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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    School feeding, school reform, and food security: Connecting the dots.

    Levinger B

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(2 Suppl 2):S170-S178.

    Universal access to basic education is a prerequisite for long-term food security, which, in turn, is critical to achieving the Millennium Development goals. This paper examines how Food for Education interventions can contribute to improved food security, improved education outcomes, and a broader set of development goals. Food for Education entails the distribution of food commodities to children who attend school. The commodities may be locally grown and purchased or contributed by aid donors. The food may be consumed by students in school snack, breakfast, or lunch programs. Alternatively, it may be given as a take-home ration for consumption by a family that regularly sends "at-risk" children (usually girls) to school. Four interrelated ideas are discussed: (1) the universalization of primary school education is a prerequisite for food security (defined here as availability of, access to, and proper biologic utilization of food supplies); (2) Food for Education boosts primary school participation and, therefore, food security; (3) the effects of primary school education on food security are greatest wherever "quality standards" are met, although important effects are present even when education quality is modest; and (4) efforts to improve primary education participation (demand) and efforts to improve primary education quality (supply) are highly interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Food for Education is a versatile resource that can be used to address a broad range of issues related to both education supply and demand. To be effective, Food for Education interventions must reflect local education supply and demand realities. (author's)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluation of the Food and Agriculture Organization's global school-based nutrition education initiative, Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger (FMFH), in schools of Hyderabad, India.

    Rao GM; Rao DR; Venkaiah K; Dube AK; Rameshwar KV

    Public Health Nutrition. 2006 Dec; 9(8):991-995.

    The objective was to assess the efficacy of the Food and Agriculture Organization's global school-based nutrition education initiative, Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger (FMFH), in improving nutrition-related knowledge levels of schoolchildren. Design: Adopting the cluster randomisation technique, five schools each in experimental and control groups were randomly chosen from the member schools of a voluntary organisation. Repeated measures of knowledge levels were carried out at three points in time to assess pre-, post-intervention and retention of knowledge gained during the intervention. Children from experimental schools were given nutrition education by teachers in the classroom setting using FMFH material. Subjects/settings: Schoolchildren (n = 358 in the control group and n = 312 in the experimental group) of grades VIII and IX from schools in Hyderabad, India. The classroom-based intervention resulted in a significant improvement (P < 0.01) in nutrition knowledge levels of schoolchildren in the experimental group. Significant improvement in knowledge was also observed in the control group. The effect size indicated that the improvement in knowledge levels of schoolchildren in experimental schools over control schools was medium (d = 0.40), indicating the efficacy of the FMFH programme in improving nutrition-related knowledge. No significant decrease (P > 0.05) in knowledge levels was observed after 2 months, indicating retention of the knowledge acquired through the intervention. The FMFH programme provides an opportunity for schoolchildren to learn more about nutrition through their teachers in a classroom setting if the lesson plans are adapted to the local circumstances. Furthermore, it has the potential to make nutrition education interactive, effective and sustainable. (author's)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluating health-promoting schools in Hong Kong: development of a framework.

    Lee A; Cheng FF; St Leger L

    Health Promotion International. 2005 Jun; 20(2):177-186.

    Health-promoting schools (HPS)/healthy schools have existed internationally for about 15 years. Yet there are few comprehensive evaluation frameworks available which enable the outcomes of HPS initiatives to be assessed. This paper identifies an evaluation framework developed in Hong Kong. The framework uses a range of approaches to explore what schools actually do in their health promotion and health education initiatives. The framework, which is based on the WHO (Western Pacific Regional Office) Guidelines for HPS, is described in detail. The appropriate instruments for data collection are described and their origins identified. The evaluation plan and protocol, which underpinned the very comprehensive evaluation in Hong Kong, are explained. Finally, a case is argued for evaluation of HPS to be more in line with the educational dynamics of schools and the research literature on effective schooling, rather than focusing primarily on health-related measures. (author's)
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  4. 4

    Reaching Kenyan youth with HIV messages in school.

    Taravella S

    Arlington, Virginia, Family Health International [FHI], Institute for HIV / AIDS, 2005. 6 p. (Snapshots from the Field; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-97-00017-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse Doc ID / Order No. PN-ADE-597)

    Nuru is an upbeat 17-year-old Kenyan who is well-liked and has many friends. The daughter of a trucker, she lives in a boarding-school, where she has come to know other young people from different parts of the country, different classes and different tribes. Known for her good judgment, Nuru has abstained from sexual activity and is something of a role model for her younger friend, Janet. But Nuru's boyfriend Leon, a soccer player at the school, recently left Nuru for the more free spirited Angel. Angel, who once had sex with a teacher to improve her grades, is kept by a sugar-daddy--who happens to be Janet's father. In a recent six-month period, Leon had sex with six different people and has since become HIV positive. In the teenagers' skittish community, this prompted some to question aloud whether Leon should continue playing team sports or whether another player could even safely wear Leon's jersey. Meanwhile, Nuru's friend Oscar is facing his own HIV dilemma as he adjusts to living with his HIV-positive uncle. In many ways, Nuru and her circle of friends define the challenges of adolescence for young Kenyans. The challenges are very real, but Nuru and her friends are not: Nuru (meaning light in Swahili), Janet, Leon, Oscar and Angel are all characters in a popular comic book series. The Nuru comic books have proven remarkably effective at reaching young people with health messages they may not hear in other ways. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Helminth control in school-age children. A guide for managers of control programmes.

    Montresor A; Crompton DW; Gyorkos TW; Savioli L

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. viii, 64, [4] p.

    This book is a guide for planners and programme managers in the health and education sectors who are responsible for implementing community-based programmes for control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and schistosome infections in school-age populations. The book describes a common and cost-effective approach whereby periodic parasitological surveys in a sample of the school population are used to select the appropriate control strategy for the whole community. An alternative approach, which relies on individual diagnosis and treatment, has been used with success in the rapidly evolving economies of Japan and the Republic of Korea, but is not discussed here. Key elements of guidelines previously published by WHO—Guidelines for the evaluation of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis at community level and Monitoring helminth control programmes are brought together in this book, with a third component on planning and budgeting. The book is intended to help managers to plan, implement, and monitor worm control programmes using methods based on the best current experience. It covers the following topics: programme design; delivery of drugs to schools and treatment of children; collection of data for programme evaluation; obtaining the needed materials. (excerpt)
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