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Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2016 Nov; 128(5):958-963.Female genital mutilation comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. Health care providers for women and girls living with female genital mutilation have reported difficulties in recognizing, classifying, and recording female genital mutilation, which can adversely affect treatment of complications and discussions of the prevention of the practice in future generations. According to the World Health Organization, female genital mutilation is classified into four types, subdivided into subtypes. An agreed-upon classification of female genital mutilation is important for clinical practice, management, recording, and reporting, as well as for research on prevalence, trends, and consequences of female genital mutilation. We provide a visual reference and learning tool for health care professionals. The tool can be consulted by caregivers when unsure on the type of female genital mutilation diagnosed and used for training and surveys for monitoring the prevalence of female genital mutilation types and subtypes.
New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016 Apr. 105 p.The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the performance of UNFPA in the field of family planning during the period covered by the Strategic Plan 2008-2013 and to provide learning to inform the implementation of the current UNFPA Family Planning Strategy Choices not chance (2012-2020). The evaluation provided an overall independent assessment of UNFPA interventions in the area of family planning and identified key lessons learned for the current and future strategies. The particular emphasis of this evaluation was on learning with a view to informing the implementation of the UNFPA family planning strategy Choices not chance 2012-2020, as well as other related interventions and programmes, such as the Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive Health Commodity Security (GPRHCS- 2013-2020). The evaluation constituted an important contribution to the mid-term review of UNFPA strategic plan 2014-2017. The evaluation features five country case study reports: Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe.
Feasibility and validity of using WHO adolescent job aid algorithms by health workers for reproductive morbidities among adolescent girls in rural North India.
BMC Health Services Research. 2015 Sep 21; 15(1):400.Background: High prevalence of reproductive morbidities is seen among adolescents in India. Health workers play an important role in providing health services in the community, including the adolescent reproductive health services. A study was done to assess the feasibility of training female health workers (FHWs) in the classification and management of selected adolescent girls' reproductive health problems according to modified WHO algorithms. Methods: The study was conducted between Jan-Sept 2011 in Northern India. Thirteen FHWs were trained regarding adolescent girls' reproductive health as per WHO Adolescent Job-Aid booklet. A pre and post-test assessment of the knowledge of the FHWs was carried out. All FHWs were given five modified WHO algorithms to classify and manage common reproductive morbidities among adolescent girls. All the FHWs applied the algorithms on at least ten adolescent girls at their respective sub-centres. Simultaneously, a medical doctor independently applied the same algorithms in all girls. Classification of the condition was followed by relevant management and advice provided in the algorithm. Focus group discussion with the FHWs was carried out to receive their feedback. Results: After training the median score of the FHWs increased from 19.2 to 25.2 (p - 0.0071). Out of 144 girls examined by the FHWs 108 were classified as true positives and 30 as true negatives and agreement as measured by kappa was 0.7 (0.5-0.9). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 94.3 % (88.2-97.4), 78.9 % (63.6-88.9), 92.5 % (86.0-96.2), and 83.3 % (68.1-92.1) respectively. Discussion: A consistent and significant difference between pre and post training knowledge scores of the FHWs were observed and hence it was possible to use the modified Job Aid algorithms with ease. Limitation of this study was the munber of FHWs trained was small. Issues such as time management during routine work, timing of training, overhead cost of training etc were not taken into account. Conclusions: Training was successful in increasing the knowledge of the FHWs about adolescent girls' reproductive health issues. The FHWs were able to satisfactorily classify the common adolescent girls' problems using the modified WHO algorithms.
WHO Collaborating Centre for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome for the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait.
Medical Principles and Practice. 2014; 23 Suppl 1:47-51.In the early 1980s, the World Health Organization (WHO) designated the Virology Unit of the Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, Kuwait University, Kuwait, a collaborating centre for AIDS for the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO), recognizing it to be in compliance with WHO guidelines. In this centre, research integral to the efforts of WHO to combat AIDS is conducted. In addition to annual workshops and symposia, the centre is constantly updating and renewing its facilities and capabilities in keeping with current and latest advances in virology. As an example of the activities of the centre, the HIV-1 RNA viral load in plasma samples of HIV-1 patients is determined by real-time PCR using the AmpliPrep TaqMan HIV-1 test v2.0. HIV-1 drug resistance is determined by sequencing the reverse transcriptase and protease regions on the HIV-1 pol gene, using the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Assay on the OpenGene(R) DNA Sequencing System. HIV-1 subtypes are determined by sequencing the reverse transcriptase and protease regions on the HIV-1 pol gene using the genotyping assays described above. A fundamental program of Kuwait's WHO AIDS collaboration centre is the national project on the surveillance of drug resistance in human deficiency virus in Kuwait, which illustrates how the centre and its activities in Kuwait can serve the EMRO region of WHO. (c) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012. 8 p. (FWC/MCA/12.1)The purpose of this Framework is to provide guidance to governments on key priority actions, related to infant and young child feeding, that cover the special circumstances associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this guidance is to create and sustain an environment that encourages appropriate feeding practices for all infants and young children, while scalingup interventions to reduce HIV transmission. This Framework aims to build on the links and synergies between maternal and child health and investments, economic and human, in HIV prevention and control. This will bring additional benefits for all children, The Framework’s purpose and target audience not just for those who are HIV-exposed. The audience for this Framework includes national policy-makers, programme managers, regional advisory bodies, public health authorities, Country Coordinating Mechanisms, United Nations staff, professional bodies, nongovernmental organizations and other interested stakeholders, including the community. The current document is an update of the previous Framework, published in 2003, and has been developed in response to both evolving knowledge and requests for clarification from these key sectors. It is based on the latest HIV and infant feeding recommendations; the previous Framework no longer applies.
Report on the online discussion on eliminating violence against women and girls -- gaps, challenges and strategic directions in prevention and multisectoral services and responses.
[New York, New York], UN Women, .  p. (CSW 57 Online Discussion)Between 23 July and 7 August 2012, UN Women ran a dynamic online discussion to support preparations for the forthcoming 57th Commission on the Status of Women which brought together the views of diverse respondents on the good practices and key gaps and challenges in the prevention of and response to violence against women and girls. Participants included representatives from civil society, government organizations, research and leadership institutions and UN agencies in many countries from all regions of the world. The discussions will be taken into consideration in the development of the Secretary-General’s Reports to the Commission on the Status of Women.
Male circumcision: towards a World Health Organisation normative practice in resource limited settings.
Asian Journal of Andrology. 2010; 12(5):628-638.There is now grade 1 evidence that male circumcision (MC) reduces the risk of a man acquiring HIV. Modelling studies indicate MC could in the next 10 years save up to 2 million lives in those African countries with high HIV prevalence. Several African countries are now scaling up public health MC programmes. The most effective immediate public health MC programmes in Africa will need to target 18-20 years old men. In the longer term there is a need for infant circumcision programmes. In order to implement more widespread MC there is a need to make the surgical procedures as simple as possible so that safe operations can be performed by paramedical staff. The WHO Manual of Male Circumcision under local anaesthetic was written with these objectives in mind. Included in the manual are three adult techniques and four paediatric procedures. The adult procedures are the dorsal slit, the forceps guided and the sleeve resection methods. Paediatric methods included are the plastibell technique, the Mogen and Gomco shield method and a standard surgical dorsal slit procedure. Each method is described in a step by step manner with photographic and line drawing illustrations. In addition to the WHO manual of surgical technique a teaching course has been developed and using this course it has been possible in one week to train a circumcision surgeon who has had no or minimal previous surgical experience. Further scaling will require training of circumcision surgeons, monitoring performance, training the trainer workshops as well as advocacy at national, international and government meetings. In addition to proceeding with standardised methods work is in progress to assess novel techniques in adults such as stay on ring devices and policies are being formulated as to how to assess new devices. Also work is in progress to explore efficiencies in surgical processing by task sharing. Proper informed consent and safety remain paramount and great care has to be taken as programmes in Africa scale up. In continental China where the HIV epidemic is at a much earlier stage there may be a case for considering infant circumcision but great care will be needed to ensure that there is no harm.
Guidelines for integrating sexual and reproductive health into the HIV / AIDS component of country coordinated proposals to be submitted to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: Round 8 and beyond. Updated 18 February 2008.
[London, England], Interact Worldwide, 2008 Feb 18. 36 p.The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, a unique multilateral partnership that has proven itself to be a successful mechanism for fighting these diseases, is an important funding vehicle for innovative responses to the three diseases, including SRH-HIV / AIDS integration. In preparation for upcoming and future Global Fund funding rounds, Guidelines for Integrating Sexual and Reproductive Health into the HIV / AIDS Component of Country Coordinated Proposals to be submitted to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is designed to support Country Coordinated Mechanisms (CCMs) to develop Country Coordinated Proposals for the Global Fund that integrate sexual and reproductive health into the HIV / AIDS component. (Excerpt)
The Fistula Fortnight: Healing Wounds, Renewing Hope, 21 February - 6 March 2005, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], . 46 p.The Fistula Fortnight accomplished a number of goals: it mobilized resources for obstetric fistula and safe motherhood; increased public awareness that fistula is preventable; contributed to combating the marginalization of women who suffer from fistula; strengthened institutional capacity to manage fistula; and began to address the broader needs of women living with the disability. While the surgeries conducted represent only a small portion of the backlog, the Fistula Fortnight provided a strategic opportunity to raise awareness and motivate action among policymakers, national and local leaders, and the general public about the need to increase efforts to both prevent and treat fistula. (Excerpt)
[Washington, D.C.], USAID, .  p.A technical consultation, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO), USAID, and Family Health International (FHI), was held June 15-17, 2009, at the WHO in Geneva to review the evidence and programmatic experience for community-based provision of injectable contraceptives. Thirty technical and program experts from countries and organizations reviewed the scientific evidence and experiences from programs that provided injectable contraceptives through community-based health workers (CHWs). This evidence and programmatic experience came from Africa, Asia, and Latin America and focused on depotmedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). The evidence consistently showed that given appropriate training, CHWs can screen clients effectively, provide DMPA injections safely, and counsel on side effects appropriately, demonstrating competence equivalent to higher level facility-based providers of DMPA. Continuation of use of DMPA by clients of CHWs was as long as those of clients receiving injections at clinics. In addition, the vast majority of clients expressed satisfaction with CHW provision of DMPA. The Consultation concluded that sufficient evidence existed for national policies to support the introduction, continuation, and scale-up of community-based provision of progestin-only injectable contraceptives, especially DMPA. Provision of DMPA by CHWs will expand choice for underserved populations and contribute to reducing the unmet need for family planning. Operational guidelines for family planning should therefore reflect that appropriately trained CHWs can safely initiate use of DMPA and provide reinjection. (Excerpt)
A review of the evidence developed for a technical consultation on expanding access to injectable contraception.
[Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], Family Health International [FHI], 2009 Jun. 48 p.The document was prepared to facilitate deliberations for the Technical Consultation on Expanding Access to Injectable Contraceptives sponsored by the World Health Organization, the United States Agency for International Development, and Family Health International, scheduled to be held from 15-17 June 2009 in Geneva, Switzerland. This document summarizes the results of a literature review conducted to identify research evidence and program experience relevant to the objectives of the Technical Consultation: To review systematically the evidence and programmatic experience on interventions designed to expand access to / provision of contraceptive injectables, focusing on non clinic-based services and programs; To reach conclusions on issues: (a) for which evidence is consistent and strong; (b) for which evidence is mixed; and (c) for which evidence is marginal or entirely lacking and, thus requires additional research; To document discussions and conclusions of the Consultation, including policy and program implications, and to disseminate these widely. Use of community-based injectable services was significant in all studies reviewed. This evidence suggests that community-based delivery of injectable services by CHW is acceptable in a wide variety of settings. (Excerpts)
Community-based health workers can safely and effectively administer injectable contraceptives: Conclusions from a technical consultation.
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, FHI, 2009. 4 p.In June 2009, a technical consultation held at the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva concluded that evidence supports the introduction, continuation, and scale-up of community-based provision of progestin-only injectable contraceptives. The group of 30 technical and programme experts reviewed scientific and programmatic experience, which largely focused on the progestin-only injectable, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). The experts found that community-based provision of progestin-only injectable contraceptives by appropriately trained community health workers (CHWs) is safe, effective, and acceptable. Such services should be part of a family planning programme offering a range of contraceptive methods. (Excerpt)
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Ipas, 2008. 4 p.The United Nations Population Fund estimates that 25-50 percent of maternal deaths in refugee settings are attributable to unsafe abortions. Making pregnancy safer includes timely and appropriate management of unsafe and spontaneous abortion for all women, and the provision of or referral for safe abortion services to the full extent allowed by law. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) has been used worldwide for more than three decades, enabling millions of women in developed and developing countries to undergo safe and effective uterine evacuation for treatment of incomplete abortion and first-trimester abortion, as well as endometrial biopsy. This brochure highlights how MVA is an important part of safe, effective abortion and postabortion care in conflict settings.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 15 p. (WHO/HIV/2006.05)In August 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a coordinated global effort to address a major and often overlooked barrier to preventing and treating HIV: the severe shortage of health workers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Called 'Treat, Train, Retain' (TTR), the plan is an important component of WHO's overall efforts to strengthen human resources for health and to promote comprehensive national strategies for human resource development across different disease programmes. It is also part of WHO's effort to promote universal access to HIV/AIDS services. TTR will strengthen and expand the health workforce by addressing both the causes and the effects of HIV and AIDS for health workers (Box). Meeting this global commitment will depend on strong and effective health-care systems that are capable of delivering services on a scale much larger than today's. (excerpt)
Handbook of supply management at first-level health care facilities. 1st version for country adaptation.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 73 p. (WHO/HIV/2006.03)All first-level health care facilities, namely primary health care clinics and outpatient departments based in district hospitals, use medicines and related supplies. It takes a team effort to manage these supplies, involving all health care facility staff: doctors, nurses, health workers and storekeepers. This is especially true in small facilities with only one or two health workers. Each staff member should know how to manage all supplies at the health care facility correctly. Each staff member has an important role. The Handbook of Supply Management at First-Level Health Care Facilities describes all major medicines and supply management tasks, known as the standard procedures of medicines supply management at first-level health care facilities. Each chapter covers one major task, explains how the task fits into the process of maintaining a consistent supply of medicines, and recommends which standard procedures to use. Annexes at the back of the handbook contain various checklists and examples of forms which can be introduced as needed at your health care facility. This handbook is part of a package used in an integrated training and capacity-building course targeted at first-level health care facilities. It can be used in conjunction with the existing Integrated Management of Adult and Adolescent Illness (IMAI) strategy developed by WHO. It can also be used for basic training activities independent of IMAI training courses. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2007.  p.The influence behind faith-based organizations is not difficult to discern. In many developing countries, FBOs not only provide spiritual guidance to their followers; they are often the primary providers for a variety of local health and social services. Situated within communities and building on relationships of trust, these organizations have the ability to influence the attitudes and behaviours of their fellow community members. Moreover, they are in close and regular contact with all age groups in society and their word is respected. In fact, in some traditional communities, religious leaders are often more influential than local government officials or secular community leaders. Many of the case studies researched for the UNFPA publication Culture Matters showed that the involvement of faith-based organizations in UNFPA-supported projects enhanced negotiations with governments and civil society on culturally sensitive issues. Gradually, these experiences are being shared across countries andacross regions, which has facilitated interfaith dialogue on the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of HIV. Such dialogue has also helped convince various faith-based organizations that joining together as a united front is the most effective way to fight the spread of HIV and lessen the impact of AIDS. This manual is a capacity-building tool to help policy makers and programmers identify, design and follow up on HIV prevention programmes undertaken by FBOs. The manual can also be used by development practitioners partnering with FBOs to increase their understanding of the role of FBOs in HIV prevention, and to design plans for partnering with FBOs to halt the spread of the virus. (excerpt)
Obstetric fistula: Guiding principles for clinical management and programme development, a new WHO guideline.
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2007 Nov; 99 Suppl 1:S117-S121.It is estimated that more than 2 million women are living with obstetric fistulas (OFs) worldwide, particularly in Africa and Asia, and yet this severe morbidity remains hidden. As a contribution to the global Campaign to End Fistula, the World Health Organization (WHO) published Obstetric fistula: Guiding principles for clinical management and programme development, a manual intended as a practical working document. Its 3 main objectives are to draw attention to the urgency of the OF issue and serve as an advocacy document for prompt action; provide policy makers and health professionals with brief, factual information and principles that will guide them at the national and regional levels as they develop strategies and programs to prevent and treat OFs; and assist health care professionals as they acquire better skills and develop more effective services to care for women treated for fistula repair. (author's)
Findings Infobriefs. 2007 May; (136): p.The specific objectives of this project - financed through an IDA credit of $28.7 million (2002-05) - were to : (i) provide resources that would enable the government to implement a balanced, diversified multi-sector response, engaging all relevant government sectors, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and grassroots initiatives; (ii) to expand contributions made by the Ministry of Health ( MOH ) engage civil society in the fight against AIDS; and (iii) finance eligible activities conducted by civil society organizations, including NGOs, community-based organizations (CBOs), faith-based organizations (FBOs), trade and professional associations, associations of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), districts, and line ministries to ensure a rapid multisector scaling-up of HIV prevention and care activities in all regions and at all administrative levels. (excerpt)
WHO training course for TB consultants: RPM Plus drug management sessions in Sondalo, Italy, September 28 - October 1, 2006: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Center for Pharmaceutical Management, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2006 Oct 18. 26 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ACI-323)WHO, Stop-TB Partners, and NGOs that support country programs for DOTS implementation and expansion require capable consultants in assessing the capacity of countries to manage TB pharmaceuticals in their programs, developing interventions, and providing direct technical assistance to improve availability and accessibility of quality TB medicines. Beginning in 2001, RPM Plus, in addition to its own formal courses on pharmaceutical management for tuberculosis, has contributed modules and facilitated sessions on specific aspects of pharmaceutical management to the WHO Courses for TB Consultants in Sondalo. The WHO TB Course for TB Consultants was developed and initiated in 2001 by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, the S. Maugeri Foundation, the Morelli Hospital, and TB CTA. The main goal of the course is to increase the pool of international level TB consultants. As of December 2005, over 150 international TB consultants have participated in the training, a majority ofwhom have already been employed in consultancy activities by the WHO and international donors. In 2006 fiscal year RPM Plus received funds from USAID to continue supporting the Sondalo Course, which allowed RPM Plus to facilitate sessions on pharmaceutical management for TB at four courses in May, June, July, and October of 2006. RPM Plus Senior Program Associate, Edgar Barillas, traveled to Sondalo from September 28 to October 1 to facilitate the TB pharmaceutical management session at the WHO course for TB Consultants in Sondalo, Italy. (excerpt)
[Brussels, Belgium], EC / UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia, . 15 p.The EC/UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia (RHI) covers seven countries in South and South East Asia. It targets populations with very diverse reproductive health (RH) needs and, therefore, uses a wealth of different approaches. Altogether, the RHI consists of 42 projects, with more than 90 stakeholders. In addition, networks set up by individual projects enlist the collaboration of at least 100 community-based organisations (CBOs). For each country programme, a "country focus" was selected, taking into account the country's most urgent RH needs, the comparative advantage of civil society organisations and the recommendations of UNFPA, which were endorsed by the local advisory group, where existing. As a result three different country focus areas were defined. In Bangladesh, the five projects aim to improve the quality of RH care, in particular that of clinic-based RH services. The programmes in Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Sri Lanka and Viet Nam all focus on providing reproductive and sexual health (R&SH) information and services to young people and adolescents. The projects in Nepal and Pakistan concentrate on strengthening community based RH information and services. This report summaries a selection of some of the lessons learned, best practices and success stories resulting from the experience of over three years of implementation of the RHI in the seven countries. (excerpt)
Notes from the Field. 2002 Jan; (11): p..International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region staff conducted a workshop on contraceptive supplies logistics in Haiti with the Association pour la Promotion de la Famille Haitienne (PROFAMIL) and Fondation pour la Santé Reproductive et l'Education Familiale (FORSREF). The main purpose was to increase the sustainability of the organizations by improving storage conditions and ensuring adequate supplies of contraceptives. On December 11-13, 2001, Maria Cristina, Regional Supplies Officer, and Isabel, Supplies Assistant, conducted a Workshop on Supplies Logistics in Haiti, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Nineteen staff members of Profamil, our affiliate in Haiti, and FOSREF (Fondation pour la Santé Reproductive et l'Education Familiale) participated. (excerpt)
Guatemala: Orienting affiliates on the design and implementation of a state-of-the-art management system.
Notes from the Field. 2001 Jun; (5): p..A three-person team from International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region conducted a training workshop in Guatemala for several affiliates on the design and implementation of the Integrated Management System and also received feedback on the system. A three-person team from IPPF/WHR recently conducted a training workshop in Antigua, Guatemala for several IPPF/WHR affiliates on the design and implementation of the highly anticipated Integrated Management System (IMS). The workshop was an opportunity both to orient the participants to the new system as well as to get their feedback on the IMS and the extent to which it meets their needs. WHR team members included Leslie, Director of MIS, María Cristina, Regional Supplies Officer, and Rupal, Evaluation Officer. (excerpt)
Notes from the Field. 2001 May; (4): p..A team from International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region traveled to Trinidad to conduct a Proposal Writing Workshop for ten affiliates who have programs on HIV prevention and youth. Then they went to Guyana to provide technical assistance and training for a sustainability model. Lucella, IPPF/WHR's Senior Program Advisor for the Caribbean, was recently in Trinidad as a member of a team conducting a Proposal Writing Workshop for ten IPPF/WHR affiliates. The following week she traveled to Guyana with another team from WHR, one that provided training in the use of the S2000ä Financial Model, a cash flow forecasting tool developed by the EFS (Endowment Fund for Sustainability). (excerpt)
Notes from the Field. 2002 Feb; (13): p..Several NGOs and government agencies, including IPPF/WHR's affiliate PROFAMIL, are working hard to address the sexual and reproductive health needs of women, men, and youth in Haiti. Recently, IPPF/WHR has sought to support these efforts by strengthening the capacity of PROFAMIL and other agencies to develop and implement results-oriented projects that can become sustainable. A four-person team from IPPF/WHR traveled to Haiti in January 2002 to conduct a project design and proposal writing workshop with representatives from several local NGOs, including PROFAMIL, FOSREF, VDH, UNFPA, and the ministries of Health and Education. Participants came armed with statistics and other information on a specific problem that their organization would like to address, as well as intervention ideas. First, participants developed conceptual models for their project ideas; then they wrote actual proposals to seek funding. Participants used tools, such as a conceptual model and a logical framework, to assist them in the project design and proposal-writing process, with a particular emphasis on integrating monitoring and evaluation plans into their proposed interventions. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2005 Dec. 56 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/05.29E)For this report, a UNAIDS consultant visited South Africa to interview a wide range of people working on the frontline, from project managers, researchers and media executives, to film-makers, audience groups, and people living with HIV who present their own programmes. The aim was to find out not just what has to be done in practical terms, but to gain some insight into the thrills and frustrations of working in the tough environment of the mass media, and to discover the secrets of survival and success. The organizations have very different histories, target audiences and ways of working, and represent a wide range of experience. (excerpt)