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Guidelines for adaptation of the WHO Orientation Programme on Adolescent Health for Health Care Providers in Europe and Central Asia.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], Division for Arab States, Europe and Central Asia, 2006. 25 p.The Orientation Programme on Adolescent Health for Health Care Providers (OP) was developed by the Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, WHO in 2003. The aim of the OP is to orient health care providers to the special characteristics of adolescence and to appropriate approaches in addressing some adolescent-specific health needs and problems. The OP aims to strengthen the abilities of the health care providers to respond to adolescents more effectively and with greater sensitivity. The OP can significantly contribute to building national and regional capacity on adolescent health and development. (excerpt)
Global HealthLink. 2003 Jan-Feb; (119):8.Important changes have occurred over the past decade in the policy and program environment for the population and reproductive health fields. These changes embody renewed commitments to human rights and gender equity in international affairs as well as recognition of changing economic, demographic and epidemiological conditions in countries. The commitments were agreed upon during the series of international conferences and summits that took place during the I990s, including the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo (ICPD), the Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) and the Social Summit. A key accomplishment of these conferences was to establish measurable goals toward which governments and development agencies could focus their efforts to improve the health and welfare of poor people around the world. The "plus-five" follow- up to these conferences further sharpened global attention on outcomes and on actions that need to be undertaken to achieve International Development Goals (IDGs), later expressed as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). They also identified key challenges that governments and agencies face in their efforts to implement commitments made at the conferences. Chief among these challenges are shortfalls in financial support for needed action, lack of implementation capacity in countries, and the rapidly changing policy and program environments in which the work must be done. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, 1994 Aug.  p. (Update No. 14)Health workers can play a key role in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding. Their presence at the time of delivery and their subsequent contacts with mothers and infants provide them with unique opportunities to help mother and baby to establish and maintain lactation. In the past two decades, there has been a rapid increase in our understanding, not only of the scientific basis of lactation and suckling, but also of effective management and prevention of breast-feeding problems, including the use of basic counselling skills. Research has shown that if health workers' attitudes and practices are supportive, it is more likely that mothers will breastfeed successfully and for a longer period. Unfortunately, breastfeeding has been neglected in the training of most health workers, leaving a serious gap in both their knowledge and skills. Training is urgently needed at all levels in up-to-date and effective breastfeeding management. The CDD Programme in collaboration with UNICEF has developed the package "Breast-feeding counselling: A training course" to help to fill the gap. (excerpt)
Population 2005: News and Views on Further Implementation of Cairo Program of Action. 2003 Mar-Apr; 5(1):2-3.As part of its learning and training strategy, and in its continuing response to the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has launched a distance-learning program of study courses on population and reproductive health issues, The program, developed over a four-year period, offers tutor- assisted distance-learning (D-L) courses to UNFPA staff as well as national project personnel around the world. Each course is intended to run for a period of eight weeks and each is directed by a team of tutors who have been engaged and specifically trained by the Fund to encourage dialogue with students and to provide guidance, feedback and grades for the required assignments. At present, all communication between students and tutors is conducted entirely through e-mail exchanges. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Pan American Health Organization, 1985. 172 p. (PAHO Scientific Publication 492.)At present, aging is the most salient change affecting global population structure, mainly due to a marked decline in fertility rates. The Pan American Health Organization Secretariat organized a Briefing on Health Care for the Elderly in October 1984. Its purpose was to enable planners and decision-makers from health and planning ministries to exchange information on their health care programs for the elderly. This volume publishes some of the most relevant papers delivered at that meeting. The papers are organized into the following sections: 1) the present situation, 2) services for the elderly, 3) psychosocial and economic implications of aging, 4) training issues, 5) research and planning issues, and 6) governmental and nongovernmental policies and programs.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1984. 323 p. (ESCAP Programme on Health and Development Technical Paper No. 66/PHD 19; ST/ESCAP/286)This training manual describes the organization of the courses, the course syllabus, the 1983 course on planning, development and health, the follow-up evaluation of the training courses of 1976-82 and the specialized activities in planning for health and development at ESCAP. Planning for health is viewed as an integral part of overall development planning with the conscious incorporation of clear goals, to help ensure that development programs have a positive impact on the health of the region's poor. ESCAP's training program aims to amplify, in concrete terms, the close relationship between health and development and to build the capability to take an integrated and multisectoral approach to inproving health and accelerating development. The design and implementation of a training program oriented to strengthen capacities in planning, development and health is a function of these 3 terms. The basic frame has remained farily similar to the 1976 course. Training aims at behavior change--to strengthen capacity for action, rather than to accumulate knowledge and information for information's sake. Training objectives must be appraised in terms of relevance, adequacy, effectiveness, efficacy and impact before actual implementation beings. The course is conceived as a unified, multi-sectoral approach to assess the health situation and propose intervention measures aimed at the elimination of the social causes of ill-health and disease of a country. The focus is in the relationships between health and development through systems analysis and relevant planning tools. The aim of the courses is to produce a cadre of planners for health with an innovative and intersectoral outlook, consistent with the dynamic approaches in health, development and planning and with abilities to convince the higher planning structures, rally political support and enlist coummunity involvement with focus on Health for All by the Year 2000. Tables and charts facilitate understanding of concepts involved in this training.
People's Republic of China. Population education in the secondary schools and the teacher training of the People's Republic of China. Education project summary.
[Unpublished] . 3 p. (UNFPA Project No CPR-80-P14)This paper outlines the short and long term objectives of a population education project in China, entitled, "Population Education in the Secondary Schools and the Teacher Training of the People's Republic of China." The project is planned for 1980-82 under the administration of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and Unesco. Costs are projected at $500,000 plus 1,349,500 Yuan. Short term objectives include: 1) revising the curriculum of middle schools with the aim of integrating population education, 2) revising existing materials in population education, 3) developing competencies in teaching population education among 8000 middle school teachers through 10 in-service training pedagogical institutes, 4) equipping 10 institutes and 10 middle schools with audiovisual facilities, books, and reference materials, 5) equipping the Compilation Department of the Educational Publishing House with books and audiovisual aids, and 6) assessing the performance of the project and the impact of population education on teachers and students. The long term objective is to contribute to the overall government government population policy objectives of reducing the rate of population growth from 12/1000 to 5/1000 by 1985, and to achieve zero population growth by year 2000.
Hierarchy of impacts and effects of training and training-related technical assistance interventions.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Program for International Training in Health [INTRAH], 1991 Oct.  p. (Technical Information Memo Series (TIMS) Vol. 1 No. E1)This Technical Information Memo Series focuses on the hierarchy of impacts and effects of training and training-related technical assistance interventions. It includes a graphic illustration that depicts the focal points and boundaries of training impact on service delivery improvements and the achievement of national family planning goals. It is noted that the impact of training can be observed in a variety of ways and at a number of levels, from measurably improved performance on the job to a documented increase in the coverage of services. The structure of the hierarchy suggests that training effects and impact interact and combine with other interventions, particularly those that permit the trainee to apply new skills and knowledge. The developmental approach to training uses training as a means to an end, the end being improved service availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality. Its success relies on an accompanying effort being made by service directors and managers to improve and expand the service infrastructure and to improve working conditions. It is hoped that the "Hierarchy of Training Impacts and Effects" will contribute to heightened awareness of what training requires in order to achieve the highest level of impact, and to the recognition that training alone cannot solve service problems and deficiencies in work conditions.
A manual and resource book for popular participation training. Volume three. A selected group of training approaches.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1978. iv, 39 p. (ST/ESA/66 (Vol. III))This manual (volume 3) produced by the UN presents a comprehensive description of each training approach and technique that have been theoretically developed and tested. The use of a format in the description of training approaches ensures the reliability of the information consisting of 1) name of the approach; 2) background, rationale and training goals or objectives of the approach; 3) process of approach objective achievement; 4) association of specific techniques in relation with the approach; and 5) presentation of further references for further information. The first chapter presents the approach of synthetics as a method of creatively stating and solving problems. The second chapter highlights the discrepancy model as a means of training people the skills needed for the job through programmed instructions and carefully developed materials. The third chapter focuses on field training as one alternative in training, which provides opportunity for utilizing the field as a laboratory as well as a reality test of the training activity. The fourth chapter presents group dynamics as an option for training approach that encourages combining talents of all members to arrive at results that would benefit the group. The fifth chapter highlights laboratory training as an alternative approach that focuses on the learning of new knowledge and change in behavior as a result of the training experience. The sixth chapter presents the motivation training, while the seventh chapter highlights self-awareness and self-development methods that focuses on the development of trainer-learner relationships to enhance learning in the course of the approach implementation.
Harmonization of a vaccine procurement manual, October 7 -December 15, 1997, CIDEF, Paris, and World Bank, Washington, DC.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997.  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)Visits by Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival (BASICS) consultants to US and European cities in 1997 sought to further harmonization of the BASICS/Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) and World Health Organization (WHO) vaccine procurement manuals and modify the Centre International de l'Enfance et de la Famille (CIDEF) training modules for compatibility with the WHO/US Agency for International Development (USAID)/BASICS/PATH Vaccine Procurement Manual. A second objective was to make a presentation on quality protection within the vaccine procurement process to a WHO Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) program managers working group meeting in Berlin on vaccine quality control and sustainability of immunization programs in the Newly Independent States. This document details preparations for and the results of these events. Appended is a 1998 production plan for completion of the harmonized procurement manual and preparation for printing.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1990. , 13 p. (Programme Advisory Note)UNFPA has published this Programme Advisory Note to orientate its field officers and other program staff to practical issues and obstacles in the design and implementation of maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) training. It serves as a manual for needs assessment, project formulation, project monitoring, and evaluation. This Note emphasizes training activities for MCH/FP services in the community, at health centers, or in the smaller hospitals. It provides a brief description of the characteristics of countries with successful MCH/FP services (e.g., a clear straightforward policy pronouncing political commitment to MCH/FP). The Note begins with addressing issues and problems in MCH/FP training as they apply to health policies, including strategies and planning for training; curricula; and teaching and assessment methodology and materials. Integration of FP, MCH, and primary health care services, decentralization, definition of job descriptions, forecasting human resource needs, and multiplier/cascade training fall under the category of health policy-related issues and problems in training. Curricula-related issues revolve around coordination with job descriptions and between learning objectives and topics and learning objectives and teaching methods, integration of MCH/FP within curricula, time allocation, control of curricula and the process of curricula development, and in-service training. Teaching and assessment methodology and materials-related issues include the need for teacher training, appropriate teaching methods, teaching facilities, teaching/learning materials, and assessment methods. The Note then covers the role of external support and technical assistance for MCH/FP training, specifically technical capacities of donor agencies, cooperation, and modality of support. The modes of support include support for within country courses, fellowships to attend overseas courses and study tours, technical advisors, and supporting teachers.
A preliminary evaluation of education material prepared for the Safe Motherhood Initiative Educational Project.
MIDWIFERY. 1992 Sep; 8(3):143-8.Maternal death is a tragedy which is all too familiar in much of the world. As part of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, the WHO is developing and producing a learning package designed specifically for midwives. Through a modular system of learning incorporating aspect of community, prevention, treatment, and follow-up, the package seeks to address the 5 main causes of maternal mortality. In this paper, the first pretesting of the educational material in an African country is described. The extent of the evaluation is limited at this early stage but the initial analysis of the results is encouraging and has led to modifications of the original package. The evaluation has confirmed that a tool such as this package can be a valuable resource for midwife teachers attempting to improve the relevance of education for their midwifery students. These students, while being with women in childbirth, are also grappling with the realities of death in their everyday practice. The educational package has also reinforced the sense of urgency fundamental to completing this extensive project so that it can be made available to midwives throughout the developing world at the earliest opportunity. (author's)
ESSENTIAL DRUGS MONITOR. 1993; (15):9.Counseling mothers or caretakers about treatment of diarrhea at home is the weakest as well as the most difficult part of case management of diarrhea. Health facility surveys show that health workers correctly advise just 1-10% of mothers. They tend to advise mothers at the end of the clinic visit when they feel rushed because the clinic is crowded. Besides, health workers do not always know how to best provide mothers advise. They are trained to abide by a systematic process (ask, look, feel, decide, treat) which leaves little room for counseling. Further, they are trained to rehydrate children, but, in most clinic settings, 95% of diarrhea cases do not yet suffer dehydration. Thus, they must counsel mothers on home treatment, and the success of home treatment depends largely on the quality of the advice health workers provide. The World Health Organization (WHO) Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme has a training guide called "Advising Mothers", which helps workers at all levels counsel mothers effectively. One component of the guide is a process for health workers to use to structure the conversation (ask, praise, advise, check) and to focus on what the mother already knows. It also limits the information to essential messages. Instructors of a clinical management course or refresher course should use "Advising Mothers." WHO had available sample agendas for "Advising Mothers," training which integrate skills and exercises. The exercises take about 8 hours. Advising practice can take place during regular clinical practice sessions. If the training is a refresher course, advising practice requires a half day. "Advising Mothers" will be incorporated in future revisions of WHO clinical management training materials for diarrhea.
New York, New York, AVSC, 1991. 28 p.The annual report for 1990-1991 of the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) enumerates changes that came about in 1990, accomplishments of the last decade, and then summarizes activities by region with a brief feature on 1 country in each. Some of the developments in 1990 included introduction of Norplant, a training workshop in Georgia for physicians from newly independent CIS states, and the Male Involvement Initiative. The Gulf War delayed major activities requiring travel. Overall, in 1990 the AVSC provided 133,328 sterilizations, 72% female and 28% male in 50 countries, trained 325 doctors, led 58 courses in counseling and voluntarism training 568 counselors, and published or collaborated on numerous professional articles and teaching materials. In-country work emphasized no-scalpel vasectomy and minilaparatomy female sterilization under local anesthesia. As an example of country projects in 20 African nations, a client-oriented, provider-efficient system for improving clinic management and quality of care called COPE, was the focus in Kenya. Male responsibility was an emphasis in Latin America. In India, where sterilization is the most popular contraceptive method, training centers were upgraded in 12 states. In the US, AVSC conducted training sessions for physicians in laparoscopy under local anesthesia.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL. 1988 Jan; 23(1):55-7.The local associations of Maisons Familiales (MF) in Senegal periodically conduct participatory evaluations of community projects. 2 evaluations often used include internal exercises by and for the staff, such as a written questionnaire, and an assisted self evaluation. An assisted self evaluation often involves participant subgroups discussing problems and possible solutions with each subgroup later sharing items with a national and/or a foreign evaluation facilitator. The facilitator(s) meets with all the subgroups and brings out important issues in the subgroups, then all the subgroups discuss the issues and form a consensus on what actions should be taken. The training staff at an MF center thought the program was fine based on what a few people said, but, after looking at statistics on the number of trainees over a couple of years, the staff learned that the numbers have declined. The staff then discussed the situation and learned that a barrier had developed between the training staff and villagers. As in any evaluation, one must distinguish between the subjective view (what people say) and objective reality (the actual situation using data). In another type of self evaluation, a group discussed dynamism in a village and came up with 4 different points of view. After visiting a "dynamic" and a "nondynamic" village using the 4 points as measurements, the group learned that its previous impressions of the 2 villages were not completely borne out. This evaluation helped the staff to see villagers' priorities and to listen better. Despite wanting to conduct a real impact evaluation, workers have not yet done so because they do not have time to schedule evaluations, do not have enough base line data, and do not know how to account for influences on changes in the villages other than the MF training programs.
[Planning and management of community programs. Handbook on program development, formation of leadership, and and management of group programs] Planification et gestion des programmes communautaires. Manuel sur l'elaboration des programmes, la formation aux fonctions d'animation et la gestion des programmes de groupe.
London, England, IPPF, 1984. , iv, 116 p. (Planification Familiale et Amelioration de la Condition Feminine)This manual is based on the experiences of a training seminar for directors of the Planned Parenthood and Women's Development (PPWD) project organized by the International Planned Parenthood Federation's regional bureau for Africa in Nairobi. The chief objective of the seminar was to strengthen the PPWD program by improving the programming and management capabilities of its directors. The need for training and for training materials affects all field programs at various levels and is particularly acute in Africa. The principal objective of the manual is to prepare workers of all levels for activities at different stages of program development using the participatory techniques of the Nairobi seminar. The manual also seeks to share experiences of the PPWD program and to suggest other useful training materials and resources. The manual is in the form of teaching notes with references. The material is divided into 2 parts, the 1st considering the origins, objectives, philosophy, and program activities of family planning and improvement of women's conditions and the experiences acquired by the PPWD program. This material forms the content for the approaches, methods, and techniques recommended in the 2nd part of the manual. Each section of the 2nd part contains brief observations of the reasons for undertaking various activities and procedures. Procedures relative to program and project development and motivation of groups are then explained and accompanied by exercises to aid the motivator and group members in applying the procedures. The most opportune moment for introducing each exercise is indicated, but the final decision always depends on the needs of the group and the time available.
LABOUR AND POPULATION ACTIVITIES IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC. 1984 Jun; (16):4.2 International Labor Organization/United Fund for Population Activities (ILO/UNFPA) assisted projects are at work in Fiji, developing training aids and materials on the topic of population and family welfare. These include modules devoted to population and resources, family welfare, family level relationships, family budgeting, nutrition and family welfare, family health, and communication and motivation techniques. The teaching aids will be made available to affiliated unions of the Fiji Trades Union Congress (FTUC) as well as to both cooperative officers and societies, which cover approximately half of the formal sector work force and about 1/3 of the families in the rural sector.
The participation of the rural poor in development: releasing the creative energies of rural workers.
Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, . 55 p.This booklet provides an overview of the work of the International Labor Office (ILO) in the area of participation and rural development. The failure of many development projects is attributed to a failure to involve the rural poor in such efforts. An alternate approach involves making the poor participants in rather than passive recipients of the development process. The concept of people's participation is understood by the ILO to mean that the poor should have a say in the decsions that affect them, pool their efforts, share risks and responsibilities, and develop their own independent organizations. Specific measures discussed in this booklet that strengthen the particpation of the poor include workers' education activities, participatory training schemes, cooperative institutions, public works programs, and the involvement of women. In addition, the booklet sets forth 6 examples of this approach: betel production in Sri Lanka, Sarilakas ("own strength") in the Philippines, credit for the poor in Bangladesh, a storage cooperative in the Niger, fisherwomen in Brazil, and self-inquiry in Nicaragua.
Training Programme for National Project Directors Engaged on ILO Executed Population/Family Welfare Education Programmes in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand), 3-7 December 1984; report and background paper.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 1985. 80 p.The International Labour Office (ILO) is responsible for providing technical guidance and support to about 30 population and family welfare education projects located in 15 countries in the Asia and Pacific region. National project directors are obliged for most of the time to undertake project administration with comparatively little outside assistance. To better equip them to discharge their responsibilities the Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific (LAPTAP) decided to organize a training program for national project directors of ILO executed population and family welfare education projects in Asia and the Pacific. The immediate program objectives are: 1) an exchange of experiences and the acquiring of new knowledge; 2) the establishment of personal contact between project directors in different countries that should result in participants communicating directly with each other in the future, and 3) the preparation of a report of the meeting in the form of a reference book for distribution to project directors at the commencement of new projects. The 5 issues discussed are: 1) practical aspects of project implementation; 2) project monitoring and project evaluation; 3) links between population and family welfare education projects and family planning services; 4) linkages between the National Family Welfare Programme and the organized sector program with special reference to delivery of family welfare services; and 5) communication strategies, materials development, and curricula development.
Food emergency in wonderland: a case study prepared by the League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies for the training of relief workers.
In: Advances in international maternal and child health, vol. 4, 1984, edited by D.B. Jelliffe and E.F. Jelliffe. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1984. 110-23.This monograph chapter is an exercise whose aim is to help relief workers to be better equipped to solve the practical problems of an emergency relief operation. Its events and contents are imaginary, but are drawn from direct experience. It has been used extensively in Red Cross training projects in several countries, and is designed, 1st, to be complemented with other types of educational media, and 2nd, to be adapted to the training requirements of diverse types of project, through "biasing" in favor of health, nutrition, sanitation, or logistics. A description is given of the management of the case study educational setting, based on real experience with the use of the material; the best results appeared achieveable through a class session on part 1, consisting of initial assessment of an hypothetical nutritional emergency, followed by work in small groups on part 2. Part 1 consists of presentation of situation characteristics, e.g. "overworked health assistant reports a big increase in chest infections, diarrhea, and typhus," and "there is a hand-dug well 1/2 mile from the shelter." Part 2 describes the situation 2 months later, after intervention has begun. Situation characteristics appear such as, "Records from clinic attendance indicates that the commonest disease symptoms are diarrhea, cough with or without temperature, general aches and pains, worms, and eye infections." The case study also includes additional information on food stocks, demographic data, and nutritional survey data (the latter not included in this article). Concluding the article are examples of topics for group discussions and presentations.
Report on the evaluation of CPR/80/P14: population education in the secondary schools and teachers training of the People's Republic of China.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. iv, 49 p.The objectives of the Population Education in Secondary Schools and Teachers Training of the People's Republic of China Projects were to provide the Chinese people, including young students, with the basic knowledge of population science and an understanding of why the Government considers family planning a fundamental national policy and why it is implementing the policy of controlling the number of the population and raising its quality. The 2 distinguishing features of this project are that the target group are middle school students rather than students of all grade levels, and that the existence of an established system for in-service training in the form of pedagogical institutes provides a fast and effective mechanism to introduce population education into the 2ndary school curriculum. The overall assessment of the Mission is that this project has been highly successful. The Mission's main recommendations are: 1) that the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the Government increase their financial assistance; 2) future objectives be stated in terms that emphasize educational outcomes rather than operational tasks to permit objective monitoring and evaluation; 3) that a moratorium be place on the revision of population education curricula in order to concentrate on its diffusion; 4) that the posters and commentary be considered as a basis for instruction of junior middle school students as well as out-of-school youth and adults; 5) that questions on population content be included in the national examinations for university admission; 6) that a program for pre-service education in population education be initiated to supplement the in-service training; and 7) that substantial attention be given to different modes of training.
A summary of the report on the evaluation of MEX/79/P04 "Integration of population policy with development plans and programmes".
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. 19,  p.The objective of this UNFPA project was to build the institutional and methodological base for integration of population policy into and its harmonization with national, sectoral and state policies or socioeconomic development in Mexico. More specifically, the project was to achieve integration of population policy with 6 sectoral plans, 24 state plans and the Master Development Plan within 3 years. Although the Mission considers it an achievement that the project signed agreements with all 31 states and the Federal District, no formal contacts had been made with the 6 sectors. Mexico's National Population Council (CONAPO) coordinated the project. The Mission recommended that support to integration activities be continued on the basis of the experience that has been acquired. Therefore it is necessary 1) to strengthen the activities at the state level; 2) to support the development of methodologies considering the impact of socioeconomic plans and programs on demographic variables and to provide a comprehensive program of international technical experience; 3) to recognize that responses to ad hoc support activities are an important integration instrument for both sectors and states; and 4) to exact greater clarity concerning the role of the project in the National Population Program. A lack of aedquately trained personnel proved to be a continual obstacle to implementation. The Mission recommends that at an early stage in the development of such projects a thorough assessment of the human resource requirements and existing capacity for integration of demographic and socioeconomic variables be made and that, based on this assessment, a specific training strategy be developed and incorporated in the project's design. In addition to training, the project also included research support activities; the outputs, however, were descriptive rather than analytical, which can be traced to both the design and execution of the work plan for research activities. The UNFPA's funding constraints and its management of reduced funds further complicated the project's execution, which suffered from high personnel turnover and lack of coordination of project activities.
Meeting information needs for population education: using materials for population education, Booklet 1. Trial edition.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 95 p.This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials service, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it deals with some basic techniques of using and processing population education materials. The focus of the booklet is on activities that usually lie within the domain of librarians, documentalists and information officers, which nevertheless are useful to others involved in this field; for example staff of population education programs are frequently required to respond to requests for information. The 3 learning modules contained here are: 1) Assessing the quality of population education materials; 2) Literature searches, bibliographies and request for materials; and 3) Writing abstracts for population education materials. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. This booklet has a sequel, Booklet 2, which deals with other areas of population education information.
Meeting information needs for population education: information services for population education, Booklet 2. Trial edition.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 96 p.This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials services, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education programme Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it focuses on the wide range of supplementary information activities that are provided to promote the success of the program. The supplementary activities include preparation of a newsletter and the distribution of background information to key leaders. The booklet contains 5 learning modules. The 1st module deals with the processing or transformation of materials, the 2nd examines more sophisticated materials services such as the selective dissemination of information and production of packages as well as basic survey technics, the 3rd examines methods of popularizing population education programs, the 4th analyses the nature and potential of networks as distribution and communication channels, and the 5th touches upon the evaluation of an information program and development of training workshops or materials for these programs. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. The preceding booklet, Booklet 1, covers other areas of population education.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1984 Apr. 175 p. (ESCAP Programme on Health and Development Technical Paper No. 65/BCS 12; ST/ESCAP/291)The recognition of the necessity of involving the community in development efforts has been a turning point in the evolution of development thinking in recent years. Since 1978, the UNICEF Regional Office for East Asia and Pakistan and ESCAP have been conducting a series of training seminars where local development, basic services and primary health care are discussed as part of village reality. This volume reviews this experience, generalizing it to enhance adaptation. The seminars are a learning by doing and experience-sharing process. Group discussion and reflection on relevant issues are focused on. The seminars are oriented to community life as a whole, considering primary heatlh care as an entry point for coummunity development which involves generation of services within the community, supplemented by delivery of services from other institutional levels. This report describes the overall framework, including the organization of the 1983 seminar and the training approach, and the syllabus and evaluates the seminars. The goal of the seminar is the promotion of basic community health care in the countries of the region to improve the quality of life of the poor. Each participant discusses his/her work experience. Basic needs, basic services and primary health care are examined and a field-study phase at village-level is organized. Planning capabilities are developed by a phase of planning for basic and community services and primary health care. A module on national development, basic needs approach and production-oriented development is introduced. Finally, each participant prepares a draft project proposal for training for his/her own country situation. The evaluation of a program includes both its delivery system component and its eventual impact. The seminars used questionnaires, special group discussions and interviewing of the participants. The aim was to scrutinize the relevance and potential for modification of knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) rather that the actual impact actual impact achieved. Behavioral change should be evaluated on at least 2 levels: the individual and the collective. The structure, clustering and frequency of response to a given question in an evaluation questionnaire and the average level of awareness about a particular issue are 2 important measures to analyze. Seminar participants were mainly middle level personnel, but included some junior and senior officials from ministries of health, interior or home affairs and agriculture; training institutes; rural development institutes; planning commissions and universities.