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WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction. 3rd ed.
Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1992. viii, 107 p.In 1992, WHO's special program of research, development and research training in human reproduction updated its laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction because the field of andrology continues to progress quickly and there is heightened realization of the need for standardized measurement of all semen variables. This manual is designed to mainly serve the needs of researchers and clinicians in developing countries. Chapter 2 addresses laboratory procedures that are minimal essential steps for semen evaluation, optional procedures, and procedures needing additional evaluation, such as computer-aided sperm analysis used to measure sperm motion (i.e., research tools). The Shorr stain has replaced the Papanicolaou stain. Measurements of acid phosphatase and neutral alpha-glucosidase were added, while the measurement of adenosine triphosphatase was excluded. Few changes between the 2nd and 3rd editions occurred in Chapter 3. Chapters 4 and 5 are rather brief but discuss interlaboratory and technical standardization procedures. New appendices present safety guidelines and basic requirements for the andrology laboratory.
WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and semen-cervical mucus interaction. 2nd ed.
Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1987. , 67 p.The WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction has revised its manual designed to standardize procedures for the examination of human semen. This revised manual, for instance, describes a simplified method for screening the morphology of cellular elements other than spermatozoa; the previous method now appears in the section on optional procedures. WHO has also included methods to determine the presence of spermatozoa antibodies. The manual has guidelines on measurement of biochemical components of seminal plasma to evaluate the secretory function of accessory glands (e.g., fructose indicates secretory function of the seminal vesicles). Even though these biochemical tests may not mark a man's fertility, they demonstrate the functional state of these glands. Besides, someday they may even help assess the possible effects of xenobiotic factors and of disease. Some researchers believe adenosine triphosphate levels are linked to spermatozoal function and that the zona free hamster oocyte test can determine the ability of human spermatozoa to join with the oocyte; so WHO has listed protocols for these 2 tests. The manual also has protocols to assess the ability of spermatozoa to penetrate cervical mucus in vitro: the microscopic method and the capillary tube test. WHO believes that determining this ability is important when evaluating the fertility of a couple. The Standard Procedures section on collection and examination of human semen considers appearance, volume, consistency, pH, motility, preparation and grading, agglutination, sperm viability, sperm count, and testing for antibody-coating of spermatozoa. The section on sperm cervical mucus interaction examines volume, consistency, ferning, spinnbarkeit, cellularity, pH, and in vivo and in vitro tests. It hopes that researchers will adapt the standard procedures presented in this manual to improve quality control between laboratories and allow aggregation of data from several sources for analysis.
The WHO Task Force on Vaccines for Fertility Regulation. Its formation, objectives and research activities.
HUMAN REPRODUCTION. 1991 Jan; 6(1):166-72.The WHO Task Force on Vaccines for Fertility Regulation is one of several Task Forces, consisting of international, multidisciplinary groups of scientists and clinicians collaborating in research on specific goals, established in 1972. Its accomplishments are reviewed here. The Task Force convened a meeting in 1974 to select criteria for tissues and molecules capable of mounting antifertility responses. These molecules had to be restricted to the target tissue, sequestered in the reproductive tract, present transiently, and chemically characterized. Some of the antigens considered were sperm enzymes and membranes, as well as a data bank of sera naturally immunized against sperm. Other were anti-ovum and placenta molecules such as zona pellucida, the SP-1 placental antigen, and the placental hormones chorionic somatotrophin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCH). Trophoblast-derived monoclonal antibodies and gene libraries are being screened. Anti-hCH is the vaccine composed of a portion of the beta subunit complexed to a carrier antigen, diphtheria toxoid, in a water- oil emulsion with an adjuvant has been tested in a phase I clinical trial in 1986-1988. A Phase II trial is being planned to see if the immune response in women is large enough to be capable of preventing pregnancy. Further improvements in the vaccine are being envisioned, such as incorporation of the peptide carrier conjugate and immune stimulant into biodegradable microspheres, hopefully to produce a longer-lasting immunity and a more stable vaccine. While the WHO Task Force on Vaccines for Fertility Regulation has been forced to cut back on some avenues of research, its success has stimulated other centers to take up several important projects, e.g. the sperm LDH and zona pellucida vaccines.