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Final report of the UNESCO Asian Regional Planning Seminar on AIDS and Education within the School System, 10-14 January 1994, New Delhi. Convened by UNESCO's Programme of Education for the Prevention of AIDS and the Education Programme of the UNESCO Regional Office for Science and Technology for South and Central Asia, in collaboration with the Division of Health Promotion and Education, WHO, the Global Programme on AIDS, WHO, the International Union for Health Promotion and Education, and the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 1994. , 55 p. (ED.95/WS.4)The UNESCO Asian Regional Planning Seminar on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Education Within the School System, held in New Delhi, India, in 1994, was the first of a series of such seminars aimed at high-level representatives of Ministries of Health and Education as well as nongovernmental organizations. Although participating countries such as Thailand, the Philippines, and Nepal reported on plans to integrate AIDS prevention material into school curricula, the lack of a clear policy to guide such initiatives was noted and few countries have been able to involve teachers' associations in training activities. Obstacles identified included parental and cultural constraints, shortages of trained teachers and materials, and low school enrollment. Implementation of successful AIDS education programs has been easiest in countries with existing school-based sex education. Recommended was a curriculum that balances basic knowledge about AIDS, compassion and support for those infected with the virus, and the acquisition of risk-reduction skills and practices. A consensus statement adopted at the seminar urges every country in the region to develop a clear written policy on AIDS education by the end of 1994. Governments are urged to support this strategy through the allocation of adequate technical and financial resources.
CAIRO EXAMINER. 1994 Autumn; 15-7.When the current Nicaraguan administration came into office in 1990, following the defeat of the Sandinista regime, a well-established sex education program, funded by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), was already in place in Nicaragua. The program focused upon teaching adolescents the wisdom of contraceptives, teaching them to know and use them, and presenting sexuality and sexual behavior in a positive light as long as pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases are prevented. If these two latter conditions were met, then all types of sexual activity were deemed acceptable. The program was justified by Nicaraguans and UN staff involved in the effort as a means of tackling Nicaragua's main problem, rapid population growth. The author, Minister of Education in Nicaragua since 1990, opposed condom distribution in schools. He describes the UNFPA's agenda and population policy.
VACCINE WEEKLY. 1994 Dec 19; 12-3.According to a United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) report, which evaluated progress toward fulfillment of the 29 recommendations of the Childhood Pact signed in 1993 by 22 of Brazil's 27 provincial governors, large-scale vaccination programs have been successful while attempts to improve education have not. The pact covered the rights of children and adolescents, the reduction of infant mortality, and improved health and education services. Massive vaccination efforts have eradicated polio from Brazil and reduced measles from 23,000 cases in 1992 to 124 cases in 1993 and 14 cases, to date, in 1994. However, 77% of primary school students are over the expected age for their educational level; plans to increase literacy among adolescents who lack primary education were frustrated, and teacher's strikes in many states cut into their time with students. In 1993, classes were suspended in 10 states to protest poor salaries and a lack of respect for teachers, another issue to be addressed by the pact. Provision of lunches for at least 180 days of the year in order to prevent malnutrition and boost school attendance in the poorest areas was also in the pact, but 17 of the 22 states which signed the pact have yet to do implement lunch programs. UNICEF, the executive secretary of the pact, has released a document, "Expectations for 1995-1998," suggesting renewal of the pact in combination with other measures to ensure the survival and development of Brazil's children.
School health education to prevent AIDS and STD. A resource package for curriculum planners. Teachers' guide.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, WHO, 1994. , 117 p. (WHO/GPA/TCO/PRV/94.6c)This manual--part of a three-volume resource package prepared by WHO and UNESCO to guide the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education programs for students 12-16 years of age--presents guidelines for teachers. The overall goal of AIDS education is to promote behaviors that prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) through the learning of behavioral and communication skills. The educational program is comprised of four units: basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS/STDs, responsible behavior: delaying sexual intercourse, responsible behavior: protected sex, and care and support for people with AIDS. 53 student activities have been developed to support this curriculum; most are based on a participatory approach and present hypothetical situations of relevance to the lives of young people. Detailed information is provided for teachers on the rationale for this curriculum, seven appropriate teaching methods, creating a classroom atmosphere that promotes openness and acceptance, use of peer leaders, participation of parents and family members, test items for student evaluation, and typical questions about HIV/AIDS/STDs. In addition, the teacher's role in each of the student activities is described. Two companion volumes focus on guidelines for curriculum planners and the student activities.
School health education to prevent AIDS and STD. A resource package for curriculum planners. Students' activities.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, WHO, 1994. , 79 p. (WHO/GPA/TCO/PRV/94.6b)This manual--part of a three-volume resource package designed by WHO and UNESCO to guide the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for students aged 12-16 years--presents 53 student activities for use in such a program. The goal of AIDS education is to promote behavior that prevents the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The proposed program is comprised of four units: basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS/STDs, responsible behavior: delaying sexual intercourse, responsible behavior: protected sex, and care and support for those with AIDS. At completion, students should be able to differentiate between HIV, AIDS, and STDs; identify modes of HIV transmission; rank methods of HIV/STD prevention for effectiveness; identify sources of help in the community; discuss reasons for delaying sexual intercourse or, if already sexually active, using condoms; respond assertively to pressures to have sexual intercourse or unprotected sex; identify ways of showing compassion for those with HIV/AIDS; and care for people with AIDS in the family and community. The activity sheets include comic-style graphics that illustrate hypothetical situations and examples of pro-active AIDS-related behaviors; the emphasis is on participatory education, known to be most effective for the teaching of behavioral skills to young people. Two companion volumes focus on guidelines for curriculum planners and teachers.
School health education to prevent AIDS and STD. A resource package for curriculum planners. Handbook for curriculum planners.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, WHO, 1994. , 88 p. (WHO/GPA/TCO/PRV/94.6a)The effort to provide young people with school-based acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education has been hindered in many cases by a lack of examples of curricula, learning materials, and classroom activities. To overcome this obstacle, WHO and UNESCO have prepared a resource package for the teaching of behavioral skills to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among young people ages 12-16 years. This manual, intended for curriculum planners, outlines an educational model comprised of four units: basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, reasons for and communication skills germane to delaying sexual intercourse, information on condom use, and care and compassion for people with AIDS. Included are guidelines on the 10 steps in developing an AIDS education curriculum--situation assessment, defining the type of program, selecting objectives, the curriculum plan, planning for material production, developing student activities, developing the teachers' guide, validating the curriculum, teacher training, and program evaluation, sample materials for teacher training and introducing the curriculum to parents, and instruments for program evaluation. It is stressed that AIDS education is most effective when supported by community involvement and integrated into existing health, sex, or family life education programs. Two companion volumes focus on student activities and guidelines for teachers.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, Section for Preventive Education, 1994. , 45 p. (ED-95/WS-5)Education is universally accepted as the most effective weapon in the struggle to curtail the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), yet there has been relatively little systematic research on ways the educational system must change to deliver effective AIDS prevention messages or on the potential impact of AIDS on the process and quality of education. This paper, based primarily on a review of literature from sub-Saharan Africa, synthesizes current knowledge of these issues. It is noted that AIDS-related mortality and demoralization have already reduced the numbers of students and teachers in sub-Saharan Africa, adding to the randomness of education and exacerbating problems of human resource development. As educational systems become increasingly affected by AIDS, there will be a need to broaden social and educational objectives, create more flexibility in operations and strategies, alter the types of knowledge and skills transmitted, and develop more systematic planning and evaluation methods. The training of educational planners and managers must be expanded to include techniques for the open discussion of sensitive issues such as sexual behavior, awareness of the importance of the human rights of teachers and students infected with AIDS, understanding of the potential impact of AIDS on development issues such as female education, the ability to anticipate future trends, and a willingness to collaborate at all levels of the system.