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  1. 1

    National Seminar on Population and Development in Malawi, 5 - 9th June, 1989, Chancellor College, Zomba. Report.

    University of Malawi. Chancellor College. Demographic Unit

    Zomba, Malawi, University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Demographic Unit, 1989. ix, 223 p. (UNFPA Project MLW/87/PO1)

    The role of population in planning for socioeconomic development in Malawi was the topic of a National Seminar held by the Demographic Unit of the University of Malawi in June 1989. 64 participants from the University, Government departments, parastatal, non-governmental and international agencies presented 41 papers. Each of these background and seminar papers are summarized, and 64 recommendations are outlines. The seminar was considered further evidence that the government is becoming aware that fertility, 7.6 children per woman, and related infant mortality, 150/1000, are excessive, according to the UNFPA representative in his keynote address, and the hope that future planning will take population into account. The range of topics covered in the papers included demography, spatial distribution, macroeconomic factors in development, refugees, industry, small enterprises, health services, water supply, education, rehabilitation, status of women, food supply, land ownership, sustainable resources and manpower development. Recommendations specified actions on rural development, roads, legalizing tobacco growing, fuelwood, equalizing food security, taxes, savings, finance, antitrust regulations, incentives for health service in rural areas, housing, female education, handicapped persons, refugees, data and research and many other issues.
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  2. 2

    The brain drain issue in international negotiations.

    d'Oliveira e Sousa J

    In: The impact of international migration on developing countries, edited by Reginald Appleyard. Paris, France, OECD Publications, 1989. 197-212. (Development Centre Seminars)

    During the last 20 years the brain drain issue has figured prominently in international negotiations on development questions. Because of its complexity and the implications of control on the freedom of individuals, international agreement regarding appropriate action to mitigate negative consequences for developing countries has been difficult to achieve. In particular, serious reservations have been expressed by some developed countries concerning redistribution schemes such as the International Labour Compensatory Facility. However, systematic consideration of the subject in different fora has permitted linkages between the brain drain and such related issues as population, employment, human rights, science and technology, and health. Complex technical, conceptual, and methodological aspects of the phenomenon, including the tools for its measurement, have also been explored. Intensive multilateral negotiations have led to better understanding and hence a more balanced and integrated approach to development aspects of brain drain. The great challenge is to find appropriate solutions for mitigating the negative effects of brain drain for developing countries which take into account the interests of all parties involved as well as the basic right of human beings to move freely.
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  3. 3

    Tobacco in developing countries: an economic approach to policy formulation.

    Lewit EM

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population, Health and Nutrition Dept., 1987 Jun. 114, [22] p. (PHN Techical Note 87-15)

    The issue of appropriate tobacco policies for less developed countries (LDCs), based essentially on the experiences of the more developed countries, is addressed. Following an overview of current trends in tobacco consumption and production and discussion of the health consequences of tobacco use, attention is directed to the rationale for government policy within the context of neoclassical welfare economics. Issues surrounding policy instruments intended to reduce the demand for cigarettes are examined as are production related policies. Finally, focus is on the question of the propriety of the World Bank's lending for tobacco projects. Available evidence from several European nations suggests that simply the discussion of smoking and health policies can have a noticeable effect on smoking. Leu (1986) reports that smoking declined in Switzerland following the health disclosures, but it declined more substantially following a public referendum (1979) on a complete advertising ban despite the fact that the ban was defeated at the polls. The evidence for information dissemination programs is impressive, yet such approaches have been criticized as inadequate on the basis that the reductions in smoking have not been large enough and that people continue to be inadequately informed about all the risks of smoking. Information based policies to control tobacco use have several advantages, including: they are noncoercive and reinforce an individual's prerogative to control his/her own life; they improve market functions; and they have an important impact on tobacco use and tobacco induced illnesses. Specific recommendations are outlined. Setting aside health considerations, from both a longterm and global perspective, the case for promoting tobacco production on economic grounds is shaky. Tobacco now typically is a profitable crop, yet much of its advantage stems from the various subsidies, tariffs, and supply restrictions that support its high price and provide economic rents for its producers. Health considerations aside, from both a longterm and global perspective, the case for promoting tobacco production on economic grounds is weak. Tobacco typically is a profitable crop at this time, yet much of its advantage stems from the various subsidies, tariffs, and supply restrictions that support its high price and provide economic rents for its producers.
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  4. 4

    World development report 1980.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1980 Aug. 166 p.

    This report examines some of the difficulties and prospects faced by developing countries in continuing their social and economic development and tackling poverty for the next 5-10 years. The 1st part of the report is about the economic policy choices facing both developing and richer countries and about the implications of these choices for growth. The 2nd part of the report reviews other ways to reduce poverty such as focusing on human development (education and training, health and nutrition, and fertility reduction). Throughout the report economic projections for developing countries have been carried out, drawing on the World Bank's analysis of what determines country and regional growth. Oil-exporting countries will face greater economic growth; their average GNP per person could grow 3-3.5% in the 1980s. Oil-importing countries will develop slower or fall to 1.8%/year. Poverty in oil-importing developing countries could grow at about 2.4% GNP/person and by 1990 there would be 80 million fewer people in absolute poverty. Factors which will contribute to the economic problems of developing countries are trade (import/export), energy, and capital flow. The progress of developing countries depends on internal policies and initiatives concerning investment and production efficiency, human development and population. Not only can human development increase growth but it can help to reduce absolute poverty.
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