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Your search found 20 Results

  1. 1
    323407
    Peer Reviewed

    Sexual violence increasing in Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Wakabi W

    Lancet. 2008 Jan; 371(9605):15-16.

    As fighting flares up in the Democratic Republic of Congo, health workers are reporting a rise in brutal sexual violence against women. But, says Wairagala Wakabi, the international community continues to pay only lip service to the crisis in the central African country. Medical workers are concerned about rising incidents of sexual brutality against women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which are resulting in mounting rates of trauma, fistula, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Although cases of sexual violence against women have been widespread in eastern DRC over the past decade, humanitarian workers say rape is becoming more violent and more common, yet the world continues to pay only lip service to the crisis in the central African country. Reports of gang rapes, sexual slavery, purposeful mutilation of women's genitalia, and killings of rape victims are commonplace in eastern Congo, especially in the north Kivu province, where fighting has subsisted for years. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    321694

    Panel 4. Introductory remarks.

    McDougall G

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented at the Conference on Gender Justice in Post-Conflict Situations, "Peace Needs Women and Women Need Justice”. Co-organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM] and the International Legal Assistance Consortium. New York, New York, September 15-17, 2004. 5 p.

    When wars occur, women are usually the most abused, aggrieved and powerless. In the vast majority of countries, women play no significant role in the decision-making process of whether war is warranted or lawful. When hostilities break out, women are exposed not only to the forms of violence and devastation that accompany any war but also to forms of violence directed specifically at women on account of their gender. The use of sexual violence and sexual slavery as tactics and weapons of war remains at a high level in spite of tremendous strides made by the global community over the past decade. It is imperative to acknowledge the immeasurable injury to body, mind and spirit that is inflicted by these acts. The overall deterioration in the conditions of women in armed conflict situations is due not only to the collapse of social restraints and the general mayhem that armed conflict causes, but also to a strategic decision on the part of combatants to intimidate and destroy the enemy as a whole byraping and enslaving women who are identified as members of the other warring party. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    314640

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 3. Regional instruments: Africa, Middle East, Asia, Americas. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [385] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    314639

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 1. International instruments: UNHCR, refugees and asylum, statelessness, internally displaced persons, migrants, human rights. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [585] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    314638

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 2. International instruments: international humanitarian law, international criminal law, international maritime and aviation law, miscellaneous. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [415] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    299220

    Victimization of trafficked persons and illegal migrants.

    Aronowitz AA

    International Review of Victimology. 2004; 11(1):11-32.

    This article will define the concepts of smuggling and trafficking in human beings and discuss the difficulty of applying these definitions. The illegal markets that profit from the trafficking of persons will be discussed. The reader will be introduced to the United Nations Global Programme Against Trafficking in Human Beings, and in particular, the pilot project carried out in the. Philippines. The experiences of victims of trafficking obtained in the Philippines, Japan and Malaysia will be presented. The discussion closes with brief recommendations to protect and assist victims of exploitation. (author's)
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  7. 7
    296526

    Imprisonment of children, slavery, racial discrimination acted on by human rights.

    UN Chronicle. 1985 Jul-Aug; 22:[6] p..

    The imprisonment of children, slavery, genocide, and racial discrimination in South Africa and Namibia were among the topics acted upon by the Commission on Human Rights Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities at its meeting in Geneva (5-30 August). The Sub-Commission strongly condemned South Africa for "brutal acts of terrorism" carried out to suppress the black majority's realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms. It demanded the "immediate lifting" of the state of emergency and called upon the international community to continue its efforts towards total economic, cultural and political isolation of South Africa until that country abandoned its policy of apartheid and its illegal occupation of Namibia. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    296499

    Too soon for twilight, too late for dawn: the story of children caught in conflict - includes related articles on the UN General Assembly's stand on child-related issues, participation of children as soldiers, and recommendations for the protection of children during armed conflict - Cover story.

    UN Chronicle. 1996 Winter; 33(4):[12] p..

    In the last decade more than 2 million children have been killed, more than 4 million have survived physical mutilation and more than 1 million have been orphaned or separated from their families. All as a result of war. Joy unblemished as they play outside school, tumbling through the grass with friends, running under a gushing stream of water on a hot evening or down hills stung by snow. Laughter and love. These are the memories of the more innocent times evoked in the minds of many of us as we reminisce about our own childhoods. Where we had time to grow up and only slowly learn the darker ways of the world. But such memories are unimaginably distant from the reality that millions of children, caught up in the deadly games of adults, must confront. Instead, for the increasing numbers of children living in war-torn nations, childhood has become a living nightmare. A just-released United Nations study on the impact of armed conflict on children paints a truly devastating picture of untold suffering and cruelty, of a world increasingly "being sucked into a desolate moral vacuum. This is a space devoid of the most basic human values; a space in which children are slaughtered, raped and maimed; a space in which children are exploited as soldiers; a space in which children are starved and exposed to extreme brutality." The report was the outcome of a two-year investigation that included field visits to battle-scarred areas, dramatic case studies, input from eminent personalities and experts, and consultations with Governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), armed opposition movements and children themselves. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    296479

    Rights of older persons backed by Economic and Social Council. Acts on human rights, women, drugs, and other social issues.

    UN Chronicle. 1991 Sep; 28(3):[3] p..

    Older persons have the right to make decisions about their care and quality of life, and should be able to reside at home as long as possible and remain integrated in society, according to a draft set of Principles for Older Persons, recommended for adoption by the General Assembly. In a resolution adopted by the Economic and Social Council at its first regular session of 1991, Governments will be asked to incorporate the Principles to their national programmes. The Principles are based on the International Plan of Action on Ageing, adopted by the World Assembly on Ageing convened by the UN in Vienna in 1982. The Council adopted 109 texts 49 resolutions and 60 decisions-at the session. Many had been recommended by its subsidiary bodies, including the Commission on Human Rights, the Commission for Social Development, the Commission on the Status of Women and the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    296427

    Working within - women's rights.

    Flor P

    UN Chronicle. 1998 Winter; 35(4):[3] p..

    While the creation of a legal framework which guarantees equal rights for women and men was always regarded as a primary prerequisite for gender equality; it turned out to be far from sufficient, since women and girls face a multitude of constraints imposed by society, not by law. For centuries, societies have created customary rules which, mostly on the basis of sex, class, place of birth, clan or family name, determine to a great extent what role an individual can play. These roles reflect an unwritten social contract within a society on who ought to do what, who rules, who wades, who cares for children, who decides public matters; in short, who occupies a certain space and position in society or in the home. Historically, socially constructed gender roles put women and girls at a disadvantage, denied them equal status with men, restricted their access to income, education and decision-making, and confined their sphere of influence to the home. Today's statistics document the consequences: 70 per cent of the world's poor are women, 2 out of 3 adult illiterates are female. Women are mostly excluded from politics and economic decision-making. Even in Western countries, women hold only approximately 15 per cent of parliamentary seats. Moreover, many women and girls continue to suffer from violence and systematic discrimination. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    292284
    Peer Reviewed

    A review of recent OAS research on human trafficking in the Latin American and Caribbean region. [Reseña de investigaciones recientes de la OEA sobre tráfico de seres humanos en América Latina y el Caribe]

    Langberg L

    International Migration. 2005 Jan; 43(1-2):129-139.

    No review of research on human trafficking worldwide would be complete without an examination of the situation in Latin America and the Caribbean. In the past few years, the Latin American and Caribbean regions have witnessed increased activities by the US Government, international organizations, and civil society alerting governments and migrants on the continually evolving nature of human trafficking, both domestically and across international boundaries. Effective policy responses to the scourge of human trafficking require reliable data based on solid empirical research. The clandestine nature of this criminal activity makes it only possible to rely on estimates, primarily from the nongovernmental organization (NGO) community. As in most parts of the world, before the year 2000 the problem had been overlooked and understudied in Latin America and the Caribbean. In an effort to ameliorate this problem and provide governments information that more fully addressed the scope and nature of the problem, the Inter-American Commission of Women (CIM) and the Inter- American Children’s Institute (IACI), both of the Organization of American States (OAS), collaborated with the International Human Rights Law Institute (IHRLI) of DePaul University to study human trafficking in Latin America and the Caribbean. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    192342

    Trafficking in human beings, especially women and children, in Africa.

    UNICEF. Innocenti Research Centre

    Florence, Italy, UNICEF, Innocenti Research Centre, 2003 Sep. viii, 72 p. (Innocenti Insight)

    This report is the result of a research initiative promoted by the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre and supported by the Governments of Italy and Sweden. It is anchored in the commitment by Heads of State at the EU-Africa Summit in Cairo, held in April 2000, to identify democracy, human rights and good governance as being among an agreed set of eight priority areas for political action. During the first Africa-Europe Ministerial Conference, held in Brussels in October 2001, the issue of trafficking in women and children was further identified as one of the most worrying phenomena in Africa and government representatives expressed their “desire to press ahead with the preparation of an action plan to combat trafficking in human beings, particularly women and children”. The Action Plan is expected to focus on the strengthening of legal frameworks, prevention and combating of trafficking in human beings, protection and support of victims, and collaboration among regions and states. The draft has been discussed at several important meetings with a view to its adoption at the next EU-Africa Summit. The present report is further guided by important political commitments undertaken at the UN Special Session on Children and at the 2nd World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children held in Yokohama in 2001. The research has been developed against background of an absence of reliable estimates regarding the actual levels of trafficking in Africa or, indeed, globally. With regard to Africa there is not a generally accepted perception of the possible levels of trafficking. The research has also had to take account of the dearth of trafficking research and methodology. Research challenges such as these have, however, provided an opportunity to develop and test innovative methods for the gathering and assessment of data. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    281178

    Meeting the challenges of migration: progress since the ICPD.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; United Nations. International Migration Policy Programme

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [2004]. 95 p.

    The migration landscape has changed quite dramatically since 1994. Exacerbated disparities between the North and South, an expanding global economy, geopolitical transformations, wars, ecological disasters, and many other occurrences, have had and continue to have a profound impact on people and on their choices to stay at home or to go abroad. Today, it is estimated that 175 million people live outside their country of birth. Some of the current trends in migration are described in Chapter 1. And, though the figure seems relatively insignificant, constituting just 3 per cent of the world’s population, the field of migration has nevertheless taken on significant importance since the ICPD. As a result, there is a growing interest from governments, organizations, civil society, the private sector and many other groups affected by migration, to look further into how the benefits of migration can be maximized, while minimizing negative effects. Chapter 2 looks into current stages of migration policy development based on regional and international initiatives to strengthen dialogue and understanding in this field. It also takes a preliminary look at the impact that such efforts are having on migration systems (policy and capacities) of countries at the national level. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    276536

    Prostitution: a contempory form of slavery - CATW presentation to the United Nations Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery.

    Leidholdt D

    Coalition Against Trafficking in Women. 1998 May 1; [7] p..

    The Coalition is an international non-governmental organization with regional headquarters and networks in Asia, Latin America, North America, Europe, Africa, and Australia. The Coalition works against all practices of sexual violence and exploitation, including but not limited to rape, incest, intimate violence, prostitution, sex trafficking, sex tourism, mail order bride markets, sexual harassment, pornography, involuntary sterilization and childbearing, female genital mutilation, and temporary marriage or marriage of convenience for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The focus of our work is on sexual exploitation, which we define as the sexual violation of a person's human dignity, equality, and physical or mental integrity and as a practice by which some people (primarily men) achieve power and domination over others (primarily women and children) for the purpose of sexual gratification, financial gain, and/or advancement. The Coalition recognizes that, in order to carry out their practices and achieve their goals, sexual exploiters are facilitated by and make use of long standing social hierarchies, especially the domination of men over women, of adults over children, of rich over poor, of racial and ethnic majorities over racial and ethnic minorities, and of and so called "First World "over so-called "Third World" countries. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    140209

    Traffic in women and girls. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    [Unpublished] 1997 Sep 17. Prepared for the fifty-second session. Item 107 of the provisional agenda: Advancement of Women. 8 p.

    This document contains the 1997 report of the UN Secretary-General on implementation of a 1996 UN resolution calling on all states that are parties to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child to provide the UN with information and statistics on trafficking in women and girls. This report summarizes efforts being taken by the 30 states that responded, by UN agencies, and by other international organizations. National measures described include legal measures to criminalize trafficking, interministerial and interdepartmental cooperation, research and statistic gathering, preventive measures, and enhanced international cooperation. The document then details actions of the UN Commission on the Status of Women; the Commission on Human Rights (and its Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, its working group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, the work of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, and the work of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography); and the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice. After reviewing related actions taken by a Ministerial Conference of the European Union to create a Code to Prevent and Combat Trafficking in Women, the document concludes that there is ample evidence of significant trafficking in women and girls but that more data are needed before effective prevention strategies can be designed and implemented.
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  16. 16
    140213

    Further promotion and encouragement of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the question of the programme and methods of work of the commission. Alternative approaches and ways and means within the United Nations system for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences.

    Coomaraswamy R

    [Unpublished] 1997 Feb 12 36 p. (E/CN.4/1997/47)

    This report of the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women focuses on all forms of violence against women in the community. The introduction briefly reviews the past and projected work of the Rapporteur. Section I defines violence in the community and the role of the community in women's lives, especially in controlling women's sexuality and limiting or supporting women's human rights. Section II reviews international human rights law relating to violence against women, especially that contained in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Section III considers rape and sexual violence against women, including sexual harassment, offering heinous examples from various countries and considering the response of the criminal justice system as well as the legal framework and state strategies to combat rape and sexual violence. Section IV focuses on trafficking in women and forced prostitution, again using specific examples to illustrate the points and considering national laws on trafficking in women and the few noteworthy state strategies to combat trafficking and forced prostitution that have been instituted in response to pressure from nongovernmental organizations. Section V deals with violence against women migrant workers, and Section VI reviews violence resulting from religious extremism. The final section offers general and specific recommendations of actions to end the violence.
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  17. 17
    128286

    The role of the International Labor Organization.

    Boonpala P

    In: Forced labor: the prostitution of children, edited by Maureen Jaffee and Sonia Rosen. Washington, D.C., Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 1996. 53-62.

    Millions of children are being forced to work as prostitutes. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has made a commitment that child prostitution cannot be tolerated, and all efforts must be made to end the practice. That commitment is reflected in ILO Convention 29 on forced labor, adopted in 1930. The convention aims to suppress the use of all forms of forced labor, and states that the illegal exaction of forced or compulsory labor will be punishable as a penal offence. The ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations first specifically addressed the issue of child prostitution in the context of forced labor in its 1985 report. Furthermore, in its 1992 report to the International Labor Conference, the Committee of Experts identified the use of children as one of the worst forms of forced labor, whether in prostitution or pornography. Convention 29 is linked to a number of other international standards. The International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) experience with child prostitution in Thailand, Philippines, and Nepal is described.
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  18. 18
    127269

    UN expert: poverty fuels worldwide trade in women.

    POPULI. 1997 May-Jun; 24(2):6-7.

    Thousands of women worldwide are tricked, obliged, or abducted and sold into bondage and servitude as prostitutes, domestic workers, exploited workers or wives. They are often forced to live and work in conditions similar to slavery. The exploitation of women's bodies and labor has created an international trade system with women going from countries experiencing structural adjustment and/or deforestation to countries with better living standards. Technology, such as the internet, has allowed traders to conduct and expand their business internationally. The International Organization for Migration reports that the trade in women is caused by poverty, the lack of viable economic opportunities, the difference in wealth between countries, and the marginalization of women in their countries of origin. The promotion of tourism as a development strategy has also contributed by encouraging the trade in women for prostitution.
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  19. 19
    087650

    [Resolution No.] 48/156. Need to adopt efficient international measures for the prevention of the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography [20 December 1993].

    United Nations. General Assembly

    RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-EIGHTH SESSION. 1994; 1:279-80.

    On December 20, 1993, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution acknowledging the need to adopt efficient international measures for the prevention of the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography. The resolution opens by recalling relevant international and UN declarations and human rights instruments and by expressing deep concern about the use of children for prostitution; sexual abuse; and practices which may be linked to kidnappings, illegal adoptions, and abductions for commercial purposes. All Governments are urged to support the work of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights who is investigating such practices throughout the world. The Commission on Human Rights is asked to consider constituting a working group to develop guidelines for a possible draft convention on issues related to the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography.
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  20. 20
    087636

    [Resolution No.] 48/102. Prevention of the smuggling of aliens [20 December 1993].

    United Nations. General Assembly

    RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DURING ITS FORTY-EIGHTH SESSION. 1994; 1:214-5.

    On December 20, 1993, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution which addressed the problems involved with the smuggling of aliens and contained measures designed to prevent such smuggling. The resolution notes that criminal organizations are endangering the lives of migrants by convincing them to embark on illegal migration and that such organizations often treat the migrants as slaves in the countries of destination. This criminal activity is costly for all involved. The resolution recalls the 1960 and 1974 International Conventions for the Safety of Life at Sea and requires each State party to the conventions to ensure that no vessel covered by the Conventions be permitted to carry passengers on international voyages unless it meets the safety standards of the convention and that no State party to the Conventions allow a foreign vessel to sail unless it is in compliance with the Conventions. States which are party to the 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery are asked to take steps to abolish the practice of debt bondage.
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