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[London, United Kingdom], Partnership for Child Development [PCD], 2009 Sep. 80 p.This document describes a review of HIV and AIDS indicators for the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team on Education. The goal of the review was to help develop user-friendly guidance to measure the coverage, outcomes, and impact of education programs on HIV and AIDS in low-income countries.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006. Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2007: Strong Foundations: Early Childhood Care and Education. 86 p. (2007/ED/EFA/MRT/PI/17)Before children reach school age they must negotiate threats from a number of diseases. More than 50% of child deaths are caused by pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles, malnutrition and HIV. Health and nutrition can affect education in many ways. In resource-poor countries, physical and mental disability can be a major barrier to schooling. This can result from iodine or folate deficiency or rubella infectious in utero or from cerebral malaria, polio or meningitis infections postnatally. Malaria infection, undernutrition and orphanhood can influence the likelihood and timing of enrolment. School readiness depends on cognitive, motor and socio-emotional development which can be affected by, among other things, undernutrition, iron deficiency anemia and malaria. There is clear evidence of the benefits of preschool health and nutrition interventions to tackle these three conditions, with economic returns to $1 spent estimated at $3 for nutritional supplementation and $14 for iron supplementation. For malnourished children, psychosocial stimulation can be as effective as nutritional supplementation in compensating for delayed cognitive development. In general, interventions in this age group have substantial and consistent effects on development and education which are generally larger than for school-age children. Effects are seen in all dimensions of school readiness -- cognitive, motor and socioemotional development -- but are perhaps greatest for motor development. The interventions are highly cost-effective compared with other educational interventions. They also have a greater impact on the most disadvantaged children and can help to promote equity in educational outcomes. Early childhood health and nutrition interventions have the potential to make a major contribution to achieving Education for All. (author's)
HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1998 Jul-Aug; 24(4):19-20.Promoting the health of children through schools has long been an important task of the WHO. Guided by the recommendations of the Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion, the Initiative seeks to strengthen health promotion and education activities at the local, national, regional, and global levels. It aims to increase the number of schools that can truly be called "Health-Promoting Schools". The four strategies undertaken by WHO in creating Health-Promoting Schools are: 1) strengthening the ability to advocate for improved school health programs, 2) creating networks and alliances for the development of Health-Promoting Schools, 3) strengthening national capacities, and 4) research to improve school health program. Finally, WHO recognizes that the success of the Global School Health Initiative lies on the extent to which partnerships can be formed at local, national, and international levels.
VACCINE WEEKLY. 1994 Dec 19; 12-3.According to a United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) report, which evaluated progress toward fulfillment of the 29 recommendations of the Childhood Pact signed in 1993 by 22 of Brazil's 27 provincial governors, large-scale vaccination programs have been successful while attempts to improve education have not. The pact covered the rights of children and adolescents, the reduction of infant mortality, and improved health and education services. Massive vaccination efforts have eradicated polio from Brazil and reduced measles from 23,000 cases in 1992 to 124 cases in 1993 and 14 cases, to date, in 1994. However, 77% of primary school students are over the expected age for their educational level; plans to increase literacy among adolescents who lack primary education were frustrated, and teacher's strikes in many states cut into their time with students. In 1993, classes were suspended in 10 states to protest poor salaries and a lack of respect for teachers, another issue to be addressed by the pact. Provision of lunches for at least 180 days of the year in order to prevent malnutrition and boost school attendance in the poorest areas was also in the pact, but 17 of the 22 states which signed the pact have yet to do implement lunch programs. UNICEF, the executive secretary of the pact, has released a document, "Expectations for 1995-1998," suggesting renewal of the pact in combination with other measures to ensure the survival and development of Brazil's children.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, Section for Preventive Education, 1994. , 45 p. (ED-95/WS-5)Education is universally accepted as the most effective weapon in the struggle to curtail the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), yet there has been relatively little systematic research on ways the educational system must change to deliver effective AIDS prevention messages or on the potential impact of AIDS on the process and quality of education. This paper, based primarily on a review of literature from sub-Saharan Africa, synthesizes current knowledge of these issues. It is noted that AIDS-related mortality and demoralization have already reduced the numbers of students and teachers in sub-Saharan Africa, adding to the randomness of education and exacerbating problems of human resource development. As educational systems become increasingly affected by AIDS, there will be a need to broaden social and educational objectives, create more flexibility in operations and strategies, alter the types of knowledge and skills transmitted, and develop more systematic planning and evaluation methods. The training of educational planners and managers must be expanded to include techniques for the open discussion of sensitive issues such as sexual behavior, awareness of the importance of the human rights of teachers and students infected with AIDS, understanding of the potential impact of AIDS on development issues such as female education, the ability to anticipate future trends, and a willingness to collaborate at all levels of the system.
POPULATION EDUCATION IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC NEWSLETTER AND FORUM. 1995; (41):5-11.The great deal of documentation which was prepared for the recent TSS/CST Population IEC (information, education, and communication) meeting from research, field experiments, and action projects will be useful to TSS/CST advisors and individual countries undertaking IEC and population education work. This article summarizes the 12 sessions held during the open forum. To illustrate some of the latest trends in population and health communication, the "enter-educate" approach and use of the interactive computer software called SCOPE (Strategic Communication Planning and Evaluation) were discussed. Next, ways in which to apply research effectively in IEC and population education were considered. Examples were provided of 1) a workshop methodology used to help a multidisciplinary group design a problem-solving communication strategy in Malaysia and Dominica; 2) the counseling training evaluation technique based on the GATHER (greet, ask, tell, help, explain, and return for follow-up) model; and 3) four types of evaluation of population education in schools. The third session was concerned with the program approach used in IEC and population education. Session 4 dealt with the implication of UNFPA support to family planning (FP) IEC. Counseling skills training and interpersonal communication were next on the agenda, followed by a consideration of how knowledge and policies are applied in the area of youth. The seventh session concentrated on ways to involve men in FP and reproductive health and included a discussion of a case study on the attitude and behavior of men with regard to FP which had IEC implications. The next session described the need to reconceptualize population education and what such a reconceptualization would entail. Session 9 was devoted to a consideration of gender issues and the education of girls. The tenth session covered the use of participatory approaches and community involvement in population communication programs. Innovative methodologies for school-based population education were described next, and the last session was concerned with new information technologies such as navigating the Internet and using new software for establishing databases.