Your search found 28 Results

  1. 1

    Family planning in Haiti: the achievements of 50 years.

    Ward VM; Santiso-Galvez R; Bertrand JT

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [28] p. (SR-15-118H; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. The family planning movement in Haiti began in the 1960s, only a short time after family planning activities had been initiated in many other countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Initially, doctors and demographers worked together to encourage government policies around the issue and to begin private sector service provision programs in much the same way early family planning activities occurred elsewhere. Yet, in comparison with other countries within the region, Haiti’s progress on reproductive health has been slow.
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  2. 2

    Thirty years of global population changes.

    Caldwell JC

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 2-23.

    In demographic terms, the last thirty years have been quite distinct from the period that preceded it, or, indeed, from any other period in history. The global fertility level had been almost stable for at least twenty years prior to 1965-1969, with a total fertility rate just under 5 children per woman, and this stability did not hide countervailing forces in different parts of the world. The developed countries, whether they had participated or not in the post-World War II “baby boom,” showed no strong trends in fertility, with a total fertility rate remaining around 2.7. The same lack of change characterized the developing countries, but there the total fertility rate was well over 6, as it may well have been for millennia. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    The situation of women 1990, selected indicators. Equality, development, peace.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office; United Nations. Office at Vienna; UNICEF; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]; International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women [INSTRAW]

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 1990. [1] p. (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8/Add.1/Rev.1)

    Selected indicators of equality, development, and peace are charted for 178 countries and regions of the world for the most recent year available. The data were obtained from the UN Women's Indicators and Statistics Data Base for microcomputers (Wistat) maintained by he Statistical Office of the UN Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. The chart updates the prior 1986 publication and supplements the UN publications, Women and Social Trends (1970-90). Population composition and distribution measures include total population in 1990 by sex, percentage of the population >60 years of age by sex, and percentage of rural population by sex (1980/85). Educational measures are provided for the percentage of illiterate population aged 15 years and older (1980-85) by sex, primary and secondary enrollment by sex (1985/87), and post-secondary enrollment by sex. Economic activity is measured by the percentage of women in the labor force. Other measures include the population aged 45-59 not currently married (1980-85) by sex, the total fertility rate (1985-90), maternal death rate (1980/86), and percentage of female contraceptive use 1980/88). The percentage of female legislators is given for 1985/87 where data is available. Definition of terms is briefly and generally given.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Data quality and accuracy of United Nations population projections, 1950-95.

    Keilman N

    Population Studies. 2001 Jul; 55(2):149-64.

    Between 1951 and 1998, the UN published 16 sets of population projections for the world, its major regions, and countries. This paper reports the accuracy of the projection results. The author analyzes the quality of the historical data used for the base populations of the projections, and for extrapolating fertility and mortality. The author studies also the impact this quality has had on the accuracy of the projection results. Results and assumptions for the sets of projections are compared with corresponding estimates from the UN 1998 Revision for total fertility and life expectancy at birth, total population, and the projected age structures. The report covers seven major regions (Africa, Asia, the former USSR, Europe, northern America, Latin America, and Oceania) and the largest 10 countries of the world as of 1998 (China, India, USA, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Russia, Japan, Bangladesh, and Nigeria). (author's)
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  5. 5

    Population trends in Asia: present situation of ICPD five major goals.

    Ratanakorn P; Zaman W

    In: The Fourteenth Asian Parliamentarians' Meeting on Population and Development, April 4-5 1998, New Delhi, India, [compiled by] Asian Population and Development Association. [Tokyo, Japan], Asian Population and Development Association, 1998. 37-41.

    The population trends in Asia are examined in the context of the International Conference on Population and Development. Asia, home to over 61% of the world population, plays an important role on issues regarding population and sustainable development. High fertility rates remain a concern among countries in South-Central Asia. On the other end, Eastern Asia is doing well in terms of the demographic situation and the population and development situation. The eastern region of Asia has already met goals for total fertility and infant mortality rates set during the Cairo conference. All over Asia, there is an evident effort to achieve the demographic goals from the Cairo conference. However, more aggressive efforts among countries in Asia need to be seen in terms of gender equality and the issue of the empowerment of women. Political commitments toward these goals need to be translated for the benefit of women in Asia. One urgent issue is the high maternal mortality rate in countries such as India. Public health needs to address women's health issues as a rights issue. In many Asian countries, there is no effective lobby for women problems. There is a low female literacy rate across Asia. Population efforts in Asia need to address not only the large demographic issues but also the issues of women, reproductive health, and choices.
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  6. 6

    Beyond Cairo: the politics of Indian population policy.

    Desai S

    In: Comparative perspectives on fertility transition in South Asia. Based on the seminar organized by the Committee on Fertility and Family Planning of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) and the Population Council, Islamabad, Rawalpindi / Islamabad, 17-19 December 1996. Papers. Volume II. Liege, Belgium, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], [1997]. 18 p.

    The International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in September 1994 was one of the most important events in the field of population. A shift in policy was adopted from a societal welfare rationale for population control to an individual needs rationale for the provision of family planning services and reproductive health services in order to satisfy the unmet need. The history of the Indian population policy starts in 1951 when such a policy was announced. In 40 years the crude birth rate fell from 44/1000 population in 1951 to under 30/1000 in 1991. The total fertility rate (TFR) of 5.95 in 1972 decreased to 3.4 by 1991. Nevertheless, the fertility decline has been modest compared to the achievement of Bangladesh in a much shorter period of time. In 1993 the health and family welfare programs were placed under the control of the local governments in tandem with economic liberalization measures. Foreign population assistance has increased recently. USAID chose the state of Uttar Pradesh for a large-scale population project in 1994 which is scheduled to run for 10 years. The Family Welfare Program has supplied contraceptives through the government's program: 79% of users of modern methods obtained them publicly in 1992-93. Information, education, and communication activities are also undertaken and demand for contraceptives is encouraged by other promotional activities. While population control has been endorsed by leading scientists, scholars, and policy makers, the exact means of achieving fertility decline has been neglected. Despite this India is clearly in the middle of a fertility transition. There is a disjunction between the public and private receptiveness to contraception, as Indian society sees contraceptive use as a favor done for the government. Because of the legacy of emergency excesses there is still distrust of the family planning program among people. The challenge is to regain legitimacy and stem bureaucratic expansion when delivering services.
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  7. 7

    [The European Fertility and Family Planning Survey in Hungary] Europai Temekenysegi es Csaladvizsgalat Magyarorszagon.

    Kamaras F

    DEMOGRAFIA. 1995; 38(4):309-39.

    During December 1992 and November 1993 data were collected in Hungary in accordance with a questionnaire developed by the Population Unit of the European Economic Committee of the UN consisting of 10 chapters. A total of 3554 women aged 18-41 and 1919 men aged 20-44 completed the questionnaires which were processed by using the Integrated System of Survey Analysis package. 14% of the women and 10% of the men had been raised without one or both parents up to age 15. In the cohorts under age 25, twice as many children experienced the divorce of their parents than in the cohorts over age 40. 57% of the women left the family home by age 24 versus 27% of the men. Only 21% of women aged 20-24 were married by the age of 20, while 41% of women had been married by that age. 17% of women aged 20-24 lived in consensual union as opposed to 4% of women aged 40. Notwithstanding these findings, marriages that were not preceded by cohabitation were more stable. One-third of women aged over 25 gave birth to the first child by age 20 and two-thirds by age 24; only one-fourth of women aged 20-24 had their first child by age 20 and two-fifths by age 24. The average number of children is 1.9. Women's use of oral contraceptives is most popular up to age 40, while over that age the use of IUDs is increasing. The number of women under 25 using condoms makes up only one-fifth of the number of women relying on OCs. 25% of women over age 40 versus 7-8% of adolescents had undergone at least one abortion. The average number of children wanted by women was 2.1; only 1-2% of young people wanted no children during their lifetime; and 80% of both men and women disagreed that the institution of marriage was an outdated concept.
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  8. 8

    The course and causes of fertility decline.

    Caldwell J

    Liege, Belgium, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], 1994. 17 p. (Distinguished Lecture Series on Population and Development)

    This lecture on updated trends in the world fertility transition was presented in preparation for the Cairo Conference in 1994. Modernization upsets the biological balance of natural fertility and mortality. There is little evidence of significant levels of deliberate birth control in traditional societies. Pre-modern Europe used delayed marriage, no marriage, and discouragement of widow remarriage as constraints on fertility, which were driven by the concept of the proper time to marry and not conscious population planning. Fertility was not consciously controlled, because mortality slowed or stopped population growth, and children were valued as an economic asset. The first major fertility decline began in France and appeared in Europe during the late eighteenth century. Decline occurred without the approval of governments. Diffusion theory, regardless of the debate about what was diffused, has received support. During this period, social changes were occurring. First, the risk of childhood mortality in these countries was declining and had been declining for centuries. Second, knowledge about fertility control was gleaned over long periods of time, sometimes up to 100 years. By the 1950s almost every Western European country had a fertility rate lower than 3, and some countries were at replacement level. Third World countries in the beginning of the 1900s experienced changes in public health measures, which were influential in bringing down death rates. The effect of mortality changes on rapid fertility growth became evident during the 1950s. Fertility patterns did not change markedly until 1965-75 among some countries in Latin America and Asia and in some Pacific Island countries. The declines during the 1960s and 1970s increased and were initiated by technological breakthroughs in fertility control methods. The determinants of this period of fertility decline varied. The impact of socioeconomic change and availability of family planning varied by country. Social changes were reflective of global changes. Fertility declined due to the shift away from an agrarian-based, subsistence society and toward a global society that restricted family size. The shift involved deliberate organization and expenditure and social changes.
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  9. 9

    Tackling population in Sierra Leone.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1994 Jun; (240):6.

    In this interview (April 21) with Yoshio Koike, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) country director, the population situation in Sierra Leone is described. 4.5 million persons inhabit an area of 74,000 sq. km. Independence was achieved in 1961, but the country was under the patronage of the United Kingdom until April 1992 when a military coup occurred. The new leaders are young (22-29 years) and enthusiastic; a democratic general election will be held in 1996 and the municipal assembly election will occur in 1995. Sierra Leone was the ninth African country receiving aid from UNFPA to establish a population policy (1989). A National Population Commission, which has remained dormant, was also established. The population growth rate is 2.4% annually (average for west African countries); the total fertility rate is 6.8. The maternal mortality rate is estimated to be 1400-1700/100,000 live births. The infant mortality rate (IMR) is about 180; for those under 5 years of age, it is 275. Although the country has 470 clinics available on paper, only 25% are operational according to UNFPA. This is the third year of the MCH/FP project, but only 76 clinics provide family planning information and services. Through coordination of nongovernmental and governmental efforts, 20,000 newcomers and acceptors are being recruited for family planning annually. If expansion continues at this rate and repeaters are maintained for 5 years, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) should reach 20%. Currently, it is 2% in rural areas and 9% in cities. The national average is about 4-6%. The CPR should approach the goal of 60% in 10 years. There is no serious objection to family planning on the basis of religion; however, people are not informed about the importance of birth spacing and about where they can obtain services. Information, education, and communication (IEC) activities are being improved.
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  10. 10

    PROFAMILIA's proven ability to bring family planning to the Dominican Republic.

    IPPF / WHR FORUM. 1993 May; 9(1):20-1.

    The Dominican Association for Family Welfare (PROFAMILIA), an affiliate of IPPF, was the first organization to provide family planning services in the Dominican Republic. In 1966, the time of PROFAMILIA's creation, the total fertility rate (TFR) was 7.5. Shortly after PROFAMILIA's inception, the TFR began its steady decline. The 1991 Demographic and Health Survey (ENDESA-91) shows that the TFR has fallen to 3.3. PROFAMILIA persuaded the Dominican Republic's government to provide full-scale family planning services. In 1968 the government set up the National Council on Population and the Family (CONAPOFA) within the Ministry of Public Health and Social Services to provide family planning services. It now provides family planning services through more than 500 health centers. The Dominican Family Planning Association, set up in 1986, provides family planning services in the Federal District and the easternmost provinces. These family planning organizations have reduced the unmet demand for family planning in the Dominican Republic to 17%, essentially the same levels as in developed countries. Even though mean family size is 3.3, ideal family size is 2, indicating a trend toward smaller families. The adolescent pregnancy rate is 13% in urban areas and 27% in rural areas. 13.3% of adolescents in a union use modern contraceptives, while only 3% of those not in a union do. 25.4% of women of childbearing age, 38.5% of women in a union, and 65.4% of 40-44 year old women depend on sterilization. Only women less than 29 years old significantly use oral contraceptives. The family planning programs need to expand family planning messages to adolescents, particularly those not in a union. PROFAMILIA still implements new approaches to expand services, such as health promotion via community-based services. CONAPOFA has since implemented such a program. ENDESA-91 demonstrates what can be accomplished when an effective government family planning program and a private organization work together.
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  11. 11

    Population projections for Mongolia: 1989-2019.

    Neupert RF

    ASIA-PACIFIC POPULATION JOURNAL. 1992 Dec; 7(4):61-80.

    The State Statistical Office with the support of UNDESD and UNFPA prepared 3 projections. A standard cohort component method was used to project populations by sex and 5-year age groups for each quinquennium between 1989 and 2019. 3 hypotheses were proposed. In Hypothesis 1, fertility was assumed to stabilize at a level of a TFR of 3.5 children per woman. In Hypothesis 3, fertility was assumed to decline up to the period 1990-2004 and up to the replacement level (2.23 children per woman during that period). Hypothesis 2 represents an intermediate situation between Hypothesis 1 and 3 which was considered as the most plausible future trend of fertility. According to Projection 2 the population of Mongolia will be almost 3.8 million in the year 2019. Projections 1 and 3 give total populations of 4.2 and 3.5 million, respectively. The difference between a TFR of 2.2 and 3.5 for the last quinquennium of the projection period resulted in a difference of around 700,000 people. The difference between Projections 1 and 2 is about 400,000 people. Considering the fertility assumptions adopted for these projections, it is not very likely that the size of the population at the turn of the century will be much smaller than 2.6 million or larger than 3 million. What is more uncertain is the scenario for the 2nd decade of next century. During the next 2 decades, the growth will become gradually more moderate. The main changes will be an increase in the proportion of the population between 15 and 64 years of age, a decline in the proportion of the young population of the young population resulting in a substantial decrease of the dependency ratio and an increase in the median age of the population. According to the 3 hypotheses, the young population will continue growing, albeit at a slower pace. There will be a decline in the proportion of young to old people and an increase in the proportion of the population in the working age groups. Yet, all age groups will continue to increase in absolute terms. International migration may produce some deviations in this expected profile.
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  12. 12

    Women of Mongolia: two steps forward, three steps back?

    Orvis P

    POPULI. 1992 Nov; 19(5):10-1.

    In 1989, 1st trimester abortions were made legal in Mongolia. A multiparty government was elected in July 1990 which encouraged of 4 or fewer children per family, it discouraged childbearing under 20 and over 35 years of age, and it encouraged modern contraception. Years of pronatalist policies contributed to maternal mortality rates of up to 420 for 100,000 live births in some regions. The maternal mortality rate plummeted to around 160 deaths for 100,000 live births in 1985-89, and subsequently to around 110/100,000 live births. However, by 1991 the rate rose to around 120/100,000 despite the fact that 9 in 10 deliveries take place in a hospital or health center. More than half of the country's population lives in the vast interior: women often bled to death following childbirth because of transportation problems. Because of previous pronatalist policies, the number of Mongolians more than doubled since 1960 and tripled since the 1930s to an estimated 2.1 million in 1991. 70% of Mongolians are <35 years of age, and this number is growing by about 2.8% per year. Postpartum hemorrhage is the most common cause of death, because half of the pregnant women have some degree of anaemia attributable to iron deficiency and frequent childbirth. The total fertility rate decreased from an average of 7.5 children per women in the 1970s to around 3.8 now the current (United Nations estimate is 4.7). The United Nations Population Fund has provided more than 90,000 intrauterine devices, 1.2 a million condoms, and limited quantities of contraceptive pills in addition to obstetric and gynecological equipment and training. At the same time, nearly half of the country's maternal rest homes have been closed. Some 86% of women work, and more than 7 in 10 doctors are women. The election of 3 women to the national legislature gives women 4% of 76 legislative seats, as compared to 2.4% in the earlier People's Great Hural.
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  13. 13

    World population projections, 1989-90 edition: short-and long-term estimates.

    Bulatao RA; Bos E; Stephens PW; Vu MT

    Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990. lxxiii, 421 p.

    The World Bank's Population and Human Resources Department regularly publishes a set of world population projections based on its data files. This 1989-90 report has projections for the world and for regions, income groups of countries, and 187 countries. World Bank staff made projections to the point where populations reach stability. In almost all cases, they made only 1 projection. Projection tables for 1985-2030 exist for each country's population. Each country also has tables on birth rate, death rate, net migration, natural increase, population growth, total fertility rate, life expectancy, infant mortality rate, and dependency ratio. The report shows that from 1985-90 population growth was 1.74%, and projected 1990 world population size was 5.3 billion. By 2025, 84.1% of the world's population will be living in developing countries. 58% of the population now lives in Asia. The population of Africa is growing faster than that of Asia, however, (3 vs. 1.9%). By 2000, the population of Africa will be second only to that of Asia, yet in 1989-1990, it is behind that of Asia, Europe and the USSR, and the Americas. The current dependency ratio (67) is expected to decline to 53 by 2025. The highest current dependency ratio belongs to Kenya (120). In developed countries with aging populations, the dependency ratio will rise from 50-58. China will most likely to continue to be the most populous country for about 200 years. India will continue to contribute more to population growth than any other country in the world. Yet the Federal Republic of Germany loses 100,000 people yearly. Total fertility rates are the greatest in Rwanda, the Yemen Arab Republic, Kenya, Malawi, and the Ivory Coast (all >7.2). Afghanistan and 3 western African countries have the shortest life expectancies (about 40 years). These trends illustrate the need to alter population growth.
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  14. 14

    The future for injectable contraceptives.

    Rutter T

    AFRICA HEALTH. 1993 Mar; 15(3):18-9.

    Until recently, Africa's fertility rates showed no sign of change in spite of the vast resources committed to decreasing population growth. Now there are early indications of success in parts of Nigeria, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Kenya. In Kenya, between 1984 and 1989, total fertility fell from 7.7 to 6.7, the crude birth rate fell from 52/1000 to 46/1000, and the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 17% to 27%. Public awareness of modern contraceptive techniques is above 70% in much of Africa, and in Kenya it is up to 90%. Injectable contraceptives are very popular. In October 1992, they were finally licensed by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Injectable contraceptives were first used in Africa in the late 1960s. They were withdrawn from the Bangladesh family planning program, and they were banned in Zimbabwe in 1981. 2 injectable contraceptives administered by deep intra-muscular injection are widely available. Depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or Depo-Provera is normally given in a dose of 150 mg every 12 weeks. Norethindrone enanthate (NETEN) is given in a dose of 200 mg every 8 weeks. DMPA has been used by more than 10 million women. It is repeatedly endorsed by the WHO and the IPPF and has the lowest failure rate of any method of reversible contraception. Side effects include spotting or amenorrhoea, and rarely, menorrhagia. Injectables are suitable for women who are breast feeding, as they may even increase the quantity of breast milk. Norplant, an implanted device developed by the Population Council, releases progestogen at a low, steady rate for 5 years. There is less progestogen in a 5-year Norplant than in the 3-month dose of DMPA. The implant can be removed at any time and fertility is quickly restored. Norplant is becoming increasingly available throughout Africa.
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  15. 15

    The World Bank atlas. 25th anniversary edition.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. 36 p.

    This atlas presents social, economic, and environmental statistics for 200 economies throughout the world, including statistics for 15 economies throughout the world, including statistics for 15 economies of the former Soviet Union. The following social/demographic indices are presented: population growth rate, 1980-1991; under-5 mortality rate, 1991; daily calorie supply/capita, 1989; illiteracy rate, 1990; and female labor force, 1991. GNP/capita, 1991; GNP/capita growth rate, 1980-91; and shares of agriculture, exports, and investment in GDP in 1991 comprise the economic data. Finally, GDP output/kilogram energy used, 1990; annual water use and annual water use/capita, 1970-87; forest coverage, 1989; and change in forest coverage, 1980-89, are presented as economic indicators. All figures are reported in color graphic format. Technical notes and World Bank structure and functions are discussed in closing sections. The text also cautions that the differing statistical systems and data collection methods and capabilities employed internationally demand that caution be taken against directly comparing statistical coverages and definitions.
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  16. 16

    1991 ESCAP population data sheet.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population Division

    Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, Population Division, 1991. [1] p.

    The 1991 Population Data Sheet produced by the UN Economic and social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) provides a large chart by country and region for Asia and the Pacific for the following variables: mid-1991 population, average annual growth rate, crude birth rate, crude death rate, total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, male life expectancy at birth, female life expectancy at birth, % aged 0-14 years, % aged 65 and over, dependency ratios, density, % urban, and population projection at 2010. 3 charts also display urban and rural population trends between 1980 and 2025, the crude birth and death rates and rate of natural increase by region, and dependency ratios for 27 countries.
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  17. 17

    Impressive progress.

    Taniguchi H

    INTEGRATION. 1992 Aug; (33):2-3.

    Asia's population accounts for about 60% of world population, and it will grow from 3.1 billion in 1990 to 3.7 billion in 2000. Europe's population of 490 million is not expected to change significantly by 2000. The average total fertility rate (TFR) in Asia in 1991 is estimated to be 3.3. Yemen has the highest TFR (7.4). In 2010 the Asian population will number 4.19 billion, and in 2925 it will further increase to 4.97 billion. Family planning (FP) in Indonesia, Thailand, Japan, China, and in the newly industrialized economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and Korea have been successful. The fertility rate has dropped to 3.0 in Indonesia and 2.2 in Thailand. The rate of growth has also diminished in India from 2.22% during 1971-82 to 2.11% during 1981-91. The Philippines has adopted the maternal child health (MCH) approach to promote FP. The Integrated Family Planning Project in China has generated a community-based FP/MCH movement by increasing the confidence of the populace especially in rural areas. The UN agencies, bilateral agencies, and international non-governmental organizations based in developed countries have provided family planning assistance in Asia. The National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN) of Indonesia is sharing its family planning experience with Bangladesh, Nigeria, and Tanzania. BKKBN also signed a memorandum of understanding on cooperation in FP with its Vietnamese counterpart in April 1992. Such technical cooperation will be more effective if UN agencies and donors from developed countries provide financial support.
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  18. 18

    The World Bank atlas 1991.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1991. 29 p.

    The 1991 World Bank Atlas provides 1990 statistics in 1 table for 185 countries on the following: gross national product (GNP) and rate, population and growth rate, GNP/capita and real growth rate, agriculture's share of gross domestic product (GDP), daily calorie supply/capita, life expectancy at birth, total fertility rate (TFR), and school enrollment (%) and literacy (%). Charts in 6 colors depict GNP/capita, the population growth rate between 1980-90 and ranking by country, GNP/capita growth rate between 1980-90 and ranking by country, GDP share in agriculture and ranking, daily calorie supply/capita in 1988 and ranking, life expectancy at birth and ranking, TFR and ranking, and illiteracy rate in 1985 and ranking. The ranking is of GNP/capita from lowest to highest by country against the indicator and the trend line.
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  19. 19

    Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Leete R

    POPULATION RESEARCH LEADS. 1991; (39):1-17.

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by institutional change in ideas about families and schooling and material welfare, changes in the structure of governance, and changes in state ideology. Thailand's decline began in the 1960s and is attributed to social change, change in cultural setting, demand, and FP efforts. Modest declines characterize Malaysia and the Philippines, which have been surpassed by Myanmar and Viet Nam. The policy implications are that there are shortages in labor supply which can be remedied with labor migration, pronatalist policy, more capital intensive industries, and preparation for a changing economy.
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  20. 20

    Maternal mortality ratios and rates: a tabulation of available information. 3d ed.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme

    [Unpublished] [1991]. 100 p. (WHO/MCH/MSM/91.6)

    The Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme under WHO's Division of Family Health has compiled maternal mortality data in its 3rd edition of Maternal Mortality Ratios and Rates. The report contains data up to 1991. These data come from almost all WHO member countries. 1988 estimates reveal that 509,000 women die each year from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Most die from preventable causes such as aseptic abortions and lack of adequate health care. 4000 of these maternal deaths occur in developed countries. Thus developing countries, where 87% of the world's births occur, experience 99% of maternal deaths. In fact, the lifetime risk of death from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth in developing countries is 1:57 compared to 1:1825 in developed countries. Women in countries of western Africa have the greatest risk (1:18) and those in North America the smallest risk (1:4006). Even though the maternal mortality ratio for developing countries fell from 450-520 per 100,000 live births between 1983-1988, it increased in western African countries (700-760). This report consists mainly of tables of maternal mortality estimates for each country and in some cases certain areas of each country, for the world and various regions and subregions, and changes in maternal mortality since 1983 for the world and various regions and subregions. The world comparison table includes live births, maternal deaths, maternal mortality ratios and rates, lifetime risk, and total fertility. Country tables list year, data sources, maternal mortality ratio, indication if abortion deaths were included or not, and reference.
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  21. 21

    The World Bank atlas 1990.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. 29 p.

    The social and economic indicators presented in the 1990 edition of the World Bank Atlas provide evidence of improved living standards in most world regions since the early 1970s. 30 economies, representing half of the world's population, demonstrated a real per capita growth in the gross national product of at least 3%/year in the 1980s. On the other hand, in 1989, 46 countries (56% of the world's population) lived in economies with a gross national product per capita of under US$500. The population growth rate in 1980-89 was 1% or under in 50 countries, while total fertility was under 3.0 children in 66 countries in 1989. there were 30 countries in which fertility showed no decline in the 1970-89 period; in 10 of these countries, fertility remained unchanged but did not increase. School enrollment showed increases in all but 4 countries in this same period in the countries for which data were available, and the rate of illiteracy is now under 50% in 60 in the 97 countries that provided such statistics. Other indicators presented in this atlas include: total population in 1988 and 1989, the share of the growth domestic product represented by agriculture, daily calorie supply per capita, life expectancy. Each of these indicators is presented in both tabular and graphic form.
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  22. 22

    The World Bank atlas 1989. 22nd edition.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989. 29 p.

    This 22nd edition of the Atlas presents current economic and social indicators that describe trends, indicate orders of magnitude, and characterize significant differences among countries. This year illiteracy rates, share of agriculture in gross domestic product, and daily calorie supply per capita are presented in the main table, and illiteracy rates rather than school enrollment ratios are charted. The Atlas reveals that real per capita income has risen during the 1980s for the majority of countries. However, more than 10% of the world's population lives in countries where the real gross national product per capita is not growing; more than half live in countries where the average gross national product per capita is still under $500. Relative income levels are also affected by fluctuations in exchange rates and terms of trade, which have been sharp during the decade. Hence the levels and ranking of gross national product per capita estimates have changed in ways not necessarily related to economic performance. The social indicators provide evidence of improved standards of living since the early 1970s. Recent trends are difficult to discern because conditions change gradually and data on these conditions are less current and less frequently gathered.
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  23. 23

    The World Bank atlas 1988.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1988. 29 p.

    This 21st edition of the Atlas presents economic, social and demographic indicators in the form of tables and charts covering the world. The main yardstick of economic activity in a country is the gross national product. 60 developing countries have had declining gross national product, although for most countries real per capita income has risen. Social indicators show evidence of improved standards of living since the early 1980s. Population estimates and other demographic data are from the UN Population Division; education data are from the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, and calorie data are from the Food and Agriculture Organization. A total of 10 charts and maps show world population; statistics on 185 countries and territories; gross national product, 1987; population growth rate, 1980-87; gross national product per capita growth rate, 1980-87; agriculture in gross domestic product, 1987; daily calorie supply, 1985; life expectancy at birth, 1987; total fertility rate, 1987; and school enrollment ratio, 1985. Throughout the Atlas, data for China do not include Taiwan. The World Bank, a multilateral development institution, consists of 2 distinct entities: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which finances its lending operations from borrowings in the world capital markets, and the International Development Association, which extends assistance to the poorest countries on easier terms.
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  24. 24

    The new top 10 and other population vistas.

    Haupt A

    Population Today. 1986 Feb; 14(2):3, 8.

    The UN recently released its lastest population projection for 1985-2025. Although demographers remain uncertain about the future shape and rate of population growth, the UN figures are generally regarded as representing the state of the art in projection making. The UN makes medium, high, and low variant projections. According to the medium variant, the world population, in millions, will be 4,837 in 1985, 6,122 in 2000, 7,414 in 2015, and 8,206 in 2025. High and low variant projections, in millions, for 2025 are 9,088 and 7,358. The medium variant projection indicates that between 1985-2025 the population, in millions, will increase from 3,663-6,809 in the developing countries but only from 1,1754-1,396 in the developed countries. In other words, the proportion of the world's population residing in the developed countries will decrease from 24%-17% between 1985-2025. The world's growth rate will continue to decline as it has since it peaked at 2.1% in 1965-70. According to the medium variant, the projected growth rate for the world will be 1.63% between 1985-90, 1.58% between 1990-95, 1.38% between 2000-05, 1.18% between 2010-15, and 0.96 between 2020-25. The growth rate will decrease from 1.94%-1.10% for the developing countries and from 0.60%-0.29% for the developed countries between 1985-2025. The medium variant projections assume that the total fertility rate will decrease from 3.3 in 1985-90 to 2.8 in 2000-05 and to 2.4 in 2020-25. Respective figures are 3.7, 3.0, and 2.4 for the developing countries only and 2.0, 2.0, and 2.1 for the developed countries only. By 2025 the age structure of the developing countries is expected to be similar to the current age structure of the developed countries. In 2025, the 10 countries with the largest populations and their expected populations, in millions, will be China (1,475), India (1,229), USSR (368), Nigeria (338), US (312), Indonesia (273), Brazil (246), Bangladesh (219), Pakistan (210), and Mexico (154). The populations of some countries which are relatively small at the present time will be quite large in 2025. For example, the population, in millions, will be 111 for Ethiopia and 105 for Vietnam. The projections are summarized in 4 tables.
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  25. 25

    Demographic trends and their development implications.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)

    This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
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