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  1. 1

    HIV / AIDS prevention among youth: What works?

    Zewdie D; Vollmer G; McGinnis L; de Beyer J

    Youth Development Notes. 2006 Nov; 2(1):1-4.

    Young people are at the heart of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Not only are they disproportionately represented in terms of new infections, but they are also key to overcoming the disease. Effective HIV prevention efforts that focus on youth are crucial to reversing the pandemic. The World Bank is one of the largest official financiers of HIV/AIDS programs in the world, with over $2.7 billion committed for HIV/AIDS prevention, care, support and treatment since 1988. A recent review of Bank projects related to HIV/AIDS (1999-2004) reveals that over 40% include specific youth components, and virtually all include youth as a target group. This note summarizes the growing body of evidence of what works to prevent HIV/AIDS among youth in developing countries. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Linking EDUCAIDS with other on-going initiatives. An overview of opportunities. An assessment of challenges.

    Visser-Valfrey M

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2006 Oct. 43 p. (ED-2006/WS/65; CLD-29608)

    This paper was commissioned by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to review the linkages and synergies between EDUCAIDS, the UNAIDS Global Initiative on Education and HIV & AIDS, and other initiatives in the field of HIV and AIDS. EDUCAIDS is one of UNESCO's three core Education for All (EFA) initiatives and focuses specifically on supporting national governments and their partners in developing comprehensive and scaled-up education sector responses to HIV and AIDS, with the dual objective of preventing the spread of HIV through education and of protecting education systems against the worst effects of the epidemic. This paper documents the similarities and differences between EDUCAIDS and selected initiatives, identifies current and potential links, and provides recommendations on how synergies and linkages can be strengthened. The analysis in this review was done on the basis of a document review and interviews with partners from the majority of the initiatives selected by UNESCO for this study. Five kinds of initiatives were reviewed. The first concerns programmes that have been put in place with a specific focus on HIV and AIDS. The second includes examples of initiatives with a broader focus (such as promoting sustainable development and enhancing school health) and which, through their activities, address a number of priority areas, including HIV & AIDS and education. The third is constituted by 'thematic initiatives' which address HIV and AIDS from a particular defined priority, for example by focusing on children. These initiatives include education as one of their strategies. The fourth kind of initiative concerns frameworks for operation at country level such as the 'Three Ones', the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) and the UN country teams on HIV and AIDS. Finally, the analysis also considers the synergies and differences between EDUCAIDS and the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Education. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    EDUCAIDS: towards a comprehensive education sector response. A framework for action.

    UNESCO; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2006 Sep. 27 p.

    Steady progress has been made in recent years in efforts to achieve Education for All (EFA), but about 100 million children are still not enrolled in primary school, 55 percent of them girls. HIV and AIDS are among the key factors exerting pressure on education systems and students in the regions with the greatest EFA challenges. Halting the spread of HIV is not only a Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in itself (Goal 6), but is a prerequisite for reaching the others including Goal 2 (achieving universal primary education) and Goal 3 (promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women). The AIDS epidemic is increasingly recognised to be one of the most serious threats to global stability and progress. Adult HIV prevalence has reached 40 percent in parts of Southern Africa, and the virus is spreading rapidly in a number of regions, from West and Central Africa to Eastern Europe, from Asia (notably China and India) to Latin America and the Caribbean. The impact of AIDS is also magnified because the disease primarily strikes adults, particularly young adults, who drive economic growth and raise the next generation. Close to 39 million people are estimated to be living with HIV, and the global AIDS epidemic is responsible for the deaths of 25 million, 2.8 million in the last year alone. HIV is unravelling hard-won development gains and is having a crippling effect on future prospects. Unless strong action is taken, particularly in massively expanded and intensified prevention efforts, the epidemic will continue to spread and threaten sustainable development, including progress towards achieving EFA. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    School feeding, school reform, and food security: Connecting the dots.

    Levinger B

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(2 Suppl 2):S170-S178.

    Universal access to basic education is a prerequisite for long-term food security, which, in turn, is critical to achieving the Millennium Development goals. This paper examines how Food for Education interventions can contribute to improved food security, improved education outcomes, and a broader set of development goals. Food for Education entails the distribution of food commodities to children who attend school. The commodities may be locally grown and purchased or contributed by aid donors. The food may be consumed by students in school snack, breakfast, or lunch programs. Alternatively, it may be given as a take-home ration for consumption by a family that regularly sends "at-risk" children (usually girls) to school. Four interrelated ideas are discussed: (1) the universalization of primary school education is a prerequisite for food security (defined here as availability of, access to, and proper biologic utilization of food supplies); (2) Food for Education boosts primary school participation and, therefore, food security; (3) the effects of primary school education on food security are greatest wherever "quality standards" are met, although important effects are present even when education quality is modest; and (4) efforts to improve primary education participation (demand) and efforts to improve primary education quality (supply) are highly interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Food for Education is a versatile resource that can be used to address a broad range of issues related to both education supply and demand. To be effective, Food for Education interventions must reflect local education supply and demand realities. (author's)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Vaccine for cervical cancer: reaching adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Biddlecom A; Bankole A; Patterson K

    Lancet. 2006 Apr 22; 367(9519):1299-1300.

    Merck's vaccine for cervical cancer is being reviewed as a priority by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), with a ruling due on June 8, and GlaxoSmithKline submitted an application for its vaccine in the European Union on March 9. The issue of how best to introduce these vaccines to young people before they become sexually active is now, therefore, a research priority. Vaccination against cervical cancer is especially important in developing countries, where nearly 80% of cases are reported and where effective methods of diagnosis--such as the Pap smear--are rarely used. Modelling studies indicate that vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) could be effective in preventing cervical cancer provided all adolescents--not just those at high risk--are vaccinated before they become sexually active. The need to reach large numbers of adolescents with a series of three injections is a challenge, however, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Reaching Kenyan youth with HIV messages in school.

    Taravella S

    Arlington, Virginia, Family Health International [FHI], Institute for HIV / AIDS, 2005. 6 p. (Snapshots from the Field; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-97-00017-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse Doc ID / Order No. PN-ADE-597)

    Nuru is an upbeat 17-year-old Kenyan who is well-liked and has many friends. The daughter of a trucker, she lives in a boarding-school, where she has come to know other young people from different parts of the country, different classes and different tribes. Known for her good judgment, Nuru has abstained from sexual activity and is something of a role model for her younger friend, Janet. But Nuru's boyfriend Leon, a soccer player at the school, recently left Nuru for the more free spirited Angel. Angel, who once had sex with a teacher to improve her grades, is kept by a sugar-daddy--who happens to be Janet's father. In a recent six-month period, Leon had sex with six different people and has since become HIV positive. In the teenagers' skittish community, this prompted some to question aloud whether Leon should continue playing team sports or whether another player could even safely wear Leon's jersey. Meanwhile, Nuru's friend Oscar is facing his own HIV dilemma as he adjusts to living with his HIV-positive uncle. In many ways, Nuru and her circle of friends define the challenges of adolescence for young Kenyans. The challenges are very real, but Nuru and her friends are not: Nuru (meaning light in Swahili), Janet, Leon, Oscar and Angel are all characters in a popular comic book series. The Nuru comic books have proven remarkably effective at reaching young people with health messages they may not hear in other ways. (excerpt)
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