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Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 2014 Jun; 40(6):924-941.This article investigates the complex relationship between the practices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in the field of refugee protection and the more recent political rationality of 'migration management' by drawing from governmentality studies. It is argued that the dissemination of UNHCR's own refugee protection discourse creates certain 'figures of migration' allowing for justifying the build-up and perfection of border controls, which in turn enable any attempt to 'manage' migration in the first place. Conversely, the problematisation of population movements as 'mixed migration flows' allows UNHCR to enlarge its field of activitiy despite its narrow mandate by actively participating in the promotion, planning and implementation of migration management systems. Based on ethnographic research in Turkey and Morocco, this article demonstrates, furthermore, that UNHCR's refugee protection discourse and the emerging migration management paradigm are both based on a methodological nationalism, share an authoritarian potential and yield de-politicising effects. What UNHCR's recent embracing of the migration management paradigm together with its active involvement in respective practices then brings to the fore is that UNHCR is part of a global police of populations.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2013 Jun 19.  p.UNHCR's annual Global Trends report, released today, covers displacement that occurred during 2012 based on data from governments, NGO partners, and the UN refugee agency itself. The report shows that as of the end of 2012, more than 45.2 million people were in situations of displacement compared to 42.5 million at the end of 2011. This includes 15.4 million refugees, 937,000 asylum seekers, and 28.8 million people forced to flee within the borders of their own countries. The report does not include the rise in those forced from their homes in Syria during the current year. War remains the dominant cause. A full 55 percent of all refugees listed in UNHCR's report come from just five war-affected countries: Afghanistan, Somalia, Iraq, Syria and Sudan. The report also charts major new displacement from Mali, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and from Sudan into South Sudan and Ethiopia.
Lancet. 2007 Dec 1; 370(9602):1815-1816.Over 2 million Iraqis have fled from violence in Iraq to neighbouring countries such as Jordan and Syria. But, unable to cope with the influx of refugees and their health and humanitarian needs, these countries are making entry more restrictive. 7-year-old Mohammad sat up in his hospital bed in Amman, Jordan, half his face concealed by thick, white bandages, as his father Salman recounted their tale. In October last year, the family was receiving condolences at a traditional mourning tent outside their Baghdad home for Salman's father, who was killed in sectarian violence because of his past job as an army officer under Saddam Hussein. As the mourners congregated, a car bomb exploded at the nearby market, prompting the panicked family to flee in all directions. Salman's experience as a policeman made him shout out warnings to people nearby but to no avail as a second bomb detonated soon afterwards. (excerpt)
Development and Change. 2007 Sep; 38(5):865-888.A number of programmes and policies in Laos are promoting the internal resettlement of mostly indigenous ethnic minorities from remote highlands to lowland areas and along roads. Various justifications are given for this internal resettlement: eradication of opium cultivation, security concerns, access and service delivery, cultural integration and nation building, and the reduction of swidden agriculture. There is compelling evidence that it is having a devastating impact on local livelihoods and cultures, and that international aid agencies are playing important but varied and sometimes conflicting roles with regard to internal resettlement in Laos. While some international aid agencies claim that they are willing to support internal resettlement if it is 'voluntary', it is not easy to separate voluntary from involuntary resettlement in the Lao context. Both state and non-state players often find it convenient to discursively frame non-villager initiated resettlement as 'voluntary'. (author's)
Africa on the edge. The human toll has been appalling, but is the light at the end of the tunnel a little brighter?
Refugees Magazine. 2003 Jun; (131): p..In an era of short wars, 'controlled' numbers of casualties and sanitized images such as those emerging from Iraq, events in Africa seem almost incomprehensible. Deep in the heart of the Congo basin, some three million people, perhaps many more, perished during an ongoing war described as the deadliest documented conflict in Africa's history. And even as American marines mopped up last pockets of resistance in Baghdad in the full glare of thousands of television cameras, hundreds of people were being slaughtered almost unnoticed in the latest atrocity in one remote corner of the Congo region. During the course of the conflict which began in 1998 and which at times involved six armies from surrounding countries, countless militias and homegrown gangs of thugs, 2.5 million people were ripped from their homes and forced to seek shelter in steaming rain forests and neighbouring states. Angola suffered a similar fate. In a civil war lasting almost three decades, an estimated one million people were killed, and anywhere from three to five million were again uprooted from their ancestral villages and towns. They trudged across a destroyed landscape from one temporary sanctuary to another, often forced to eat berries and roots to survive and in constant danger of being killed or maimed, not only by the combatants, but also from millions of mines which made one of the continent's richest countries a vast and deadly booby trap. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2006;  p..The Movement of people across national borders is a phenomenon increasingly relevant to global public policy. Yet, although international migration affects millions of people all over the world and has crucial repercussions on the balances in and between States, deep analyses and adequate discussions of migration-related issues are often pushed to the side of political debates. In many cases, States have found themselves unable to deal with sudden changes or developments in the field of migration. The need for a global response ends up being handled at either the national or local level and in a closed manner, as the issue is often considered "too political" to be dealt with at the international level. As a result, immigration policies are often considered just a matter of elaborated legal mechanisms that exclude illegal and unauthorized migrants from national territories. A coordinated policy framework dealing with the rights of people moving across borders, supported by an international migration institution able to take and implement effective decisions, is therefore of utmost importance. (excerpt)
Rwanda: over 1 million refugees return in last half of 1996 - includes related articles on Rwanda's food economy and Women's Collective. [Rwanda : plus d'un million de réfugiés de retour au pays au cours de la deuxième moitié de l'année 1996 - selon des indications issues d'articles portant sur l'économie alimentaire du Rwanda et le Collectif des femmes]
UN Chronicle. 1996 Winter; 33(4): p..An estimated 1.3 million refugees returned to Rwanda between July 1996 and the beginning of January 1997, according to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Out of that total, an estimated 720,000 came back from camps in Zaire after the intensification of hostilities in the eastern part of that country in August and September. The overwhelming majority returned in November. A further exodus of refugees - this time from the United Republic of Tanzania - began later in the year and ended in early January 1997, bringing another 485,000 Rwandans home. Since July, 88,000 refugees have also returned from Burundi, with several thousand others coming from Uganda. The Secretary-General's Special Envoy for the Great Lakes region, Raymond Chretien of Canada, said on 13 December the realization that a temporary multinational humanitarian force might be deployed on the ground, following the Security Council's authorization of such a force on 15 November (S/RES/1080(1996)), had "accelerated tremendously the return of refugees". Speaking to the press at United Nations Headquarters, he called it "an indication that the international community could make a difference if it had the will to do so". (excerpt)
Commission acts on housing issues: children's rights, refugee strategy considered - United Nations Commission on Human Settlements - includes information on plans for 1996 HABITAT II conference.
UN Chronicle. 1995 Sep; 32(3): p..With children making up 40 per cent of the world's population, the Commission declared that mechanisms should be developed to protect their housing rights and called for an expert seminar on that subject, as well as further consideration of the issue at its next session, to be held in 1997. Other resolutions dealt with: the participation of women in human settlements development; aid to countries with economies in transition; strengthening efforts in Latin America and the Caribbean; and issues related to urban environment. Outgoing Commission Chairman David Johansson of Finland recalled that two major themes for the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II) - to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, in June 1996 - were sustainable human settlements in an urbanizing world and adequate shelter for all. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2005 Nov; (24):51-52.With 1.5 million IDPs expected to return home by the end of 2006 and the imminent return of refugees from neighbouring countries whose rates of HIV/AIDS prevalence greatly exceed Sudan’s estimated 2.6%, the impact of the pandemic could spread. Abu Bakr A Waziri, HIV/AIDS project manager of UNFPA, warns that “…the situation will be very grim if the necessary measures are not taken from now, as the returnees coming from these infected areas will intermingle with the people in their new area.” (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2005 Nov; (24):61.The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) reports that there are currently 1,100 vehicles used by the 81 agencies meeting the needs of over two million displaced people in Darfur. Are the vehicles the right type to do the job as safely and reliably as possible? How should they be maintained in a place where there are no garages or mechanics trained to service imported high-tech trucks? Do drivers understand how to use their vehicles in the very insecure environment along roads – if they exist at all – that are among the worst in the world? If more attention were paid to the procurement, management and maintenance of vehicle fleets, could agencies use fewer vehicles and ensure they are not worn out after two years – the estimated life-span of trucks used in the rigorous Darfur conditions? (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2005 Nov; (24):42.Provision of services along the whole returnee route is critical to the return process: at points of displacement (such as Khartoum and Kosti IDP camps and squatter areas), at key transition points which IDPs will pass through to return home (Kosti ferry embarkation) and at destination points (such as Northern Upper Nile and the Nuba mountains). Most of the IDPs have been displaced for 20 years. Many who have grown up in Khartoum can no longer speak their native language – potentially problematic for reintegration in their home areas. In addition, through isolation from their communities and interaction with other ethnic groups and cultures, they have lost knowledge of traditional customs and have adopted new traditions and customs. One prime example of this is food. Many IDPs returning from the North may not have had access to foods grown in the South and no longer know how to prepare them. To remedy this, one of FAR’s activities is organising cooking demonstrations – especially for young girls who have grown up and married in the North – focusing on foods grown in southern Sudan. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNIFEM, 2004 Oct.  p.Disarmament is the collection of small arms and light and heavy weapons within a conflict zone. It frequently entails the assembly and cantonment of combatants; it should also comprise the development of arms management programmes, including the safe storage and final disposition of weapons, which may entail their destruction. De-mining may also be part of this process. Demobilization refers to the process by which parties to a conflict begin to disband their military structures and combatants begin the transformation into civilian life. It generally entails registration of former combatants; some kind of assistance to enable them to meet their immediate basic needs; discharge; and transportation to their home communities. It may be followed by recruitment into a new, unified military force. Reintegration refers to the process which allows ex-combatants and their families to adapt, economically and socially, to productive civilian life. It generally entails the provision of a package of cash or in-kind compensation, training and job- and income-generating projects. These measures frequently depend for their effectiveness upon other, broader undertakings, such as assistance to returning refugees and internally displaced persons; economic development at the community and national level; infrastructure rehabilitation; truth and reconciliation efforts; and institutional reform. Enhancement of local capacity is often crucial for the long-term success of reintegration. (excerpt)
Reproductions. 1999 Apr; (2): p..India has several Central and State enactment with regard to children. These legislations pertain to guardianship, adoption, maintenance, custody, child labour and other related issues. Despite these enactment, laws enacted to protect children and their rights are repeatedly violated. Politicians are by and large indifferent towards children, as children do not form part of the Vote Bank. Children should be seen as the subject of rights and not as commodities. Society till recently were silent watchers and the main abettors of crime against children. The situation is gradually changing due to international pressure and awareness generated amongst the public with regard to "child rights." It is essential that a child enjoys an environment conducive to healthy growth and development. An abused child is mal-adjusted for the rest of her life. Dr. (Ms.) Sarla Gotala who headed the Indian delegation to the Stockholm World Congress against the commercial sexual exploitation of children held in 1996 has rightly stated: "We must help create an environment for the child particularly the rightly stated: We must help create and environment for the child particularly the girl child, to grow free without fetters." (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2005 May; (23):48-49.The conceptual apparatus in forced migration and population resettlement research is being continuously enriched. One important – but still relatively unknown – development was introduced recently into the resettlement policies of the World Bank, African Development Bank and Asian Development Bank. This new thinking is set out in the revised (January 2002) World Bank Operational Policy (OP) 4.12 on resettlement. This significantly defines the ‘restricting of access’ to indigenous and other people in parks and protected areas as ‘involuntary displacement’ even when physical displacement and relocation are not required. The justifying rationale is that restrictions impose impoverishment risks and these risks lead to severe deprivations. Significantly, this new definition has come from major international agencies themselves involved in instituting ‘restricted access’ regimes. As the definition has been adopted, the world’s major development agencies have moved towards policy consensus that restricted access is a form of displacement. (excerpt)
Annan addresses European Parliament on migration and accepts Andrei Sakharov prize for freedom of thought.
Population 2005. 2004 Jun; 6(2):10-11.I am deeply touched that you have honored my friend and colleague, Sergio Vieira de Mello, and the many other U.N. staff who have lost their lives in working for peace in the world. I am proud to accept the Andrei Sakharov Prize in memory of them. This Prize for Freedom of Thought is not only a worthy recognition of the ultimate sacrifice that they made in the cause of peace. It is also a welcome acknowledge of the kinds of people they were. The brave men and women we lost in Baghdad on 19 August – U.N. staff and others – were free spirits and free thinkers and also soldiers of humanity and of peace. Earlier, President Cox and I met some of the survivors of the attack, and family members of those who were killed or injured, and, as you know, they are with us in the Chamber now. I thank them for joining us today, and I accept this Prize in their name too. (excerpt)
Learning lessons from IDP resettlement: villagisation in north-west Rwanda. [Enseignements à tirer de la réintégration des personnes intérieurement déplacées : villagisation au nord-ouest du Rwanda]
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):23-25.Analysis of how the international community provided uncritical support for Rwanda's controversial villagisation policy highlights the need to improve protection for resettling IDPs, think more seriously about sustainable integration and improve inter-agency cooperation. Following the rapid return to Rwanda of over one million refugees from the Democratic Republic of the Congo at the end of 1996, soldiers who had been responsible for genocide launched an insurgency in northwest Rwanda. The Rwandan army used brutal tactics to fight the rebels, killing, torturing and arbitrarily detaining hundreds of civilians. Violence employed by both parties led to a humanitarian crisis and extensive internal displacement. By the end of 1998, some 630,000 people - half the population of north-west Rwanda - were displaced. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):33.An Oxfam GB initiative to improve understanding of the concerns and expectations of Liberian ex-combatants offers lessons for sustainable reintegration assistance. In preparation for working in post-conflict communities in several areas of Liberia, Oxfam GB consulted a sample of civilians, displaced persons and current and ex-combatants (using this category in its broadest sense to include anyone associated with the fighting factions - including porters, cooks and 'wives'). Oxfam also consulted those with experience of providing services to ex-combatants during a previous disarmament process in 1996-97. Focus group and individual interviews identified local preconditions for sustainable return. All those interviewed said they would not want to return home with their families unless combatants were disarmed. They also called for the deployment of UN soldiers in villages of return, reintegration packages, shelter reconstruction materials, free and fair elections and education opportunities. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):26-27.The Burundi government and the international community have failed to recognise the scale of the problems to be overcome in order to ensure the sustainable return and resettlement of refugees and IDPs. Since the assassination in 1993 of Burundi's first democratically elected leader it is estimated that 300,000 Burundians have died as a result of conflict between the government and Hutu rebel groups seeking to put an end to the political dominance of the Tutsi minority. One in seven Burundians has been forced to leave home. Some 800,000 fled abroad, primarily to Tanzania. Many others, predominantly Hutus, were forcibly displaced ('regrouped', according to the language of social engineering employed by the Tutsi-dominated government) into squalid camps. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):34-36.Afghanistan has developed a national IDP plan but, without resources, is failing to assist those who comprise three-quarters of the country's remaining IDP population - the Kuchi nomads. In early 2004 it seemed that ethnic-based persecution and drought - the two main drivers of internal displacement in Afghanistan - had abated. Due to significant levels of return (and a stricter redefinition of what makes somebody an IDP rather than an economic migrant) an internally displaced population that had peaked at over one million in 2001 had been reduced to under 200,000. However, finding solutions for the remaining displaced population is fraught with complex obstacles. As the attention of the international community moves away from humanitarian assistance to development, the needs of IDPs are no longer a priority. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):30-32.An evaluation of recent UNICEF support to child disarmament demobilization and reintegration (DDR) in southern Sudan analyses the impact of different ways of addressing demobilization, care, return and reintegration of children formerly associated with the lighting forces' (CAFF). International child protection agencies used to plan the return and reintegration of CAFF separately from other was-affected and vulnerable children and youth. Increasingly, such planning trends to be merged within a broader framework for a range of vulnerable children and youth. In 2001-2003 some 20,000 children were removed in two phases from the armed forces of the main southern Sudanese rebel groups, the Sudan People Liberation Army (SPLA) and the Sudan People's Democratic Front (SPDF). During the UNICEF-managed first phase, 3,551 children were demobilised from northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and evacuated to Rumbek where they remained in eight transit centres for six months before being returned to their homes. Responsibility for the second phase was transferred to the SPLA and SPDF. Approximately 16,500 children were locally demobilised and reunited with their families without the use of interim care or provision of individual reintegration packages. The relative success of the second phase demonstrated that a decentralized approach to demobilisation, undertaken simultaneously in many locations and using local staff who had received only essential training, could be made to work - and without recourse to interim care. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2004 Sep; (21):39-41.By the end of 2001, an estimated 1.3 million people were displaced in 14 of Indonesia's 28 provinces, mainly as a result of a wave of conflicts that erupted or intensified following the 1997 financial crisis and the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998. The eruption of these conflicts was linked to the more general conditions of political instability and change in the post-Suharto years and the initiation of a vast process of political reform and decentralisation. Conflicts in Indonesia have been distinctly regional, with their own particular dynamics. Social conflict crystallised along religious lines in the Maluku provinces and Central Sulawesi. Ethnic conflict between indigenous Dayaks, Madurese migrants and Malays erupted in West and Central Kalimantan. The long- standing struggle with the militant separatist movement in Aceh also intensified. The overall caseload of displaced persons additionally includes East Timorese whose numbers, at their peak, reached 290,000 people. Once East Timor seceded from Indonesia, these people became internationally recognised as refugees, although Indonesia regards them as Indonesian citizens eligible for ressettlement in Indonesia. Since 2001, the level of violent conflict across the country has reduced significantly. Positive developments in most areas have created conditions conducive for addressing the IDP situation. However, recent episodes of violence in Maluku and Central Sulawesi demonstrate that significant risks remain and that there is potential for new displacement. (excerpt)
RNIS. Report on the Nutrition Situation of Refugees and Displaced Populations. 2003 Jan; (40):29-30.The nutrition situation of the Liberian refugees in south Sierra Leone was precarious in August 2002 (category II/III). However, it is hoped that stabilization in the number of refugees has allowed an improvement in their living conditions since that time. (excerpt)
The impact of refugee flows on countries of asylum and the challenge of refugee assistance. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
In: Population distribution and migration. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution and Migration, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 18-22 January 1993. Convened in preparation for the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994, compiled by United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1998. 392-6. (ST/ESA/SER.R/133)With the dissolution of colonial empires and the outbreak of local and regional conflicts in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the entire focus of the refugee problem changed. In areas where refugees have settled spontaneously in sufficient numbers to justify intervention by the international community, assistance has been provided by reinforcing the local infrastructure, especially by building schools, dispensaries, or access roads. The feasibility of rural settlement programs depends entirely on the willingness of the country of asylum to make land available and, of course, to accept the prolonged and sometimes the permanent presence of refugee communities in its midst. In return, the receiving country receives assistance in opening up for agricultural activities large tracts of land that might otherwise have remained fallow. However, not every country of asylum offers, or is in a position to offer, rural settlement opportunities to refugees. In such circumstances, refugees have no choice but to live in camps or villages. Their large numbers can seriously disrupt the local administrative infrastructure, communications, and market economy, without producing any significant benefits. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) carries on all types of activities in an effort to alleviate the adverse impact of the presence of large numbers of refugees in poor countries of asylum.
In: All of us. Births and a better life: population, development and environment in a globalized world. Selections from the pages of the Earth Times, edited by Jack Freeman and Pranay Gupte. New York, New York, Earth Times Books, 1999. 386-9.This article discusses two programs of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) to provide assistance to qualified professionals from war-torn countries who live as refugees in other countries. One, operational since 1996, is the Return of Qualified Nationals Program (RQN). It targets highly qualified Bosnian professionals whose skills are vital for the reconstruction and development of the country. By September 1998 it had placed 500 people by putting them in touch with prospective employers and providing a travel allowance and limited housing assistance. Employers are also given incentives to hire qualified refugees in the form of a 1-year limited subsidy per candidate hired. The employer can consult with the candidate about equipment needed, for which the IOM will pay. The second IOM program is the Economic Revitalization and Employment Generation Program, funded by the European Union. Similar to the RQN, this program combines the placement of qualified professionals with the physical rehabilitation of such places as schools, hospitals, and health centers. When the fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina ended in 1995, there were more than 1.3 million refugees and 1 million internally displaced people. By mid-1997 only about 250,000 had returned home -- almost exclusively to areas where they belonged to the majority group. Ethnic cleansing and population shifts have given displaced people the unhappy choice of returning to their homes as minorities or giving up all claims to their homes to remain with their ethnic group as a majority.
The right and access for all to housing and to the city. Contribution to Habitat II from French associations of international solidarity.
Paris, France, Centre de Recherche et d'Information pour le Developpement, 1995 Nov. 8 p.This paper was prepared, discussed, and adopted by a working group representing most associations of international solidarity (AIS) working in France and in partnership with associations in Europe and countries of the South, on living conditions and urban development. AIS supports the principles of sustainability, equality, citizenship, and solidarity. They believe that translating these principles into urban development strategies and programs would make it possible to achieve the two main aims announced by the UN in the context of Habitat II: adequate housing for all and sustainable human settlements. The inventory drawn up by AIS is the result of observations made during their practical experience at local level and with regard to their principles. This inventory on housing and the urban scene can be drawn up at four levels: local, national, geopolitical regional, and global. The proposals of AIS are organized around eight themes: partnership; institutional framework; specific methods and policies; AIS projects and interventions; national policies on housing, habitat, and the city; strategies and interventions by national institutions; the international system; and relations with other actors such as municipalities, researchers, experts and professionals, administrations, companies and the economic sector, cooperation agencies, international institutions, residents' associations, popular movements, and trade unions.