Your search found 24 Results

  1. 1

    Effect of WHO Newborn Care Training on neonatal mortality by education.

    Chomba E; McClure EM; Wright LL; Carlo WA; Chakraborty H

    Ambulatory Pediatrics. 2008 Sep-Oct; 8(5):300-304.

    Background.-Ninety-nine percent of the 4 million neonatal deaths per year occur in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Newborn Care (ENC) course sets the minimum accepted standard for training midwives on aspects of infant care (neonatal resuscitation, breastfeeding, kangaroo care, small baby care, and thermoregulation), many of which are provided by the mother. Objective.-The aim of this study was to determine the association of ENC with all-cause 7-day (early) neonatal mortality among infants of less educated mothers compared with those of mothers with more education. Methods.-Protocol- and ENC-certified research nurses trained all 123 college-educated midwives from 18 low-risk, first-level urban community health centers (Zambia) in data collection (1 week) and ENC (1 week) as part of a controlled study to test the clinical impact of ENC implementation. The mothers were categorized into 2 groups, those who had completed 7 years of school education (primary education) and those with 8 or more years of education. Results.-ENC training is associated with decreases in early neonatal mortality; rates decreased from 11.2 per 1000 live births pre- ENC to 6.2 per 1000 following ENC implementation (P <.001). Prenatal care, birth weight, race, and gender did not differ between the groups. Mortality for infants of mothers with 7 years of education decreased from 12.4 to 6.0 per 1000 (P < .0001) but did not change significantly for those with 8 or more years of education (8.7 to 6.3 per 1000, P ¼.14). Conclusions.-ENC training decreases early neonatal mortality, and the impact is larger in infants of mothers without secondary education. The impact of ENC may be optimized by training health care workers who treat women with less formal education.
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  2. 2

    EDUCAIDS framework for action. 2nd edition.

    Sass J; Castle C

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2008 Jan. 27 p.

    The EDUCAIDS Framework for Action: 1) Articulates what is EDUCAIDS; 2) Outlines components of a comprehensive education sector response; 3) Proposes methods to plan and proritise actions, improve coordination and build partnerships among key education sector stakeholders; and 4) Provides an overview of implementation support tools. This version of the EDUCAIDS Framework for Action is an update of the previous version, taking into account feedback from recent regional and sub-regional meetings and workshops involving 39 countries.
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  3. 3

    Guidelines for adaptation of the WHO Orientation Programme on Adolescent Health for Health Care Providers in Europe and Central Asia.

    Brann C

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], Division for Arab States, Europe and Central Asia, 2006. 25 p.

    The Orientation Programme on Adolescent Health for Health Care Providers (OP) was developed by the Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, WHO in 2003. The aim of the OP is to orient health care providers to the special characteristics of adolescence and to appropriate approaches in addressing some adolescent-specific health needs and problems. The OP aims to strengthen the abilities of the health care providers to respond to adolescents more effectively and with greater sensitivity. The OP can significantly contribute to building national and regional capacity on adolescent health and development. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    GBV communication skills manual. Communication Skills in Working with Survivors of Gender-based Violence: a five-day training of trainers workshop.

    Family Health International [FHI]; Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium; International Rescue Committee

    [New York, New York], Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium, [2003]. [194] p.

    This curriculum represents collaboration between FHI, the RHRC Consortium, and the IRC. The original curriculum used in Peja, Kosovo, has been supplemented and refined in subsequent trainings by FHI, as well as by the work of IRC's Sophie Read-Hamilton in Tanzania and Sierra Leone. The curriculum presented here has been finalized by Jeanne Ward of the RHRC Consortium, with feedback from FHI and IRC. What follows is an outline of the overall goals of the training, a training outline, and a list of materials needed, as well as a list of transparencies, handouts, and activity sheets used in the training, an indepth training curriculum, and all transparencies, handouts, and activity sheets necessary to conduct a training. The training is designed so that all the materials used in the training can be shared with participants at the end of the workshop (preferably in a binder), and they can conduct subsequent trainings on topics with which they feel comfortable. Participants are not expected to be able to train on the entire contents of the manual unless they have extensive training and psychosocial experience. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    UNFPA's distance-learning program to expand.

    Abrams T

    Population 2005. 2004 Sep-Oct; 6(3):15.

    The UN Population Fund’s distance-learning courses, directed not only to UNFPA staffs but to workers in the population and development fields worldwide, have been attracting increasing interest and may soon be strengthened and expanded. In a June status report on the purely voluntary program, UNFPA noted that 163 students had already been trained, and that there was a large and growing waiting list of potential participants. Courses are offered in April and October of each year; their descriptive titles are: “The ‘What and Why’ of Reproductive Health;” “Confronting HIV/AIDS: Making a Difference;” “Advocacy: Action, Change and Commitment;” “Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: How to Deliver Quality Programs and Services?” “Reducing Maternal Deaths: Selecting Priorities, Tracking Progress” (offered in English, French and Spanish). A sixth course, “Mainstreaming Gender: Taking Action, Getting Results,” was introduced this year. A digest of all six courses is currently in production. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Breastfeeding counselling: a training course. Trainer's guide, part one. Sessions 1-9.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases; UNICEF

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases, 1993. [379] p. (WHO/CDR/93.4; UNICEF/NUT/93.2)

    The International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes has been in place for more than a decade, and much effort to protect breastfeeding from commercial influences has followed. One requirement for being "Baby Friendly" is that a facility shall not accept or distribute free samples of infant formula. However, even mothers who initiate breastfeeding satisfactorily, often start complementary feeds or stop breastfeeding within a few weeks of delivery. All health workers who care for women and children after the perinatal period have a key role to play in sustaining breastfeeding. Many health workers cannot fulfill this role effectively because they have not been trained to do so. Little time is assigned to breastfeeding counselling and support skills in the preservice curricula of either doctors, nurses or midwives. Hence there is an urgent need to train all health workers who care for mothers and young children, in all countries, in the skills needed to both support and protect breastfeeding. The purpose of "Breastfeeding counselling: A training course" is to help to fill this gap. The materials are designed to make it possible for trainers with limited experience of teaching the subject to conduct up-to-date and effective courses. The concept of `counselling' is new, and the word can be difficult to translate. Some languages use the same word as `advising'. However, counselling means more than simple advising. Often, when you advise people, you tell them what you think they should do. When you counsel a mother, you help her to decide what is best for her, and you help her to develop confidence. You listen to her, and to try to understand how she feels. This course aims to give health workers listening and confidence building skills, so that they can help mothers more effectively. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Evaluating the impact of the UNFPA regional training program. [Évaluation de l'impact du programme de formation régional du Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population (UNFPA)]

    Koné H

    In: Training: best practices, lessons learned and future directions. Conference program and session handouts, 22-23 May 2002, [compiled by] JHPIEGO. Baltimore, Maryland, JHPIEGO, 2002 May. 291-306. (USAID Award No. HRN-A-00-98-00041-00)

    In order to cope with the many on-job training needs of population IEC programs in Africa, the UNFPA set up in September 1994, in Abidjan, a Population & Development IEC Regional Training Program for Francophone Africa (PREFICEP). lts aim was to enable a group of nationals in each of the 26 countries (see appendix) to plan, implement and evaluate efficient and culturally-adapted IEC and Pop/FLE projects, in order to contribute to the success of post-ICPD population programs. Target groups include project managers, IEC officers, trainers, Pop/FLE curriculum and teaching material designers. Accordingly, PREFICEP used to organize regional short-term training courses in Ivory Coast. From October 1995 to December 1997, 172 people from 24 countries were trained through 8 courses (see table 1). Each course was evaluated classically: pre-test, weekly evaluation, feedback through their trainees delegates, post-test and final evaluation. The results were utilized to improve the on-going course if possible, future ones. Nevertheless, questions remained about the actual impact of the field training was? To be more precise: at the trainees' level: What has become of them after their training ? How do they utilize what they have learned? Does their performance improve as a result of the training ? Do they continue to use what they have learned from our courses some number of months or years afterward ? Do they feel the need of any post-training support? at the national organizations' level : What is their point of view as employers of former trainees and about their performance? What is the impact of our courses on their organization's activities? How could we better address their needs and concerns at the major training donor level (UNFPA}: How do the field offices perceive our program? How do they see its impact on their national projects or programs? How could we better address their national need? (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Community involvement in health development: challenging health services. Report of a WHO Study Group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Community Involvement in Health Development: Challenging Health Services


    In order to make community involvement in health development (CIH) a reality, countries need to go beyond endorsement of the idea and take concrete steps, reports a WHO study group examining the issue. While the idea of community involvement has gained widespread acceptance, most health services have been slow in making the necessary institutional and organizational changes, and in providing the necessary money and staff time. Furthermore, most CIH efforts have concentrated on the community side of involvement, neglecting the health development aspects and the context in which the involvement takes place. The Study Group, which met in Geneva on December 1989, was concerned with identifying specific obstacles to CIH implementation and providing recommendations. The report discusses such issues as the political, social, and economic contexts of CIH; the methodology of CIH; the training of health personnel; the strengthening of communities for CIH; and the monitoring and evaluation of such programs. Among the report's major findings: most countries have yet to truly commit to CIH; CIH programs lack the necessary support and resources; effective coordination at all levels is imperative; health personnel must be adequately educated on the principles and practices of CIH; and some health ministries promote too narrow an understanding of health. The report contains recommendations for both countries and for WHO. The recommendations for countries include several measures directed at the ministries of health, including a provision that the ministries develop guidelines for the implementation of CIH at the district level.
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  9. 9

    FPAs role in civil society.

    IPPF AND CAIRO PLUS 5. 1998 Aug; (3):1.

    Member Family Planning Associations (FPAs) of the International Planned Parenthood Federation are working with other nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the government sector to implement the Cairo Program of Action in more than 180 countries. The FPA in Moldova is providing nationwide sex education training to health and education professionals and is holding meetings with the relevant government ministries to develop a National Family Planning Program; local and national governments are being encouraged to ensure sex education for all young people. In Colombia, the FPA, under an agreement with the Ministry of Education, is assisting the implementation of the national policy regarding sex education by training teachers. In Ghana, the FPA is working with the Health Education Division of the Ministry of Health in encouraging male participation in family planning through the organization of "Daddies Clubs" in the workplace. In the Caribbean, FPAs are working closely with governments and have achieved acceptance in most remote areas. In Tanzania, the FPA, in accordance with the government's initiative on Girl Child Education, is assisting adolescent mothers in returning to school (Adolescent Mothers Project). In Egypt, the FPA is campaigning to eliminate female genital mutilation. In July 1996, the Egyptian government announced a ban on the practice; this was upheld by the Supreme Administrative Court in December 1997. In Malaysia, the FPA is working with the National Population and Family Development Board and the Ministry of Health in the introduction of proposals to the Cabinet of Ministers regarding youth participation and a sexual and reproductive health care program. In India, the FPA is working with the government to increase the involvement of NGOs in family planning programs; the Indian Network for Development, Environment, and Population, which includes 2210 member organizations, has been established.
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  10. 10

    Training for advocacy. Report of the Inter-Regional Advocacy Training Workshop held in Nairobi in March 1996.

    Hawkins C

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1996. 16, [2] p.

    This document reports on the Inter-regional Advocacy Training Workshop held by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in Nairobi, Kenya in 1996. The purpose of the workshop was to train trainers in the advocacy skills needed to advocate for the IPPF's "Vision 2000" goals. Specific objectives of the workshop included drafting an advocacy plan of action, identifying training needs and support, replicating the training project, and exchanging experiences. The report opens with background information explaining why advocacy is important to the IPPF and an introduction to the workshop. The report then covers the skills of clarifying advocacy, reaching consensus in the organization, coalition building, making the most of the mass media, and dealing with the opposition. Next, the report presents a case study of the successful work of the Kenyan Family Planning Association (FPA) in advocating eradication of female genital mutilation. The report continues by discussing the skills of organizing political lobbying, mobilizing resources, evaluating advocacy, and drafting strategic advocacy plans. The report ends by recommending that 1) FPAs receive specific training to embark on advocacy programs, 2) a training module be developed, 3) the IPPF's Advocacy Guide include definitions of advocacy concepts, 4) the IPPF adopt clear and uniform definitions of concepts throughout all of its documents, 5) workshops allow for close interaction with the participants' objectives, 6) advocacy materials be pretested, and 7) regular exchanges of experiences be arranged.
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  11. 11

    Capacity-building activities in the Arab States.

    El Sioufi M

    HABITAT DEBATE. 1996 Mar; 2(1):24.

    The UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat) Training and Capacity-Building Section has been active in several of the Arab States. Beginning in 1995, Belgium funded a 3-year project, "Localising Agenda 21: Action Planning for Sustainable Urban Development," in Essaouira, Morocco. A local team was established, and an Action Planning Consultation Workshop was held in January 1996. Local participants, Belgian experts, and the UNCHS Training and Capacity-Building Section attended the workshop, the goal of which was to guide the town in achieving sustainable development. The experiences from this project will be disseminated throughout the region. In Egypt, the Training and Capacity Building Section has initiated the "Sustainable Ismailia Project," a training program, which may be expanded nationally, for locally elected leadership. The Egyptian government will be responsible for the majority of the implementation funding; training materials are being prepared, and training should begin in 1996. The Palestinian Authority (Gaza Strip), Jordan, Mauritania, and Yemen have requested capacity-building programs. The "Urban Settlements and Management Programme" has requested a training program for Somalia after the country stabilizes. "A Regional Capacity-Building Programme" is being designed for national training institutions in the Arab States; the program will focus on the training of trainers, urban managers, and elected leadership. UNCHS training materials and handbooks are being translated into Arabic. This training was requested by Member States during the 15th session of the Commission on Human Settlements.
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  12. 12

    Highlights from the Third Annual Inter-Agency Working Group on FGM Meeting, Cairo, Egypt, November, 1996.

    Research, Action and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women [RAINBO]

    [Unpublished] 1996. 13 p.

    In November 1996, more than 34 representatives from 20 organizations attended the Third Annual Inter-Agency Working Group meeting on female genital mutilation (FGM) in Cairo, Egypt. After opening remarks by the Chairperson of the Task Force on FGM in Egypt and the Egyptian Under Secretary of the Ministry of Health and Population, other discussions placed FGM in the larger context of women's human rights, reviewed the background of the Global Action Against FGM Project and the goals of the Inter-Agency Working Group, and provided an overview of the activities of RAINBO (Research, Action, and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women). A report was then given of a research workshop organized by RAINBO and the Egyptian Task Force on FGM immediately prior to the Working Group meeting. It was noted that data from the recent Demographic and Health Survey revealed an FGM prevalence rate of 97% in Egypt, and areas requiring more research were highlighted. Discussion following this presentation included mention of qualitative methods used in a recent study in Sierra Leone and recent research in the Sudan that led to recommended intervention strategies. During the second day of the Working Group meeting, participants provided a preview of the work of the Egyptian Task Force Against FGM; a description of RAINBO's effort to develop training of trainers reproductive health and FGM materials; and summaries of the work of nongovernmental organizations, private foundations, UN agencies, and bilateral donors. This meeting report ends with a list of participants.
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  13. 13

    The development of the International Federation for Family Life Promotion training guide.

    Martin MC

    In: Natural family planning: current knowledge and new strategies for the 1990s. Proceedings of a conference, Part II, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, December 10-14, 1990, edited by John T. Queenan, Victoria H. Jennings, Jeffrey M. Spieler, Helena von Hertzen. [Washington, D.C.], Georgetown University, Institute for International Studies in Natural Family Planning, [1991]. 53-4.

    The Human Life Foundation and the US Department of Health and Human Services in collaboration with the International Federation for Family Life Promotion (IFFLP) in 1974 began developing a training guide in natural family planning (NFP). A task analysis of NFP programs and teachers in the US and Canada found that teachers need to have sufficient and accurate knowledge and skills in fertility awareness to effectively teach ovulation and symptothermal methods to couples. Teachers also need to provide follow-up services until couples reach autonomy. Training materials were therefore developed for NFP teachers including four modules of instructional guides with specific knowledge, attitude, and performance training objectives stated; eight objective, multiple-choice tests, with two versions for each module; and a rating scale to measure the required initial skill level for teaching NFP to client couples under supervision. Training objectives were revised after review by national and international NFP experts. Reliability of the multiple-choice tests proved to be 0.93-0.95 for all versions of each of the eight tests. Field testing of the modules with more than 200 NFP teachers in the US and Canada found the average score for each of the four modules to be 85%; a postinstructional mastery level of 90% was subsequently established as the passing score to become an NFP teacher in the US. Attitude scales were also developed and used primarily as an attitude/surfacing tool. In 1976, the US affiliate of the IFFLP formally revised and validated the objectives, and developed tests to measure their achievement. At the same time, the World Health Organization (WHO) used the same task-based, original objectives as a basis for developing the Family Fertility Learning Resource Package. The final version of the WHO package was field tested in five countries, published, and distributed by 1981. USAID-funded NFP demonstration programs were conducted in Zambia and Liberia over the period 1983-90 to study the use, methodology, and cost-effectiveness of establishing a national NFP service delivery system. The author points out that a number of the lessons learned by the IFFLP over the past 17 years can be applied universally: teacher evaluation is improved with valid, reliable, and objective testing tools; testing instruments must reflect the realities of the situation in which NFP is to be taught; evaluation must be integrated into the total training approach; and translation of technical evaluation tools requires precision and accuracy to maintain the discriminant functions of each item and overall test efficiency.
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  14. 14

    Breastfeeding. COTALMA: training health professionals.

    Casanovas MC

    MOTHERS AND CHILDREN. 1994; 13(1):3.

    The Comite Tecnico de Apoyo a la Lactancia Materna (COTALMA), the Technical Breastfeeding Support Committee, was founded in Bolivia in 1989. It is financed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). It is administered in coordination with the Ministry of Health (MOH). MOH and UNICEF choose the hospitals, who send teams that include a pediatrician, a gynecologist, a nurse, and a nutritionist. The first phase of the course (5.5 days) covers the scientific background of breastfeeding. A baseline study is then planned and conducted at each hospital. 2 to 3 months later, the second phase takes place during which data is presented and breast feeding programs are developed for each hospital. Communication, training, counseling, and planning and evaluation are covered. Practicums are conducted at hospitals. Trainers are usually members of COTALMA. The person in charge of maternal and child health services at MOH lectures on national health policies concerning mothers and children. Training includes use of the national health card, breastfeeding and child survival, and breastfeeding as a family planning method. Culturally appropriate course materials, which are in Spanish, are adapted from those developed by Wellstart International. Articles by COTALMA members and others are added. Participants are encouraged to train all staff at their institutions.
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  15. 15

    IBFAN Africa training initiatives: code implementation and lactation management.

    Mbuli A

    MOTHERS AND CHILDREN. 1994; 13(1):5.

    As part of an ongoing effort to halt the decline of breast feeding rates in Africa, 35 representatives of 12 different African countries met in Mangochi, Malawi, in February 1994. The Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes was scrutinized. National codes were drafted based on the "Model Law" of the IBFAN Code Documentation Centre (ICDC), Penang. Mechanisms of implementation, specific to each country, were developed. Strategies for the promotion, protection, and support of breast feeding, which is very important to child survival in Africa, were discussed. The training course was organized by ICDC, in conjunction with IBFAN Africa, and with the support of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Countries in eastern, central, and southern Africa were invited to send participants, who included professors, pediatricians, nutritionists, MCH personnel, nurses, and lawyers. IBFAN Africa has also been conducting lactation management workshops for a number of years in African countries. 26 health personnel (pediatricians, nutritionists, senior nursing personnel, and MCH workers), representing 7 countries in the southern African region, attended a training of trainers lactation management workshop in Swaziland in August, 1993 with the support of their UNICEF country offices. The workshop included lectures, working sessions, discussions, and slide and video presentations. Topics covered included national nutrition statuses, the importance of breast feeding, the anatomy and physiology of breast feeding, breast feeding problems, the International Code of Marketing, counseling skills, and training methods. The field trip to a training course covering primary health care that was run by the Traditional Healers Organization (THO) in Swaziland was of particular interest because of the strong traditional medicine sector in many African countries. IBFAN Africa encourages use of community workers (traditional healers, Rural Health Motivators, Village Health Workers, Mother Support Groups) to promote breast feeding.
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  16. 16

    Report of ICN-WHO project for nurses in Africa.

    Read V

    AUSTRALIAN NURSES JOURNAL. 1992 Sep; 22(3):14-5, 17.

    The International Council of Nurses (ICN)/WHO's Global Programme on AIDS has formed a project called "Mobilizing Nurses for AIDS Prevention and Care in Eight African Countries" to improve the capability and effectiveness of these countries' national nursing associations (NNAs) to take an active part in their countries' HIV/AIDS, to adapt and/or develop educational materials for training trainers, and to train trainers from each NNA to plan and implement HIV/AIDS educational sessions. The ICNWHO Report recommends that national AIDS programs obtain immediately appropriate quantities of protective clothing (e.g., gloves and gowns) for nurses and that NNAs lobby for the provision of this clothing. The Report points out that failure to provide these supplies can result in a considerable loss of nurses. Other issues contributing to health worker flight include responsibility for more patients than nurses can adequately care for, no supplies, lack of recognition, long hours, and poor salaries. NNAs must lobby for effective, holistic emotional support for nurses, as individuals and as professionals, especially those interested in HIV/AIDS prevention and care.
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    Sharing the challenge: mobilizing nurses against HIV / AIDS in Africa.

    MacNeil J

    INTERNATIONAL NURSING REVIEW. 1992 May-Jun; 39(3):77-82.

    WHO projects the number of AIDS cases worldwide to increase from 1.5 million in 1992 to 12-18 million by 2000 with the number of HIV-infected persons to escalate from 9-11 million to 30-40 million. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) and WHO started cooperating in combating the HIV/AIDS pandemic from early on, and developed the WHO/ICN Guidelines for Nursing Management of People with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. ICN's 106 member associations worldwide regularly receive information on HIV prevention and care. A 1989 questionnaire to members showed that only 1/2 were active in HIV/AIDS programs and in African countries nurses lacked basic knowledge about contracting the disease, and about clinical and epidemiological features. They also lacked protective equipment. Therefore, ICN and the WHO Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) set up continuation education activities for nurses in the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Malawi, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaire, and Zambia. The national AIDS programs and national nurses' associations (NNAs) were enrolled in a 2-year program with a train-the-trainer approach by selecting 8-10 nurse, leaders to be responsible for the HIV/AIDS education project and given them a 2-week course. First in Ghana, Zambia and Togo 73 facilitators (trainers) from the 8 countries were trained who were also given the task to conduct 4 satellite workshops with 25 participants each at home. A total of 800 nurses were trained in the course of 1 year. Nurses knowledge of HIV infection, transmission, patient and family needs, and antibody testing improved significantly after the workshops and they became more involved in the national AIDS program with nongovernmental organizations as in Zambia and Uganda. Congested AIDS wards and staff and equipment shortage necessitated counseling for overworked and underpaid nurses and also for patients to change their behavior.
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  18. 18

    Maternal and child health; a crucial factor.

    Burunde H

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT. 1990 Oct-Dec; 1(4):8-10.

    The development of the nation of Uganda depends to a large extent on the multiple roles of women. They create and raise children (In Uganda women and children comprise 70% of the total population), grow and prepare food for their families, and manage their homes. If they do not remain healthy and strong, they can not accomplish these things. The children they raise are the future leaders of the nation and, without their health, the future of the country is in question. Therefore, both members and children must be supported by the government and the society in accord with their value and contributions to the society. THe UNFPA is to extend the Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Project (MCH/FP) to cover the districts of Kampala and Entebbe. According to Ugandan officials, the MCH/FP project is central in its development efforts. There are 2 significant problems effecting the successful implementation of MCH/FP project. Fair distribution of health personnel has not occurred resulting from the refusal of some to go to their assignments in rural areas. The counterpart funding delivery system does not provide funding in a smooth or timely manner. Because the majority of the population lives in rural areas, these 2 problems result in a very low level of health care delivery. The UNFPA has granted permission for the project to train trainers in such areas in an effort to eliminate these problems.
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  19. 19

    Report on an evaluation of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), Republic of Zaire (29 September -16 October 1980).

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1980. 26 p. (EPI/GEN/80/8)

    Between September 29-October 16, 1980, a joint Government/WHO/CDC team visited Zaire to evaluate Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) activities and to assist in revising the EPI National Plan and in preparing the National EPI Training Plan. 1 working group reviewed pertinent documents at the central and regional levels. Another visited 46 EPI units and other health facilities in 6 of the 9 country regions (Kinshasa, Bas Zaire, Kasai Occidental, Shaba, Kivu, and Bandundu). The 3rd working group took part in 4 meetings on implementing EPI in the field. EPI began in Zaire in 1977. The program had exceeded its objectives by 1980. For example, EPI activities had expanded into 11 cities and several rural zones, even though officials expected them to be limited to Kinshasa and 14 other cities until 1984. The team expected EPI activities to continue to expand. For example, they noted excellent central EPI staff, dedicated and knowledgeable mobile team members, and high level of public and government support. EPI did not operate a separate central vaccine warehouse in Kinshasa, however. This made it difficult for EPI to monitor storage conditions and to have continual access to vaccines. The team recommended that such a EPI operated warehouse begin soon. Another area where EPI fell short was that it did not have access to immunization and vaccine related data from heath facilities not associated with EPI. Besides EPI activities were not integrated with primary health care (PC) programs at many locations. The team recommended that EPI soon replace the mobile team strategy with a strategy that integrates EPI and PC activities. It also suggested that a National EPI Training Plan be draw up and implemented in the rural zone of Kisantu. Training should begin with health zone Chief Medical Officers who could then train other staff.
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  20. 20

    Trip report: Uganda.

    Casazza LJ; Newman J; Graeff J; Prins A

    Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Technologies for Primary Health Care [PRITECH], 1991. [41] p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5969-Z-00-7064-00)

    Representatives from several nongovernmental organizations visited Uganda in February-March 1991 to help the Control of Diarrheal Disease (CCD) program bolster its ability to advance case management, training, and supervision of health care professionals. Specifically, the team focussed its activities on determining a strategy to create a national level diarrhea training unit (DTU) centered around case management for medical officers, interns and residents, medical students, and nurses. Similarly, it participated in developing a strategy for training traditional healers in diarrhea case management and for inservice training for health inspectors (preventive health workers). The team presented a generic model for a training/support system to the DTU faculty and CDD program manager. The model centered on what needs to be done to ensure that the local clinic health worker manages diarrhea cases properly and instructs mothers effectively to manage diarrhea. Further, in addition to comprehensive case management, content included interpersonal communication at all levels supplemented by supervision and training skills. It encouraged a participatory approach for training. In addition, it strongly encouraged the DTU faculty and CDD program staff to follow up on training activities such as supporting trainees and reinforcing skills learned in the training course. The team met with relevant government, university, and donor representatives to learn more about existing or proposed CDD activities. Further, the CDD program asked team members to assist informally in the surveyor training session for the WHO/CDD Health Facilities Survey. The team also spoke to WHO/CDD staff about its plans and future activities. WHO/CDD was concerned that training in interpersonal skills not weaken the quality of training in diarrhea case management.
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  21. 21

    No-scalpel vasectomy in the United States.

    Antarsh L

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the First International Symposium on No-Scalpel Vasectomy, Bangkok, Thailand, December 3-6, 1989. 10 p.

    The paper describes the introduction and use of the no-scalpel vasectomy in the United States. Vasectomy is popular in the U.S., with 336,000 of them performed in 1987 almost exclusively buy urologists, family practitioners, and surgeons. Receiving no government funding for the new procedure's introduction in the U.S., the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) turned to family planning clinics, Planned Parenthoods, and medical schools to reach experienced vasectomists interested in co-sponsoring orientation seminars for other doctors. Programs were held in 1988, in California, Massachusetts and New York, in which attendees were provided self-training packages, and asked to report their experiences with the new technique. Field reports were received from 25 physicians on 2,237 vasectomies, and included both positive and negative comments. Even though the technique is uncomplicated, physicians generally found the technique difficult to master with only teaching materials. Accordingly, the U.S. training model was modified to include a rubbermodel f the scrotal skin and underlying was with the training packet, visits to practitioners' offices by clinical instructors, a compressed training period of 1 day, and hands on training. A minimum of 6-9 cases is generally required to properly learn the technique. 3-4 training seminars will be conducted over the next year in different regions of the U.S. in addition to other efforts aimed at meeting demand for training from interested doctors. Care is taken in choosing instructors and participants, with interest especially strong in training of trainers. Of central concern to the AVSC is their ability to keep pace with growing demand for training, while ensuring 6-12 month follow-up and high-quality instruction and practice of the technique.
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  22. 22

    The surge of new interest in breastfeeding. Why now?

    Shelton J

    In: Lactation education for health professionals, edited by Rosalia Rodriguez-Garcia, Lois A. Schaefer, Joao Yunes. Washington, D.C., Pan American Health Organization [PAHO], 1990. 113-20. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3040-A-00-5064-00)

    The practice breastfeeding has begun receiving increased interest, generated in part by better a understanding of its beneficial consequences. Evidence shows that breastfeeding greatly reduces level infant mortality and morbidity. A 1989 study in Brazil concluded that a breastfed child has 14.2x less likely to die from diarrhea, 3.6x less likely to die from respiratory infection, and 2.5x less likely to die from other infections. Besides its well-documented immunological properties, studies have shown that breastmilk can adapt, over time, to meet the changing needs of an infant. The practice of breastfeeding has also demonstrated contraceptive effects. Women who are fully or nearly fully breastfeeding, amenorrheic, and less than 6 months postpartum have 98% protection against pregnancy. Furthermore, longer birth spacing results in healthier mothers and infants. The renewed interest in breastfeeding is also the result of breastfeeding promotion campaigns, the successes of other child survival intervention programs, and the collaboration of international agencies. A study in Honduras indicates that promotional campaigns (involving the education of the public and the medical community) significantly increases the average duration of breastfeeding. And a study in brazil shows that the use of mass media can increase the prevalence of breastfeeding. Health care professional have also been encouraged by the success of oral dehydration and immunization campaigns, which have a natural link to breastfeeding, and the establishment of the Interagency Group of Action on Breastfeeding, a collaborative effort by 5 international agencies. With the increasing interest, health care officials hope to reverse the decline in the practice of breastfeeding.
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  23. 23

    Population support a priority for Japan.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1991 May; (203):1.

    The Japanese government has approved an increase in both financial and technical assistance for family planning in developing countries for FY1991. Japan's contribution to the United National Population FUnd (UNFPA) will total US$56.8 million, a 1.83% increase from the previous year, and it will be the largest donation by any country. Japanese support of UNFPA has skyrocketed from an initial contribution of US$1.5 million to today's level. Besides its multilateral assistance through UNFPA, the country will also provide bilateral technical assistance through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Increasing by 7.8% from 1990, technical assistance will total US$8.54 million, and it will go to the following countries: Colombia, Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. Japan will provide the equipment and supplies needed for transferring technical expertise from Japanese experts to personnel from the recipient countries. Japan will also host an international family planning seminar for developing countries. Japan's pledge of assistance reflects the country's desire to improve the social conditions and quality of life for people living in developing countries, and it indicated the growing awareness of the Japanese public concerning population and family planning issues.
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  24. 24

    PEAS evaluation research. Population Education in the Agricultural Sector.


    Bangkok, Thailand, DEEMAR, 1983 Nov. [8], 27, [27] p. (UNFPA/FAO Project THA/83/PO4; J.9616)

    This evaluation research reports on the effectiveness of the Thai learning program for 500 civil servants who then incorporate the population education into their jobs as trainers. A sample of 100 trainers representing 6 provinces and regions were evaluated for content and process of integration information, for innovative approaches, for identifying systems which facilitate integration, and for identifying bottlenecks. Informal contact and monthly meetings or already formal groups have been the vehicles for transmission of information. Horizontal integration among staff and co-workers is high as well as among villagers in vertical integration. No follow-up is made after contact and little active participation occurs after POPED. In order to expand contact with the rural population, more training among middle management position needs to be addressed within the organization. Interorganization is overall 86%. The most talked about topics among villagers were population growth and natural resources (86%), age at marriage (81%), population density and land distribution (79%), and nutrition (70%). The most difficult topics were migration (21%), planning for a family (13%), economic and social consideration in marriage (14%), and sex of children (14%). Trainers perceived family planning in general as the most important topic and key to the success of the effort.
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