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  1. 1

    Meeting summary: Protecting and Empowering Adolescent Girls: Evidence for the Global Health Initiative. Sponsored by the Interagency Youth Working Group (IYWG), Thursday, June 3, 2010.

    Interagency Youth Working Group (3rd: 2010: Washington, D.C.)

    [Washington, D.C.], Interagency Youth Working Group, 2010. [350] p.

    The third annual meeting of the Interagency Youth Working Group (IYWG) highlighted examples of innovative programs that address girls’ vulnerability to HIV and reproductive health (RH) risks in more than 15 countries. These programs have used a variety of approaches, including school-based interventions, advocacy, empowerment, targeting of especially vulnerable girls, physical activity, and male involvement. One of the main purposes of the meeting was to formulate recommendations on women- and girl-centered approaches within the U.S. Government’s Global Health Initiative. (Excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Indicators for education sector HIV response programmes: a review of existing resources.

    Venkatesh M

    [London, United Kingdom], Partnership for Child Development [PCD], 2009 Sep. 80 p.

    This document describes a review of HIV and AIDS indicators for the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team on Education. The goal of the review was to help develop user-friendly guidance to measure the coverage, outcomes, and impact of education programs on HIV and AIDS in low-income countries.
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  3. 3

    HIV interventions for young people in the education sector.

    UNAIDS. Inter-Agency Task Team on HIV and Young People

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, HIV/AIDS Branch, [2008]. 8 p. (Guidance Brief)

    This Brief has been developed by the Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on HIV and Young People1 to assist United Nations Country Teams (UNCT) and UN Theme Groups on HIV/AIDS in providing guidance to their staffs, governments, development partners, civil society and other implementing partners on HIV interventions for young people in the education sector. It is part of a series of seven global Guidance Briefs that focus on HIV prevention, treatment, care and support interventions for young people that can be delivered through different settings and for a range of target groups.
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  4. 4

    EDUCAIDS framework for action. 2nd edition.

    Sass J; Castle C

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2008 Jan. 27 p.

    The EDUCAIDS Framework for Action: 1) Articulates what is EDUCAIDS; 2) Outlines components of a comprehensive education sector response; 3) Proposes methods to plan and proritise actions, improve coordination and build partnerships among key education sector stakeholders; and 4) Provides an overview of implementation support tools. This version of the EDUCAIDS Framework for Action is an update of the previous version, taking into account feedback from recent regional and sub-regional meetings and workshops involving 39 countries.
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  5. 5

    HIV / AIDS prevention among youth: What works?

    Zewdie D; Vollmer G; McGinnis L; de Beyer J

    Youth Development Notes. 2006 Nov; 2(1):1-4.

    Young people are at the heart of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Not only are they disproportionately represented in terms of new infections, but they are also key to overcoming the disease. Effective HIV prevention efforts that focus on youth are crucial to reversing the pandemic. The World Bank is one of the largest official financiers of HIV/AIDS programs in the world, with over $2.7 billion committed for HIV/AIDS prevention, care, support and treatment since 1988. A recent review of Bank projects related to HIV/AIDS (1999-2004) reveals that over 40% include specific youth components, and virtually all include youth as a target group. This note summarizes the growing body of evidence of what works to prevent HIV/AIDS among youth in developing countries. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Linking EDUCAIDS with other on-going initiatives. An overview of opportunities. An assessment of challenges.

    Visser-Valfrey M

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2006 Oct. 43 p. (ED-2006/WS/65; CLD-29608)

    This paper was commissioned by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to review the linkages and synergies between EDUCAIDS, the UNAIDS Global Initiative on Education and HIV & AIDS, and other initiatives in the field of HIV and AIDS. EDUCAIDS is one of UNESCO's three core Education for All (EFA) initiatives and focuses specifically on supporting national governments and their partners in developing comprehensive and scaled-up education sector responses to HIV and AIDS, with the dual objective of preventing the spread of HIV through education and of protecting education systems against the worst effects of the epidemic. This paper documents the similarities and differences between EDUCAIDS and selected initiatives, identifies current and potential links, and provides recommendations on how synergies and linkages can be strengthened. The analysis in this review was done on the basis of a document review and interviews with partners from the majority of the initiatives selected by UNESCO for this study. Five kinds of initiatives were reviewed. The first concerns programmes that have been put in place with a specific focus on HIV and AIDS. The second includes examples of initiatives with a broader focus (such as promoting sustainable development and enhancing school health) and which, through their activities, address a number of priority areas, including HIV & AIDS and education. The third is constituted by 'thematic initiatives' which address HIV and AIDS from a particular defined priority, for example by focusing on children. These initiatives include education as one of their strategies. The fourth kind of initiative concerns frameworks for operation at country level such as the 'Three Ones', the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) and the UN country teams on HIV and AIDS. Finally, the analysis also considers the synergies and differences between EDUCAIDS and the UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Education. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Early childhood health, nutrition and education.

    Jukes M

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006. Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2007: Strong Foundations: Early Childhood Care and Education. 86 p. (2007/ED/EFA/MRT/PI/17)

    Before children reach school age they must negotiate threats from a number of diseases. More than 50% of child deaths are caused by pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles, malnutrition and HIV. Health and nutrition can affect education in many ways. In resource-poor countries, physical and mental disability can be a major barrier to schooling. This can result from iodine or folate deficiency or rubella infectious in utero or from cerebral malaria, polio or meningitis infections postnatally. Malaria infection, undernutrition and orphanhood can influence the likelihood and timing of enrolment. School readiness depends on cognitive, motor and socio-emotional development which can be affected by, among other things, undernutrition, iron deficiency anemia and malaria. There is clear evidence of the benefits of preschool health and nutrition interventions to tackle these three conditions, with economic returns to $1 spent estimated at $3 for nutritional supplementation and $14 for iron supplementation. For malnourished children, psychosocial stimulation can be as effective as nutritional supplementation in compensating for delayed cognitive development. In general, interventions in this age group have substantial and consistent effects on development and education which are generally larger than for school-age children. Effects are seen in all dimensions of school readiness -- cognitive, motor and socioemotional development -- but are perhaps greatest for motor development. The interventions are highly cost-effective compared with other educational interventions. They also have a greater impact on the most disadvantaged children and can help to promote equity in educational outcomes. Early childhood health and nutrition interventions have the potential to make a major contribution to achieving Education for All. (author's)
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  8. 8

    EDUCAIDS: towards a comprehensive education sector response. A framework for action.

    UNESCO; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2006 Sep. 27 p.

    Steady progress has been made in recent years in efforts to achieve Education for All (EFA), but about 100 million children are still not enrolled in primary school, 55 percent of them girls. HIV and AIDS are among the key factors exerting pressure on education systems and students in the regions with the greatest EFA challenges. Halting the spread of HIV is not only a Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in itself (Goal 6), but is a prerequisite for reaching the others including Goal 2 (achieving universal primary education) and Goal 3 (promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women). The AIDS epidemic is increasingly recognised to be one of the most serious threats to global stability and progress. Adult HIV prevalence has reached 40 percent in parts of Southern Africa, and the virus is spreading rapidly in a number of regions, from West and Central Africa to Eastern Europe, from Asia (notably China and India) to Latin America and the Caribbean. The impact of AIDS is also magnified because the disease primarily strikes adults, particularly young adults, who drive economic growth and raise the next generation. Close to 39 million people are estimated to be living with HIV, and the global AIDS epidemic is responsible for the deaths of 25 million, 2.8 million in the last year alone. HIV is unravelling hard-won development gains and is having a crippling effect on future prospects. Unless strong action is taken, particularly in massively expanded and intensified prevention efforts, the epidemic will continue to spread and threaten sustainable development, including progress towards achieving EFA. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    School feeding, school reform, and food security: Connecting the dots.

    Levinger B

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(2 Suppl 2):S170-S178.

    Universal access to basic education is a prerequisite for long-term food security, which, in turn, is critical to achieving the Millennium Development goals. This paper examines how Food for Education interventions can contribute to improved food security, improved education outcomes, and a broader set of development goals. Food for Education entails the distribution of food commodities to children who attend school. The commodities may be locally grown and purchased or contributed by aid donors. The food may be consumed by students in school snack, breakfast, or lunch programs. Alternatively, it may be given as a take-home ration for consumption by a family that regularly sends "at-risk" children (usually girls) to school. Four interrelated ideas are discussed: (1) the universalization of primary school education is a prerequisite for food security (defined here as availability of, access to, and proper biologic utilization of food supplies); (2) Food for Education boosts primary school participation and, therefore, food security; (3) the effects of primary school education on food security are greatest wherever "quality standards" are met, although important effects are present even when education quality is modest; and (4) efforts to improve primary education participation (demand) and efforts to improve primary education quality (supply) are highly interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Food for Education is a versatile resource that can be used to address a broad range of issues related to both education supply and demand. To be effective, Food for Education interventions must reflect local education supply and demand realities. (author's)
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluation of the Food and Agriculture Organization's global school-based nutrition education initiative, Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger (FMFH), in schools of Hyderabad, India.

    Rao GM; Rao DR; Venkaiah K; Dube AK; Rameshwar KV

    Public Health Nutrition. 2006 Dec; 9(8):991-995.

    The objective was to assess the efficacy of the Food and Agriculture Organization's global school-based nutrition education initiative, Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger (FMFH), in improving nutrition-related knowledge levels of schoolchildren. Design: Adopting the cluster randomisation technique, five schools each in experimental and control groups were randomly chosen from the member schools of a voluntary organisation. Repeated measures of knowledge levels were carried out at three points in time to assess pre-, post-intervention and retention of knowledge gained during the intervention. Children from experimental schools were given nutrition education by teachers in the classroom setting using FMFH material. Subjects/settings: Schoolchildren (n = 358 in the control group and n = 312 in the experimental group) of grades VIII and IX from schools in Hyderabad, India. The classroom-based intervention resulted in a significant improvement (P < 0.01) in nutrition knowledge levels of schoolchildren in the experimental group. Significant improvement in knowledge was also observed in the control group. The effect size indicated that the improvement in knowledge levels of schoolchildren in experimental schools over control schools was medium (d = 0.40), indicating the efficacy of the FMFH programme in improving nutrition-related knowledge. No significant decrease (P > 0.05) in knowledge levels was observed after 2 months, indicating retention of the knowledge acquired through the intervention. The FMFH programme provides an opportunity for schoolchildren to learn more about nutrition through their teachers in a classroom setting if the lesson plans are adapted to the local circumstances. Furthermore, it has the potential to make nutrition education interactive, effective and sustainable. (author's)
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  11. 11

    HIV / AIDS education: a gender perspective. Tips and tools.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002. 21 p.

    The information, strategies and actions presented in this booklet are based on the findings and recommendations of a series of reviews of HIV/AIDS teaching and learning materials conducted by UNICEF in 1998 and 1999 in Latin America and the Caribbean; Asia and the Pacific; and East and Southern Africa. Together, these studies indicated that a huge number of materials and variety of formats already exist; how ever, there is an urgent need to strengthen both the content of these materials and the teaching and learning methodologies in relation to gender issues. Therefore, the priority is probably not to create more materials, but rather, to utilise what we have in much more effective ways. Sensitising educators, and others, to HIV/AIDS and its implications is also a central theme of this publication. The HIV/ AIDS pandemic has developed into a major threat to human development especially in the poorest regions of the world. Women and girls are at particular risk because of skewed power relations and concepts of masculinity that undermine their right, and ability, to make their own decisions in the family and in society in general. This includes decisions about when to have sex and with whom, and about protecting themselves against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV-AIDS. Poverty and economic dependence, as well as harmful traditional practices increase the risks for women and girls. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluating health-promoting schools in Hong Kong: development of a framework.

    Lee A; Cheng FF; St Leger L

    Health Promotion International. 2005 Jun; 20(2):177-186.

    Health-promoting schools (HPS)/healthy schools have existed internationally for about 15 years. Yet there are few comprehensive evaluation frameworks available which enable the outcomes of HPS initiatives to be assessed. This paper identifies an evaluation framework developed in Hong Kong. The framework uses a range of approaches to explore what schools actually do in their health promotion and health education initiatives. The framework, which is based on the WHO (Western Pacific Regional Office) Guidelines for HPS, is described in detail. The appropriate instruments for data collection are described and their origins identified. The evaluation plan and protocol, which underpinned the very comprehensive evaluation in Hong Kong, are explained. Finally, a case is argued for evaluation of HPS to be more in line with the educational dynamics of schools and the research literature on effective schooling, rather than focusing primarily on health-related measures. (author's)
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Vaccine for cervical cancer: reaching adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Biddlecom A; Bankole A; Patterson K

    Lancet. 2006 Apr 22; 367(9519):1299-1300.

    Merck's vaccine for cervical cancer is being reviewed as a priority by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), with a ruling due on June 8, and GlaxoSmithKline submitted an application for its vaccine in the European Union on March 9. The issue of how best to introduce these vaccines to young people before they become sexually active is now, therefore, a research priority. Vaccination against cervical cancer is especially important in developing countries, where nearly 80% of cases are reported and where effective methods of diagnosis--such as the Pap smear--are rarely used. Modelling studies indicate that vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) could be effective in preventing cervical cancer provided all adolescents--not just those at high risk--are vaccinated before they become sexually active. The need to reach large numbers of adolescents with a series of three injections is a challenge, however, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Reaching Kenyan youth with HIV messages in school.

    Taravella S

    Arlington, Virginia, Family Health International [FHI], Institute for HIV / AIDS, 2005. 6 p. (Snapshots from the Field; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-97-00017-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse Doc ID / Order No. PN-ADE-597)

    Nuru is an upbeat 17-year-old Kenyan who is well-liked and has many friends. The daughter of a trucker, she lives in a boarding-school, where she has come to know other young people from different parts of the country, different classes and different tribes. Known for her good judgment, Nuru has abstained from sexual activity and is something of a role model for her younger friend, Janet. But Nuru's boyfriend Leon, a soccer player at the school, recently left Nuru for the more free spirited Angel. Angel, who once had sex with a teacher to improve her grades, is kept by a sugar-daddy--who happens to be Janet's father. In a recent six-month period, Leon had sex with six different people and has since become HIV positive. In the teenagers' skittish community, this prompted some to question aloud whether Leon should continue playing team sports or whether another player could even safely wear Leon's jersey. Meanwhile, Nuru's friend Oscar is facing his own HIV dilemma as he adjusts to living with his HIV-positive uncle. In many ways, Nuru and her circle of friends define the challenges of adolescence for young Kenyans. The challenges are very real, but Nuru and her friends are not: Nuru (meaning light in Swahili), Janet, Leon, Oscar and Angel are all characters in a popular comic book series. The Nuru comic books have proven remarkably effective at reaching young people with health messages they may not hear in other ways. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Address.

    Matsuura K

    [Unpublished] 2004. Presented on the occasion of the 23rd CCO Joint Meeting, “HIV / AIDS Prevention among Young People: Focusing on Education”. 3 p. (DG/2004/025)

    First of all, I should like to recall that in the Declaration of Commitment issued by the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) of July 2001, many time-bound targets were made, notably to reduce HIV prevalence rates among young men and women aged 15 to 24 in the most affected countries by 25 per cent by 2005. In the world at large, there are about 14,000 new infections each day. About 6,000 of them are in the age-group 15-24 years – the young, especially girls and young women, are at risk. A large fraction of those infected are on this continent and in this region. Consequently, we have to recognize that we are falling behind, especially in regard to the 2005 target. Africa, in particular Southern Africa, is the region most affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Thus, it is very important that we are meeting in Livingstone, Zambia. The six countries represented here, all drawn from southern Africa, are among the hardest hit. In addition, you are the leaders of these countries from the sectors most directly involved – health, education and finance. It is not enough for HIV/AIDS to be discussed solely in terms of health and treatment; prevention must also be addressed, in which case education is a crucial dimension. Furthermore, it is not enough simply to call for additional finance; the power and influence of the finance ministry must also engaged in the fight against HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Should adolescents be specifically targeted for nutrition in developing countries? To address which problems, and how?

    Delisle H; Chandra-Mouli V; de Benoist B

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], [2001]. 38 p.

    Concern for nutrition in adolescence has been rather limited, except in relation to pregnancy. This paper reviews adolescent-specific nutritional problems, and discusses priority issues for the health sector, particularly in developing countries. Chronic malnutrition in earlier years is responsible for widespread stunting and adverse consequences at adolescence in many areas, but it is best prevented in childhood. Iron deficiency and anaemia are the main problem of adolescents world-wide; other micronutrient deficiencies may also affect adolescent girls. Improving their nutrition before they enter pregnancy (and delaying it), could help to reduce maternal and infant mortality, and contribute to break the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition, poverty, and even chronic disease. Food-based and health approaches will oftentimes need to be complemented by micronutrient supplementation using various channels. Promoting healthy eating and lifestyles among adolescents, particularly through the urban school system, is critical to halt the rapid progression of obesity and other nutrition related chronic disease risks. There are pressing research needs, notably to develop adolescent-specific anthropometric reference data, to better document adolescents' nutritional and micronutrient status, and to assess the cost-effectiveness of multinutrient dietary improvement (or supplements) in adolescent girls. Our view is that specific policies are needed at country level for adolescent nutrition, but not specific programmes. (author's)
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  17. 17

    Helminth control in school-age children. A guide for managers of control programmes.

    Montresor A; Crompton DW; Gyorkos TW; Savioli L

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. viii, 64, [4] p.

    This book is a guide for planners and programme managers in the health and education sectors who are responsible for implementing community-based programmes for control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and schistosome infections in school-age populations. The book describes a common and cost-effective approach whereby periodic parasitological surveys in a sample of the school population are used to select the appropriate control strategy for the whole community. An alternative approach, which relies on individual diagnosis and treatment, has been used with success in the rapidly evolving economies of Japan and the Republic of Korea, but is not discussed here. Key elements of guidelines previously published by WHO—Guidelines for the evaluation of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis at community level and Monitoring helminth control programmes are brought together in this book, with a third component on planning and budgeting. The book is intended to help managers to plan, implement, and monitor worm control programmes using methods based on the best current experience. It covers the following topics: programme design; delivery of drugs to schools and treatment of children; collection of data for programme evaluation; obtaining the needed materials. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Health education, an important aspect of population education.

    Gurumurthy G

    In: Population studies (lectures on population education), [compiled by] Sri Venkateswara University. Population Studies Centre. Tirupati, India, Sri Venkateswara University, Population Studies Centre, 1979. 41-50.

    This paper highlights the importance of health education in population education. Definition of health, as well as, the objectives of health education in the prospects of the WHO is presented in this paper. Furthermore, it focuses on the different aspects of health education, namely: personal hygiene and environmental sanitation; maternal and child health; nutrition education; applied nutrition program; school health education; transmission of diseases and cultural practices; national health programs; age at marriage of women and health; and population explosion and health hazards.
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  19. 19

    Promoting health through schools. Report of a WHO Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion


    The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion, which met in September 1995, formulated recommendations for policy and programmatic measures that WHO, other UN agencies, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations could apply to enable schools to meet their full potential to improve the health of children, families, and communities. Since 71% of the developing world's population completes at least 4 years of primary schooling, the formal education system represents an ideal channel for health promotion. Moreover, good health is a key factor in school entry, attendance, and performance. Health issues schools can address include HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases, violence, unintended pregnancy and reproductive health, nutrition, sanitation and water control, immunization, oral health, malaria, respiratory infections, psychological problems, and alcohol and tobacco use. Health-promoting schools must provide enhanced access to services within the school and referral to the extended health system, identify and implement specific health interventions best carried out through schools, and integrate preventive and curative measures. The messages of school health programs must be reinforced by community organizations, families, and the media. Among the Committee's recommendations for school health programs are the following: expanded investment in education, especially for girls; creation of school environments that do not threaten physical and emotional health; critical health and life skills curricula; more effective use of schools as an entry point for health promotion and location for health interventions; mobilization and coordination of resources at the local, national, and international levels to support school health programs; collaboration between the school and community; and ongoing program monitoring and evaluation to ensure desired outcomes.
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  20. 20

    Family life education and human reproductive health: selected readings and references.

    UNESCO. Environment and Population Education and Information for Human Development

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Environment and Population Education and Information for Human Development, 1995. [3], viii, 143 p. (Comparative Study on Family Life Education, Sex Education, and Human Sexuality)

    UNESCO's Comparative Study on Family Life Education, Sex Education, and Human Sexuality seeks to identify educational approaches that will provide young people with the decision making and problem solving skills they need in an increasingly complex and dangerous world. Toward this end, documentary research was conducted on young people's needs and fears in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Arab states, and sub-Saharan Africa. The present document includes a chronology of the major stages of the population issue; UNESCO's mandate for population and family life education; salient issues concerning reproductive health, adolescence, and preventive education; essential elements for a reconceptualization of family life education; and a directory of readings and references. Among the topics appropriate for family life education are population growth and family structure, the roles and rights within families, gender equality and the empowerment of women, reproductive health and human sexuality, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other sexually transmitted diseases, and morbidity and mortality. Although the Program of Action adopted at the 1994 Cairo Conference should form the basis of school-based family life education, some selectivity is required to take into account factors such as national priorities, student maturity, and educational conditions. Key are teaching education and training activities. Also essential is a social partnership with political, cultural, and religious authorities in the community.
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  21. 21

    Final report of the UNESCO Asian Regional Planning Seminar on AIDS and Education within the School System, 10-14 January 1994, New Delhi. Convened by UNESCO's Programme of Education for the Prevention of AIDS and the Education Programme of the UNESCO Regional Office for Science and Technology for South and Central Asia, in collaboration with the Division of Health Promotion and Education, WHO, the Global Programme on AIDS, WHO, the International Union for Health Promotion and Education, and the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    UNESCO. Section for Preventive Education

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, 1994. [3], 55 p. (ED.95/WS.4)

    The UNESCO Asian Regional Planning Seminar on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Education Within the School System, held in New Delhi, India, in 1994, was the first of a series of such seminars aimed at high-level representatives of Ministries of Health and Education as well as nongovernmental organizations. Although participating countries such as Thailand, the Philippines, and Nepal reported on plans to integrate AIDS prevention material into school curricula, the lack of a clear policy to guide such initiatives was noted and few countries have been able to involve teachers' associations in training activities. Obstacles identified included parental and cultural constraints, shortages of trained teachers and materials, and low school enrollment. Implementation of successful AIDS education programs has been easiest in countries with existing school-based sex education. Recommended was a curriculum that balances basic knowledge about AIDS, compassion and support for those infected with the virus, and the acquisition of risk-reduction skills and practices. A consensus statement adopted at the seminar urges every country in the region to develop a clear written policy on AIDS education by the end of 1994. Governments are urged to support this strategy through the allocation of adequate technical and financial resources.
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  22. 22

    CFPA 1987 annual report.

    Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation [CFPA]

    St. John's, Antigua, CFPA, 1987. 39 p.

    In the 1920s 1/3 of the children in the Caribbean area died before age 5, and life expectancy was 35 years; today life expectancy is 70 years. In the early 1960s only 50,000 women used birth control; in the mid-1980s 500,000 do, but this is still only 1/2 of all reproductive age women. During 1987 the governments of St. Lucia, Dominica and Grenada adopted formal population policies; and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) called for the introduction of sex education in all Caribbean schools for the specific purpose of reducing the high teenage pregnancy rate of 120/1000. CFPA received funds from the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to assist in its annual multimedia IEC campaigns directed particularly at teenagers and young adults. CFPA worked with other nongovernmental organizations to conduct seminars on population and development and family life education in schools. In 1986-87 CFPA held a short story contest to heighten teenage awareness of family planning. The CFPA and its member countries observed the 3rd Annual Family Planning Day on November 21, 1987; and Stichting Lobi, the Family Planning Association of Suriname celebrated its 20th anniversary on February 29, 1988. CFPA affiliate countries made strides in 1987 in areas of sex education, including AIDS education, teenage pregnancy prevention, and outreach programs. The CFPA Annual Report concludes with financial statements, a list of member associations, and the names of CFPA officers.
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  23. 23

    Focusing resources on effective school health: a FRESH start to improving the quality and equity of education.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; UNESCO; UNICEF; World Bank; Education International

    [Unpublished] [2000] [8] p.

    In April, 2000, a session was jointly organized by several international agencies at the World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal. It aimed to raise the education sector's awareness of the value of implementing an effective school health, hygiene and nutrition program as one of its major strategies to achieve Education for All. This paper presents information that is the foundation and reasoning behind the participating agencies' willingness to join in partnership in Focusing Resources on Effective School Health. Information in this paper will help make a strong case that an effective school health program responds to a new need, increases the efficacy of other investments in child development, ensures better educational outcomes, achieves greater social equity, and is a highly cost effective strategy. The information can also be used to clearly argue why the basic components of a school health program should be made available together. Finally, it provides concise and sound reasons that can be used to foster effective partnerships between education and health sectors, teachers and health workers, schools and community groups, and pupils and persons responsible for school health programs.
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  24. 24

    Final report of the UNESCO Asian Regional Planning Seminar on AIDS and Education within the School System, 10-14 January 1994, New Delhi.

    UNESCO. Programme of Education for the Prevention of AIDS; UNESCO. Regional Office for Science and Technology for South and Central Asia. Education Programme; World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Health Promotion and Education; World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS; International Union for Health Promotion and Education; Sweden. Swedish International Development Authority

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, 1995. 55 p. (ED.95/WS.4)

    On January 10-14, 1994, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Asian Regional Planning conducted a seminar on AIDS and Education within the School System in New Delhi, India. The seminar was intended for high-level representatives of Ministries of Education and Ministries of Health, as well as representatives of nongovernmental organizations. Participants include the countries of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. This document outlines the proceedings of the seminar, which focuses on the role of school-based education in preventing HIV infection among young people. The proceedings of the seminar included 12 sessions each having its own topic discussed. Follow-up actions were conducted by the country teams and the UN agencies. The outcomes of the seminar emphasized the recommendations of the substantive working groups and the individual country action plans.
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  25. 25

    Health promoting schools.

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1998 Jul-Aug; 24(4):19-20.

    Promoting the health of children through schools has long been an important task of the WHO. Guided by the recommendations of the Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion, the Initiative seeks to strengthen health promotion and education activities at the local, national, regional, and global levels. It aims to increase the number of schools that can truly be called "Health-Promoting Schools". The four strategies undertaken by WHO in creating Health-Promoting Schools are: 1) strengthening the ability to advocate for improved school health programs, 2) creating networks and alliances for the development of Health-Promoting Schools, 3) strengthening national capacities, and 4) research to improve school health program. Finally, WHO recognizes that the success of the Global School Health Initiative lies on the extent to which partnerships can be formed at local, national, and international levels.
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