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New York, New York, UN Women, . 4 p. (Policy Brief No. 3)Remittances and their potential to contribute to development are becoming a central focus of global migration governance. With women making up approximately half of all migrant workers globally, there is a shifting focus of many policies and programmes to include remittances sent by women. Based on research and lessons learned from the joint UN Women–EU-funded global project, “Promoting and protecting women migrant workers’ labour and human rights: Engaging with international, national human rights mechanisms to enhance accountability”, which is piloted in Mexico, Moldova and the Philippines, this Brief considers the different ways that women transfer and spend remittances, and provides recommendations to better understand and maximize these remittances.
In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 321-47. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)Although emigration from the Caribbean has long been viewed as beneficial to the region's economic development, it is increasingly clear that it also represents an impediment and a lost opportunity. After analyzing migration-for-development programs for other regions and identifying those factors that were most effective while also relevant to the Caribbean, the authors propose a set of programs that would reduce the cost of emigration to Caribbean development and multiply the benefits. The proposals include 1) Caribbean remittance banks, 2) incentive programs to recruit US-based Caribbean professionals from private and public life, and 3) a set of measures to encourage the next generation of Caribbean professionals to use their skills in their home countries. An alternative is presented that is between the statist approach to emigration of the Cuban government and the wholly individualistic approach of the rest of the Caribbean governments. It uses the available ways to reconcile the personal right to emigrate with the collective concern for economic development. It involves steps by Caribbean governments, by donor governments like that of the US who are interested in the region, and by international development institutions. To the extent that economic development is a primary concern of those interested in the Caribbean, increased attention should be given to migration as a central factor in the development equation.
[Unpublished, 1985]. 11 p. (DP/RILM/11.)The Expert Group Meeting on Remittances From International Labour Migration was held at the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) from 2-4 September, 1985. The meeting was convened to discuss issues and policies concerning remittances by workers who had been going in large numbers from developing countries in the ESCAP region to West Asia. 3.6 million workers from ESCAP countries are now employed in West Asia, which creates both problems and opportunities. The massive labor flow has helped the labor-importing countries to overcome their domestic labor shortages and thus has removed a crucial bottleneck in the productive utilization of their revenues from the oil boom of the 1970s. It also helped the ESCAP countries by relieving their unemployment pressures. A satisfactory solution to the problems that arise in the process of large-scale migration and remittance flows may be found by means of cooperation between labor-supplying and labor-receiving countries. Remittances are not an unqualified gain. A large out-migration of skilled and professional workers can have adverse consequences for the economies of labor-exporting countries. Remittances can cause many distortions in the economy, including exorbitant rises in land values. The recent slowdown in labor demand in Weest Asia is due to a fall in oil revenues and completion of large-scale infrastructure and other construction projects. Further labor absorption in that region may not take place; a substantial return flow has already begun.
Banking and other facilities for remittances by migrant workers from the ESCAP Region to the Middle East.
[Unpublished, 1985]. 40 p. (DP/RILM/7.)This paper focuses on the labor-importing countries of the Middle East and how to maximize the flow of remittances to labor-exporting countries. This can be achieved if expatriate workers from Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) member countries employed in the Middle East remit their earnings to home countries in foreign exchange through official banking channels, comprising both commercial banks and exchange companies operating in the host countries. In general, there is no lack of banking facilities is Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain. Due to the slump in oil prices, banking capacity may be excessive. United Arab Emirates is now engaged in consolidating its banks. In all 3 countries, banking is organized on modern lines, but they can be induced to improve their performance, cooperate with each other in the field of remittances, and handle remittances for all the labor-exporting ESCAP countries without discrimination. Labor-importing Economic Commission For Western Asia (ECWA) countries could be approached to help fill existing gaps. For instance, Saudi Arabia could be requested to allow banking on Thursday evenings or to permit joint venture exchange companies, managed by ESCAP banks, to provide remittance facilities at remote sites where neither bank branches nor offices of domestic exchange companies exist. Mobile banking is another possibility. As far as clandestine dealers are concerned, the position is rather difficult. They are not guilty of any breach of law. Perhaps new legislation could curb their activities within the countries concerned, so as to throttle their business outside. The labor-exporting countries must 1st do all that lies in their power, individually and collectively, to tackle the problem of leakage of foreign exchange earnings.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Expert Group Meeting on Remittances from International Labour Migration, 2-4 September 1985, Bangkok, Thailand [collected papers].
[Unpublished, 1985].  p.The Expert Group Meeting on Remittances From International Labour Migration was held at the Economic and Social Commission For Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in Bangkok from 2-4 September, 1985. The titles of papers presented at the meeting include 1) Banking and Other Facilities For Remittances by Migrant Workers from the ESCAP Region to the Middle East, 2) Remittances from International Labour Migration: A Case Study of Bangladesh, 3) Labour Migration and Remittances in Pakistan, 4) Remittances of Indian Migrants to the Middle East: An Assessment with Special Reference To Migrants From Kerala State, 5) An Assessment of West Asian Demand For Migrant Workers from the ESCAP Region, 6) Labour Migration and Remittances in the Republic of Korea, 7) Issues in International Labour Migration Remittance, 8) Prospects or Joint Ventures and Other Forms of Economic Co-operation Between the Middle Eastern Oil Exporting Countries and the Labour Exporting Developing Countries in the ESCAP Region in the Context of Remittances From Labour Migration, 9) Overseas Employment and Remittances: A Case Study of the Philippines, 10) International Labour Migration and Remittances: Experience in Thailand, and 11) Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Remittances From International Labour Migration.
ASIA-PACIFIC POPULATION JOURNAL. 1986 Mar; 1(1):75-9.During the past few years, reports have indicated that international migration from Asia and the Pacific to the Middle East has been decreasing. To consider this trend, the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) organized the Policy Workshop on International Migration in Asia and the Pacific from 15-21 October, 1986, at Bangkok. The Workshop 1st considered the magnitude of international migration. There were an estimated 930,000 Indian workers in the Middle East in 1983, 800,000 Pakistanis, 500,000 Filipinos, 300,000 Bangladeshis, and 200,000 each from the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Workers' remittances to the region reached US $8000-10,000 million per year in 1983. The government policies of the sending countries have been the least adequate in the area of return international labor migration. The Workshop recommended that governments of sending countries 1) ensure that the contracts signed by workers before their departure be honored, 2) provide workers with information on their legal rights in receiving countries before departure, 3) investigate and monitor recruiting agents, and 4) do everything possible to utilize workers' acquired skills on return. The Workshop also recommended that international agencies 1) create standards for data collection on international migration, 2) facilitate the exchange of information on international migration, and 3) sponsor research projects. The Workshop also recommended that governments obtain relevant information on the magnitude, origin, and expenditure of remittances and savings.