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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluating health-promoting schools in Hong Kong: development of a framework.

    Lee A; Cheng FF; St Leger L

    Health Promotion International. 2005 Jun; 20(2):177-186.

    Health-promoting schools (HPS)/healthy schools have existed internationally for about 15 years. Yet there are few comprehensive evaluation frameworks available which enable the outcomes of HPS initiatives to be assessed. This paper identifies an evaluation framework developed in Hong Kong. The framework uses a range of approaches to explore what schools actually do in their health promotion and health education initiatives. The framework, which is based on the WHO (Western Pacific Regional Office) Guidelines for HPS, is described in detail. The appropriate instruments for data collection are described and their origins identified. The evaluation plan and protocol, which underpinned the very comprehensive evaluation in Hong Kong, are explained. Finally, a case is argued for evaluation of HPS to be more in line with the educational dynamics of schools and the research literature on effective schooling, rather than focusing primarily on health-related measures. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Promoting health through schools. Report of a WHO Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion


    The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion, which met in September 1995, formulated recommendations for policy and programmatic measures that WHO, other UN agencies, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations could apply to enable schools to meet their full potential to improve the health of children, families, and communities. Since 71% of the developing world's population completes at least 4 years of primary schooling, the formal education system represents an ideal channel for health promotion. Moreover, good health is a key factor in school entry, attendance, and performance. Health issues schools can address include HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases, violence, unintended pregnancy and reproductive health, nutrition, sanitation and water control, immunization, oral health, malaria, respiratory infections, psychological problems, and alcohol and tobacco use. Health-promoting schools must provide enhanced access to services within the school and referral to the extended health system, identify and implement specific health interventions best carried out through schools, and integrate preventive and curative measures. The messages of school health programs must be reinforced by community organizations, families, and the media. Among the Committee's recommendations for school health programs are the following: expanded investment in education, especially for girls; creation of school environments that do not threaten physical and emotional health; critical health and life skills curricula; more effective use of schools as an entry point for health promotion and location for health interventions; mobilization and coordination of resources at the local, national, and international levels to support school health programs; collaboration between the school and community; and ongoing program monitoring and evaluation to ensure desired outcomes.
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  3. 3

    Health promoting schools.

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1998 Jul-Aug; 24(4):19-20.

    Promoting the health of children through schools has long been an important task of the WHO. Guided by the recommendations of the Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion, the Initiative seeks to strengthen health promotion and education activities at the local, national, regional, and global levels. It aims to increase the number of schools that can truly be called "Health-Promoting Schools". The four strategies undertaken by WHO in creating Health-Promoting Schools are: 1) strengthening the ability to advocate for improved school health programs, 2) creating networks and alliances for the development of Health-Promoting Schools, 3) strengthening national capacities, and 4) research to improve school health program. Finally, WHO recognizes that the success of the Global School Health Initiative lies on the extent to which partnerships can be formed at local, national, and international levels.
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