1990 symposium in Stockholm were clean cities campaigns, nonpolluting urban transportation, the social and cultural environment, and unique urban problems of eastern European countries. The French-speaking network involved French-speaking areas and countries in Canada, Europe, and Africa. Sharing problems of cities in the developed countries could allow developing countries to avoid some of the same problems. The healthy cities approach cannot be just the responsibility of municipal authorities but also requires the backing of national governments and international groups.
Epidemiological experience in the mission of the United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) in Namibia.
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1992; 70(1):129-33.Medical reports modelled after the US Peace Corps surveillance form provided mortality and morbidity data of the United Nations Transition Assistance Group in Namibia in 1989-1990. Contingents included Australians, Canadians, Danes, Finns, Kenyans, Malays, Poles, Spaniards, and Britons. Traffic accidents, mostly those on long distance journeys caused 14 of 16 deaths. The fatality ratio was 0.21/million km driven which was considerably higher than that in Switzerland 0.02/million km driven. Even though heavy traffic was not a problem in Namibia, limited experience on unpaved roads; high speeds induced by long and tedious driving; and reduced visibility caused by climactic conditions, fatigue, and alcohol contributed to high fatality. The hospitalization rate of 5.2% (369 patients) was rather high for a young and healthy population. The leading reasons for hospitalization included fever of unknown origin, trauma, and respiratory tract infections. Swiss Medical Unit physicians transferred 25 patients to the State Hospital in Windhoek, most for orthopedic surgery. Injuries, psychiatric problems, and alcoholism resulted in repatriation for 66% of 46 repatriated patients. New consultations for treatment averaged 2.7/person and those for preventive measures averaged 0.8/person. Helicopter pilots was the largest group returning for 2nd visits (56% compared to 1% for logistics staff). The major reasons for attending outpatient clinics included immunizations (18.8%), dental problems (10.5%), and respiratory infections (10.5%). In addition to respiratory infections, other frequent communicable diseases included diarrhea or dysentery, dermatological infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and confirmed or suspected malaria. Preventive measures are needed to reduce mortality due to traffic accidents and the prevalence of psychological and dental problems.