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  1. 1
    375813

    State of health inequality, Indonesia.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Indonesia. Ministry of Health

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 184 p. (Interactive Visualization of Health Data)

    In order to reduce health inequalities and identify priority areas for action to move towards universal health coverage, governments first need to understand the magnitude and scope of inequality in their countries. From April 2016 to October 2017, the Indonesian Ministry of Health, WHO, and a network of stakeholders assessed country-wide health inequalities in 11 areas, such as maternal and child health, immunization coverage and availability of health facilities. A key output of the monitoring work is a new report called State of health inequality: Indonesia, the first WHO report to provide a comprehensive assessment of health inequalities in a Member State. The report summarizes data from more than 50 health indicators and disaggregates it by dimensions of inequality, such as household economic status, education level, place of residence, age or sex. This report showcases the state of inequality in Indonesia, drawing from the latest available data across 11 health topics (53 health indicators), and eight dimensions of inequality. In addition to quantifying the magnitude of health inequality, the report provides background information for each health topic, and discusses priority areas for action and policy implications of the findings. Indicator profiles illustrate disaggregated data by all applicable dimensions of inequality, and electronic data visuals facilitate interactive exploration of the data. This report was prepared as part of a capacity-building process, which brought together a diverse network of stakeholders committed to strengthening health inequality monitoring in Indonesia. The report aims to raise awareness about health inequalities in Indonesia, and encourage action across sectors. The report finds that the state of health and access to health services varies throughout Indonesia and identifies a number of areas where action needs to be taken. These include, amongst others: improving exclusive breastfeeding and childhood nutrition; increasing equity in antenatal care coverage and births attended by skilled health personnel; reducing high rates of smoking among males; providing mental health treatment and services across income levels; and reducing inequalities in access to improved water and sanitation. In addition, the availability of health personnel, especially dentists and midwives, is insufficient in many of the country’s health centres. Now the country is using these findings to work across sectors to develop specific policy recommendations and programmes, such as the mobile health initiative in Senen, to tackle the inequalities that have been identified.
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  2. 2
    374593

    Narrowing the gaps: the power of investing in the poorest children.

    Carrera C; Begkoyian G; Sharif S; Knippenberg R; Tamagni J; Taylor G

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2017 Jul. 32 p.

    This report provides compelling new evidence that backs up an unconventional prediction UNICEF made in 2010: The higher cost of reaching the poorest children with life-saving, high-impact health interventions would be outweighed by greater results. This new study combines modelling and data from 51 countries. The results indicate that the number of lives saved by investing in the most deprived is almost twice as high as the number saved by equivalent investment in less deprived groups.
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  3. 3
    374581

    HIV and young people who sell sex.

    Armstrong A; Baer J; Baggaley R; Verster A; Oyewale T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 44 p.

    Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young people who belong to one or more of these key populations – or who engage in activities associated with these populations – are made especially vulnerable to HIV by factors including widespread discrimination, stigma and violence, combined with the particular vulnerabilities of youth, power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, alienation from family and friends. These factors increase the risk that they may engage – willingly or not – in behaviours that put them at risk of HIV, such as frequent unprotected sex and the sharing of needles and syringes to inject drugs. This technical brief is one in a series addressing four young key populations. It is intended for policy-makers, donors, service-planners, service-providers and community- led organizations. This brief aims to inform discussions about how best to provide services, programmes and support for young people who sell sex. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning the HIV risk and vulnerability of young people who sell sex; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate services; examples of programmes that may work well in addressing their needs and rights; and approaches and considerations for providing services that both draw upon and build the strengths, competencies and capacities of young people.
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  4. 4
    374580

    HIV and young men who have sex with men.

    Armstrong A; Baer J; Baggaley R; Verster A; Oyewale T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 40 p.

    Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young people who belong to one or more of these key populations – or who engage in activities associated with these populations – are made especially vulnerable to HIV by factors including widespread discrimination, stigma and violence, combined with the particular vulnerabilities of youth, power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, alienation from family and friends. These factors increase the risk that they may engage – willingly or not – in behaviours that put them at risk of HIV, such as frequent unprotected sex and the sharing of needles and syringes to inject drugs. This technical brief is one in a series addressing four young key populations. It is intended for policy-makers, donors, service-planners, service-providers and community-led organizations. This brief aims to inform discussions about how best to provide health services, programmes and support for young MSM. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning the HIV risk and vulnerability of young MSM; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate services; examples of programmes that may work well in addressing their needs and rights; and approaches and considerations for providing services that both draw upon and build to the strengths, competencies and capacities of young MSM.
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  5. 5
    374579

    HIV and young transgender people.

    Armstrong A; Baer J; Baggaley R; Verster A; Oyewale T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 36 p.

    Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young people who belong to one or more of these key populations – or who engage in activities associated with these populations – are made especially vulnerable to HIV by factors including widespread discrimination, stigma and violence, combined with the particular vulnerabilities of youth, power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, alienation from family and friends. These factors increase the risk that they may engage – willingly or not – in behaviours that put them at risk of HIV, such as frequent unprotected sex and the sharing of needles and syringes to inject drugs. This brief aims to inform discussions about how best to provide health services, programmes and support for young transgender people. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning the HIV risk and vulnerability of young transgender people; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate services; examples of programmes that may work well in addressing their needs and rights; and approaches and considerations for providing services that both draw upon and build the strengths, competencies and capacities of these young people.
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  6. 6
    374578

    HIV and young people who inject drugs.

    Armstrong A; Baer J; Baggaley R; Verster A; Oyewale T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 34 p.

    Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young people who belong to one or more of these key populations – or who engage in activities associated with these populations – are made especially vulnerable to HIV by factors including widespread discrimination, stigma and violence, combined with the particular vulnerabilities of youth, power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, alienation from family and friends. These factors increase the risk that they may engage – willingly or not – in behaviours that put them at risk of HIV, such as frequent unprotected sex and the sharing of needles and syringes to inject drugs. This brief aims to inform discussions about how best to provide health services, programmes and support for young people who inject drugs. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning the HIV risk and vulnerability of young people who inject drugs; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate services; examples of programmes that may work well in addressing their needs and rights; and approaches and considerations for providing services that both draw upon and build the strengths, competencies and capacities of young people who inject drugs.
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  7. 7
    375676

    Aligning incentives, accerlerating impact. Next generation financing models for global health.

    Silverman R; Over M; Bauhoff S

    Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2015. 68 p.

    Founded in 2002, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) is one of the world’s largest multilateral health funders, disbursing $3-$4 billion a year across 100-plus countries. Many of these countries rely on Global Fund monies to finance their respective disease responses -- and for their citizens, the efficient and effective use of Global Fund monies can be the difference between life and death. Many researchers and policymakers have hypothesized that models tying grant payments to achieved and verified results -- referred to in this report as next generation financing models -- offer an opportunity for the Global Fund to push forward its strategic interests and accelerate the impact of its investments. Free from year-to-year disbursement pressure (like government agencies) and rigid allocation policies (like the World Bank’s International Development Association), the Global Fund is also uniquely equipped to push forward innovative financing models. But despite interest, the how of new grant designs remains a challenge. Realizing their potential requires technical know-how and careful, strategic decisionmaking that responds to specific country and epidemiological contexts -- all with little evidence or experience to guide the way. This report thus addresses the how of next generation financing models -- that is, the concrete steps needed to change the basis of payment from expenses to something else: outputs, outcomes, or impact. (Excerpts)
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  8. 8
    344649

    State of inequality: Reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Health Statistics and Information Systems

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015. 124 p.

    The report delivers both promising and disappointing messages about the situation in low- and middle-income countries. Within-country inequalities have narrowed, with a tendency for national improvements driven by faster improvements in disadvantaged subgroups. However, inequalities still persist in most reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health indicators. The extent of within-country inequality differed by dimension of inequality and by country, country income group and geographical region. There is still much progress to be made in reducing inequalities in RMNCH.
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  9. 9
    375138

    An Investment Framework for Nutrition: Reaching the Global Targets for Stunting, Anemia, Breastfeeding, and Wasting.

    Shekar M; Kakletek J; Eberwein JD; Walters D

    Washington, D.C., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2017 Apr. 258 p.

    The report estimates the costs, impacts and financing scenarios to achieve the World Health Assembly global nutrition targets for stunting, anemia in women, exclusive breastfeeding and the scaling up of the treatment of severe wasting among young children. To reach these four targets, the world needs $70 billion over 10 years to invest in high-impact nutrition-specific interventions. This investment would have enormous benefits: 65 million cases of stunting and 265 million cases of anemia in women would be prevented in 2025 as compared with the 2015 baseline. In addition, at least 91 million more children would be treated for severe wasting and 105 million additional babies would be exclusively breastfed during the first six months of life over 10 years. Altogether, achieving these targets would avert at least 3.7 million child deaths. Every dollar invested in this package of interventions would yield between $4 and $35 in economic returns, making investing in early nutrition one of the best value-for-money development actions. Although some of the targets -- especially those for reducing stunting in children and anemia in women -- are ambitious and will require concerted efforts in financing, scale-up, and sustained commitment, recent experience from several countries suggests that meeting these targets is feasible. These investments in the critical 1000 day window of early childhood are inalienable and portable and will pay lifelong dividends -- not only for children directly affected but also for us all in the form of more robust societies -- that will drive future economies.
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  10. 10
    374221

    Inheriting a sustainable world? Atlas on children’s health and the environment.

    Drisse MN; Goldizen F

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 164 p.

    In 2015, 26% of the deaths of 5.9 million children who died before reaching their fifth birthday could have been prevented through addressing environmental risks – a shocking missed opportunity. The prenatal and early childhood period represents a window of particular vulnerability, where environmental hazards can lead to premature birth and other complications, and increase lifelong disease risk including for respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disease and cancers. The environment thus represents a major factor in children’s health, as well as a major opportunity for improvement, with effects seen in every region of the world. Children are at the heart of the Sustainable Development Goals, because it is children who will inherit the legacy of policies and actions taken, and not taken, by leaders today. The third SDG, to “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages,” has its foundation in children’s environmental health, and it is incumbent on us to provide a healthy start to our children’s lives. This cannot be achieved, however, without multisectoral cooperation, as seen in the linkages between environmental health risks to children and the other SDGs. This publication is divided by target: SDGs 1, 2 and 10 address equity and nutrition; SDG 6 focuses on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); SDGs 7 and 13 call attention to energy, air pollution and climate change; SDGs 3, 6 and 12 look at chemical exposures; and SDGs 8, 9 and 11 study infrastructure and settings.
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  11. 11
    375276

    Identifying the need for evaluation capacity assessment tools and guidance.

    Franca-Koh AC; Moonzwe L

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2017 Jan. 18 p. (Working Paper WP-17-171; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    In 2011, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) published its Evaluation Policy. The policy emphasizes the need to conduct more evaluations of its programs to ensure greater accountability and learning, and it outlines best practices and requirements for conducting evaluations. Since releasing the policy, USAID has commissioned an increasing number of evaluations of its programs. The importance of evaluations for international public health programs has been long recognized, with demand for such evaluations coming from both internal and external sources. Donors or those external to program implementation seek evidence of accomplishments and accountability for resources spent, whereas those involved in program implementation seek evidence to inform and improve program design. Within USAID, the need for more evaluations was driven by the understanding that evaluations provide information and analysis that prevent mistakes from being repeated and increase the likelihood of greater yield from future investments. Finally, there is overall recognition that evaluations should be of high quality and driven by demand, and that results should be communicated to relevant stakeholders. Despite the increased demand for evaluations, there is limited evaluation capacity in many countries where international development programs are implemented. Before strategies to strengthen evaluation capacity can be implemented, it is important first to assess existing evaluation capacity and develop action plans accordingly. We conducted a review of existing assessment tools and guidance documents related to assessing organizations’ capacity to carry out evaluations of international public health programs in order to determine the adequacy of those materials. Here, we summarize the key findings of our review of the literature and provide recommendations for the development of future tools and guidance documents.
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  12. 12
    374073

    Clear the air for children: the impact of air pollution on children.

    Rees N

    2016 Oct; New York, New York, UNICEF, 2016 Oct. 100 p.

    This report looks at how children, particularly the most disadvantaged, are affected by air pollution. It points out that around 300 million children live in areas where the air is toxic – exceeding international limits by at least six times – and that children are uniquely vulnerable to air pollution, breathing faster than adults on average and taking in more air relative to their body weight. The report also notes that air pollution is a major contributing factor in the deaths of around 600,000 children under age 5 every year and threatens the health, lives and futures of millions more. It concludes with a set of concrete steps to take so that children can breathe clean, safe air.
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  13. 13
    372964

    India’s undernourished children: a call for reform and action.

    Gragnolati M; Bredenkamp C; Shekar M; Gupta MD; Lee YK

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006. [144] p. (Health, Nutrition, and Population Series)

    The prevalence of child undernutrition in India is among the highest in the world, nearly double that of Sub-Saharan Africa, with dire consequences for morbidity, mortality, productivity, and economic growth. Drawing on qualitative studies and quantitative evidence from large household surveys, this book explores the dimensions of child undernutrition in India and examines the effectiveness of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, India’s main early child development intervention, in addressing it. Although levels of undernutrition in India declined modestly during the 1990s, the reductions lagged behind those achieved by other countries with similar economic growth. Nutritional inequalities across different states and socioeconomic and demographic groups remain large. Although the ICDS program appears to be well designed and well placed to address the multidimensional causes of undernutrition in India, several problems exist that prevent it from reaching its potential. The book concludes with a discussion of a number of concrete actions that can be taken to bridge the gap between the policy intentions of ICDS and its actual implementation.
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  14. 14
    372946

    Guidelines or other tools for integrating gender considerations into climate change related activities under the Convention.

    United Nations. Framework Convention on Climate Change [UNFCCC]

    [Bonn, Germany], UNFCCC, 2016. 33 p.

    Drawing on relevant web-based resources, this technical paper aims to provide an overview of existing methodologies and tools for the integration of gender considerations into climate change related activities under the Convention. The paper assesses selected tools and guidelines in terms of their methodology, information and data requirements, capacity-building needs, lessons learned, gaps and challenges, and relevance for social and environmental impacts. Parties may wish to use the information contained in this paper in their consideration of entry points for the integration of gender considerations into the formulation and implementation of strategies for mitigating and adapting to the impacts of climate change.
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  15. 15
    375003

    WHO guidelines for the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. [56] p.

    Since the publication of the WHO Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections in 2003, changes in the epidemiology of STIs and advancements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment necessitate changes in STI management. These guidelines provide updated treatment recommendations for common infections caused by C. trachomatis based on the most recent evidence; they form one of several modules of guidelines for specific STIs. It is strongly recommended that countries take updated global guidance into account as they establish standardized national protocols, adapting this guidance to the local epidemiological situation and antimicrobial susceptibility data. The objectives of these guidelines are: to provide evidence-based guidance on treatment of infection with C. trachomatis; and to support countries to update their national guidelines for treatment of chlamydial infection.
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  16. 16
    375002

    WHO guidelines for the treatment of Treponema pallidum (syphilis).

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. [60] p.

    Since the publication of the WHO Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections in 2003, changes in the epidemiology of STIs and advancements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment necessitate changes in STI management. These guidelines provide updated treatment recommendations for treatment of Treponema pallidum (syphilis) based on the most recent evidence. They form one of several modules of guidelines for specific STIs. It is strongly recommended that countries take updated global guidance into account as they establish standardized national protocols and adapt it to the local epidemiological situation and antimicrobial susceptibility data. The objectives of these guidelines are: to provide evidence-based guidance on treatment of infection with Treponema pallidum; and to support countries to update their national guidelines for treatment of Treponema pallidum.
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  17. 17
    375001

    WHO guidelines for the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. [64] p.

    Since the publication of the WHO Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections in 2003, changes in the epidemiology of STIs and advancements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment necessitate changes in STI management. There is an urgent need to update treatment recommendations for gonococcal infections to respond to changing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of N. gonorrhoeae. High-level resistance to previously recommended quinolones is widespread and decreased susceptibility to the extended-spectrum (third-generation) cephalosporins, another recommended first-line treatment in the 2003 guidelines, is increasing and several countries have reported treatment failures. These guidelines for the treatment of common infections caused by N. gonorrhoeae form one of several modules of guidelines for specific STIs. It is strongly recommended that countries take updated global guidance into account as they establish standardized national protocols, adapting this guidance to the local epidemiological situation and antimicrobial susceptibility data. The objectives of these guidelines are: to provide evidence-based guidance on treatment of infection with N. gonorrhoeae; and to support countries to update their national guidelines for treatment of gonococcal infection.
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  18. 18
    372763

    Evaluation of the UNFPA support to family planning 2008-2013. Evaluation Brief.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016. 24 p.

    This evaluation focuses on how UNFPA performed in the area of family planning during the period covered by the UNFPA Strategic Plan 2008-2013. It provides valuable insights and learning which can be used to inform the current UNFPA family planning strategy as well as other relevant programmes, including UNFPA Supplies (2013-2020). All the countries where UNFPA works in family planning were included, but the evaluation focuses on the 69 priority countries identified in the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning as having low rates of contraceptive use and high unmet needs. The evaluation took place in 2014-2016 and was conducted by Euro Health Group in collaboration with the Royal Tropical Institute Netherlands. It involved a multidisciplinary team of senior evaluators and family planning and sexual and reproductive health and rights specialists, which was supervised and guided by the Evaluation Office in consultation with the Evaluation Reference Group. The outputs include a thematic evaluation report, an evaluation brief and country case study notes for Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.
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  19. 19
    372762

    Evaluation of the UNFPA support to family planning 2008-2013. Volume II - Annexes.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016 Apr. 214 p.

    The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the performance of UNFPA in the field of family planning during the period covered by the Strategic Plan 2008-2013 and to provide learning to inform the implementation of the current UNFPA Family Planning Strategy Choices not chance (2012-2020). The evaluation provided an overall independent assessment of UNFPA interventions in the area of family planning and identified key lessons learned for the current and future strategies. The particular emphasis of this evaluation was on learning with a view to informing the implementation of the UNFPA family planning strategy Choices not chance 2012-2020, as well as other related interventions and programmes, such as the Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive Health Commodity Security (GPRHCS- 2013-2020). The evaluation constituted an important contribution to the mid-term review of UNFPA strategic plan 2014-2017. The evaluation features five country case study reports: Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe.
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  20. 20
    372761

    Evaluation of the UNFPA support to family planning 2008-2013. Volume 1.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016 Apr. 105 p.

    The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the performance of UNFPA in the field of family planning during the period covered by the Strategic Plan 2008-2013 and to provide learning to inform the implementation of the current UNFPA Family Planning Strategy Choices not chance (2012-2020). The evaluation provided an overall independent assessment of UNFPA interventions in the area of family planning and identified key lessons learned for the current and future strategies. The particular emphasis of this evaluation was on learning with a view to informing the implementation of the UNFPA family planning strategy Choices not chance 2012-2020, as well as other related interventions and programmes, such as the Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive Health Commodity Security (GPRHCS- 2013-2020). The evaluation constituted an important contribution to the mid-term review of UNFPA strategic plan 2014-2017. The evaluation features five country case study reports: Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe.
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  21. 21
    368322

    Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2015. Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division.

    World Bank

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2015. 100 p.

    In 2000, the United Nations (UN) Member States pledged to work towards a series of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), including the target of a three-quarters reduction in the 1990 maternal mortality ratio (MMR; maternal deaths per 100 000 live births), to be achieved by 2015. This target (MDG 5A) and that of achieving universal access to reproductive health (MDG 5B) together formed the two targets for MDG 5: Improve maternal health. In the five years counting down to the conclusion of the MDGs, a number of initiatives were established to galvanize efforts towards reducing maternal mortality. These included the UN Secretary-General’s Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, which mobilized efforts towards achieving MDG 4 (Improve child health) as well as MDG 5, and the high-level Commission on Information and Accountability (COIA), which promoted “global reporting, oversight, and accountability on women’s and children’s health”. Now, building on the momentum generated by MDG 5, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) establish a transformative new agenda for maternal health towards ending preventable maternal mortality; target 3.1 of SDG 3 is to reduce the global MMR to less than 70 per 100 000 live births by 2030.
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  22. 22
    368318

    Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. Disease control priorities. Third edition. Volume 2.

    Black RE; Laxminarayan R; Temmerman M; Walker N

    Washington, D.C., World Bank Group, 2016. [419] p.

    The Russian Federation's population has been declining since 1992, but recently the decline appears to be over. Although fertility has risen since the 2007 introduction of the family policy package, which focused on stimulating second and higher-order births, total fertility rates still remain significantly below replacement rate. Unlike some Western European countries, low overall fertility in Russia can be explained predominantly by a high prevalence of one-child families, despite the two-child ideal family size reported by the majority of Russians. This paper examines the correlates of Russian first-time mothers' desire and decision to have a second child. Using the 2004–12 waves of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, the study focuses on the motherhood-career trade-off as a potential obstacle to higher fertility in Russia. The preliminary results indicate that among Russian first-time mothers, being in stable employment is positively associated with the likelihood of having a second child. Moreover, the desire to have a second child is positively associated with the first child attending formal childcare, which suggests that the availability, affordability, and quality of such childcare can be important for promoting fertility. These results are broadly consistent with previous studies in other European countries that indicate that the ability of mothers to combine work and family has important implications for fertility, and that pro-natalist policies focusing on childcare accessibility can offer the greatest payoffs. In addition to these factors, better housing conditions, being married, having an older child, and having a first-born boy are also positively associated with having a second child.
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  23. 23
    335970

    The gap report.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2014 Jul. [422] p. (UNAIDS / JC2656)

    How do we close the gap between the people moving forward and the people being left behind? This was the question we set out to answer in the UNAIDS Gap report. Similar to the Global report, the goal of the Gap report is to provide the best possible data, but, in addition, to give information and analysis on the people being left behind. A new report by UNAIDS shows that 19 million of the 35 million people living with HIV globally do not know their HIV-positive status. The UNAIDS Gap report shows that as people find out their HIV-positive status they will seek life-saving treatment. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost 90% of people who tested positive for HIV went on to access antiretroviral therapy (ART). Research shows that in sub-Saharan Africa, 76% of people on ART have achieved viral suppression, whereby they are unlikely to transmit the virus to their sexual partners. New data analysis demonstrates that for every 10% increase in treatment coverage there is a 1% decline in the percentage of new infections among people living with HIV. The report highlights that efforts to increase access to ART are working. In 2013, an additional 2.3 million people gained access to the life-saving medicines. This brings the global number of people accessing ART to nearly 13 million by the end of 2013. Based on past scale-up, UNAIDS projects that as of July 2014 as many as 13 950 296 people were accessing ART. By ending the epidemic by 2030, the world would avert 18 million new HIV infections and 11.2 million AIDS-related deaths between 2013 and 2030.
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  24. 24
    365492
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health project at a glance: the power of collaboration.

    Souza JP; WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health Research Network

    BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2014 Mar; 121 Suppl 1:v-viii.

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  25. 25
    363721
    Peer Reviewed

    Country adaptation of the 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

    Ghanotakis E; Miller L; Spensley A

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2012 Dec 1; 90(12):921-31.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) revised its global recommendations on treating pregnant women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with antiretrovirals and preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Initial draft recommendations issued in November 2009 were followed by a full revised guideline in July 2010. The 2010 recommendations on PMTCT have important implications in terms of planning, human capacity and resources. Ministries of health therefore had to adapt their national guidelines to reflect the 2010 PMTCT recommendations, and the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation tracked the adaptation process in the 14 countries where it provides technical support. In doing so it sought to understand common issues, challenges, and the decisions reached and to properly target its technical assistance.In 2010, countries revised their national guidelines in accordance with WHO's most recent PMTCT recommendations faster than in 2006; all 14 countries included in this analysis formally conducted the revision within 15 months of the 2010 PMTCT recommendations' release. Governments used various processes and fora to make decisions throughout the adaptation process; they considered factors such as feasibility, health delivery infrastructure, compatibility with 2006 WHO guidelines, equity and cost. Challenges arose; in some cases the new recommendations were implemented before being formally adapted into national guidelines and no direct guidance was available in various technical areas. As future PMTCT guidelines are developed, WHO, implementing partners and other stakeholders can use the information in this paper to plan their support to ministries of health.
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