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  1. 1

    Early childhood health, nutrition and education.

    Jukes M

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006. Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2007: Strong Foundations: Early Childhood Care and Education. 86 p. (2007/ED/EFA/MRT/PI/17)

    Before children reach school age they must negotiate threats from a number of diseases. More than 50% of child deaths are caused by pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles, malnutrition and HIV. Health and nutrition can affect education in many ways. In resource-poor countries, physical and mental disability can be a major barrier to schooling. This can result from iodine or folate deficiency or rubella infectious in utero or from cerebral malaria, polio or meningitis infections postnatally. Malaria infection, undernutrition and orphanhood can influence the likelihood and timing of enrolment. School readiness depends on cognitive, motor and socio-emotional development which can be affected by, among other things, undernutrition, iron deficiency anemia and malaria. There is clear evidence of the benefits of preschool health and nutrition interventions to tackle these three conditions, with economic returns to $1 spent estimated at $3 for nutritional supplementation and $14 for iron supplementation. For malnourished children, psychosocial stimulation can be as effective as nutritional supplementation in compensating for delayed cognitive development. In general, interventions in this age group have substantial and consistent effects on development and education which are generally larger than for school-age children. Effects are seen in all dimensions of school readiness -- cognitive, motor and socioemotional development -- but are perhaps greatest for motor development. The interventions are highly cost-effective compared with other educational interventions. They also have a greater impact on the most disadvantaged children and can help to promote equity in educational outcomes. Early childhood health and nutrition interventions have the potential to make a major contribution to achieving Education for All. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Health education, an important aspect of population education.

    Gurumurthy G

    In: Population studies (lectures on population education), [compiled by] Sri Venkateswara University. Population Studies Centre. Tirupati, India, Sri Venkateswara University, Population Studies Centre, 1979. 41-50.

    This paper highlights the importance of health education in population education. Definition of health, as well as, the objectives of health education in the prospects of the WHO is presented in this paper. Furthermore, it focuses on the different aspects of health education, namely: personal hygiene and environmental sanitation; maternal and child health; nutrition education; applied nutrition program; school health education; transmission of diseases and cultural practices; national health programs; age at marriage of women and health; and population explosion and health hazards.
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  3. 3

    Immediate and growing needs for help to a fragile new democracy: health in the Russian Federation with emphasis on children and women. Report of a UNICEF / WHO collaborative mission with the participation of UNFPA, UNDP, and WFP, 17 February - 2 March 1992.

    UNICEF; World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1992 Mar 17. [2], 45, [19] p.

    From February 17 to March 2, 1992, the World Health Organization and UNICEF conducted a fact-finding mission to the Russian Federation to assess the health of the population, particularly of women and children. These international agencies found a unique situation in which economic adjustment to a market economy has created shortages in this developed nation similar to those encountered in developing countries. After an introductory section, the second section of this report provides background information on the Russian Federation, its economic situation, social protection mechanisms, and social statistics. Section 3 provides an assessment of the state of the health services, immunization programs, pharmaceuticals and equipment, nutrition, and the food situation. The next section discusses the organization of the public school system which may be used to provide nutritional supplements and health education. The rapid decline in environmental quality is then discussed, and examples are provided of some of the effects of this deterioration. The sixth section briefly mentions the three types of nongovernmental organizations available for partnerships and strategic alliances with international donors. Section 7 summarizes the recommendations of the mission. Six areas of assistance (each with several related recommendations) were identified: 1) to support those activities which will allow economic transition to be sensitive to the needs of vulnerable groups and social issues; 2) to provide emergency supplies to the health system through international channels and to foster the rapid rehabilitation of selected national production and distribution systems; 3) to provide technical assistance for the restructuring of the health system; 4) to establish monitoring systems to identify and protect vulnerable groups; 5) to engender support for donor coordination and the facilitation of international assistance; and 6) to support nongovernmental organizations and private partnerships as they attempt to strengthen social safety nets. A basic budget (which totals US $164 million and is separated into urgent and priority needs) is provided. Annexed information includes the construction and utilization of a food basket to monitor food prices, data on breastfeeding, and the highest priority needs for vaccines, drugs, and supplies.
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  4. 4

    Education for a better quality of life.

    Kolybine V

    HYGIE. 1991; 10(3):24-6.

    UNESCO's work in the field of health promotion is aimed at improving the quality of life of the world's people through an interdisciplinary effort. Health promotion and education are defined broadly, as the provision of the skills, knowledge, and attitudes conducive to health and well-being. Similarly, health education is considered to occur in a variety of settings--from schools to field operational projects to cooperative programs with Member States to community activities. Of greatest concern is meeting the basic health and educational needs of the most disadvantaged, marginalized sectors--a goal that requires viewing health within its broader social and economic context. Poverty makes children more vulnerable to endemic diseases and nutritional disorders, and in turn undermines the effectiveness of school-based interventions, unless it is addressed directly. School feeding programs (preferably based on parent participation and indigenous foodstuffs) may be necessary to relieve children's hunger and facilitate learning. In some cases, schools themselves are sources of disease as a result of overcrowded classrooms, poor ventilation, and a lack of clean water and latrines. In regions where health services are not easily accessible, it may be necessary to train teachers to recognize health problems such as parasitic infections, malaria, and visual and hearing disorders and to provide limited first aid. Since school children in developing countries are within 5-10 years of childbearing age, investments in increasing their knowledge of health, nutrition, and family planning provide substantial returns.
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