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  1. 1

    The global prevalence of anaemia in 2011.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015. [48] p.

    This document provides estimates of the prevalence of anaemia for the year 2011 in preschool-age children (6-59 months) and women of reproductive age (15-49 years), by pregnancy status, and by regions of the United Nations and World Health Organization (WHO), as well as by country. This document may serve as a resource for estimating the baseline prevalence of anaemia in women of reproductive age, in working towards achieving the second global nutrition target 2025, a 50% reduction of anaemia in women of reproductive age, as outlined in the Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition and endorsed by the Sixty-fifth World Health Assembly, in resolution WHA65.6.
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  2. 2

    The role of the NGOs. How shall Philippine family planning be organized?

    Esmundo RA

    INTEGRATION. 1992 Aug; (33):27-9.

    The potential effect of the 1991 Local Government Code on the Philippine Family Planning Program (PFPP) and the consequent complete devolution of certain basic services to the Local Government Units (LGUs) is analyzed. The Technical Secretariat (TS) started its operations in august 1990. Sitios or settlements make up a barangay and a number of barangays comprise a municipality or town in a province, or district in a city. The University of the Philippine Population Institute estimates that each barangay has between 80 to 120-150 women of reproductive age. There are also a total of some 746,00 potential village-based volunteers. The annual increase of the population is about 1.3 million, and in 1992 the country had a little over 63 million people. Considering 15% of them as married women of reproductive age (MCRAs) there will be about 9.5 million MCRAs plus about 6.1 million adolescents or a total target population of 15.7 million women of reproductive age (WRA). The principles of safe motherhood and child survival call for providing quality maternal and child health/family planning service to as many WRAs as possible each year, besides freedom of choice and referral. The information, education, and communication activities are of particular importance. LGUs will determine the role of the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the PFPP from 1992 onward. The concerned organizations, the devolved line agencies of government, the NGOs, the commercial sector, social marketing agencies and TS/PFPP are responsible for planning and managing the program to assist the LGUs in developing their own programs.
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  3. 3

    Biological approaches to ovulation detection.

    Bonnar J

    In: Jeffcoate SL, ed. Ovulation: methods for its prediction and detection. Chichester, England, John Wiley, 1983. 33-47. (Current Topics in Reproductive Endocrinology Volume 3)

    This chapter reviews certain recognizable biological effects that occur due to the major changes in the circulating blood levels of estrogen and progesterone and discusses the ongoing use of these biological signals for the self detection of ovulation and the fertile phase of the cycle. These biological changes include the basal body temperature, changes in the cervix and its mucus secretion, mittelschmerz, and the menstrual cycle molimina. The calculation or calendar method is the oldest technique for determining the fertile period and followed the work of Ogino (1930) and Knaus (1933). The fertile phase of the cycle was identified from the records of the previous 6-12 menstrual cycles. The potential fertile period was then calculated on the following basis: define the shortest and the longest menstrual cycle over the preceding 6 and preferable 12 cycles; the 1st day of the potentially fertile phase is the longest cycle minus 11 days. For a women whose menstrual cycles have varied between 26-31 days, the potential fertile period would be days 8-20 of the cycle. The greatest weakness of the calendar calculation is that it depends on a prediction, based on the menstrual history, of what is likely to occur and not on what is actually taking place. Very rapid electronic thermometers are now available which offer considerable advantages over the clinical thermometer. The daily taking and charting of the basal body temperature (BBT) is the simplest and most widely used method for detecting ovulation. To overcome the drawbacks of the calendar method and the BBT method for identifying the fertile period, John and Evelyn Billings of Melbourne in the early 1970s developed the ovulation method. Self recognition of cervical mucus symptoms provides the woman with a simple means of detecting the fertile phase of her cycle and the likely time of ovulation. Individual cycle variation in the preovulatory duration of the symptoms limits the position of the prediction, yet the "peak" day correlates better with the time of ovulation than the shift in BBT. In addition to effects on cervical mucus, estrogen also changes the morphology of the cervix. The preovulatory rise in estrogensoftens the tissues of the cervix and opens the cervical os. The softened cervix and gaping os with a cascade of clear mucus is a sign of optimal estrogen response and of imminent ovulation. A World Health Organization (WHO) multicenter study of the ovulation method provided a substantial amount of information of the normal menstrual cycle of a large number of women of proven fertility in the age group 18-39 years whose cycles were not influenced by the use of hormonal or other contraceptive methods.
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