Your search found 12 Results

  1. 1
    322030

    Taking stock: Health worker shortages and the response to AIDS.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. HIV / AIDS Programme

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 15 p. (WHO/HIV/2006.05)

    In August 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a coordinated global effort to address a major and often overlooked barrier to preventing and treating HIV: the severe shortage of health workers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Called 'Treat, Train, Retain' (TTR), the plan is an important component of WHO's overall efforts to strengthen human resources for health and to promote comprehensive national strategies for human resource development across different disease programmes. It is also part of WHO's effort to promote universal access to HIV/AIDS services. TTR will strengthen and expand the health workforce by addressing both the causes and the effects of HIV and AIDS for health workers (Box). Meeting this global commitment will depend on strong and effective health-care systems that are capable of delivering services on a scale much larger than today's. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    186940

    What is different about women's organizations?

    Yasmin T

    In: Getting institutions right for women in development, edited by Anne Marie Goetz. London, England, Zed Books, 1997. 199-211.

    Women's organizations have problems handling leadership and the power that comes with it, like any other organization. However, this should not detract from the many positive features of Saptagram's management approach and organizational culture from the perspective of empowering both women staff and beneficiaries. The factors which make Saptagram one of the largest and most successful women's organizations in Bangladesh lie in its emphasis on addressing women's practical and strategic needs. But these factors need not be restricted only to Saptagram. Its management practices, the working conditions, investment in women both in terms of money and time are factors which can be incorporated into existing management practices because Saptagram has proved that it is possible to run a large and successful programme on principles which are not male-oriented. Saptagram's path has not been smooth nor straight for it had to fight battles on many fronts. But that is what it takes to work with women because one is constantly challenging the values which are repressive of and oppressive to women. While NGOs believe in change through development programmes, essentially most organizations fear to challenge the status quo where it concerns women. It is not possible to work for holistic development without involving women at every level of decision-making and leadership, without looking into women's practical and strategic needs and without believing in women. In the final analysis, it takes courage and commitment to work with women. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    105227

    Blood transfusion services.

    Koistinen J; De Zoysa N

    In: Health and disease in developing countries, edited by Kari S. Lankinen, Staffan Bergstrom, P. Helena Makela, Miikka Peltomaa. London, England, Macmillan Press, 1994. 503-11.

    Blood transfusion is a routine hospital function. Whole blood and red cell concentrates are needed for managing anemia and hemorrhage, while plasma, coagulation factors, white cell and platelet concentrates are used for the management of burns, hemophilia, and hematological disorders. The blood transfusion services (BTS) should be part of the national health plan. Transfusion medicine consists of donor recruitment and retention, collection, testing, processing, storage of blood, and training of physicians in appropriate use of blood. Estimation of the need of blood and blood components is usually difficult to make. An annual collection of 5 units of blood per hospital and in acute care is sufficient. Formulation of a national blood policy is necessary for every country. The policy should define: 1) the responsible organization for implementation of the blood program, 2) the method of funding the BTS, 3) the concept of blood donation, and 4) the regulations of blood donation and transfusion. Already 61% of developing and 32% of the least developed countries have adopted such a policy. Responsibility for the organization of transfusion services lies with the ministries of health, which may delegated it to a governmental or nongovernmental organization. The Red Cross is most often associated with BTS. Provision of funding is effected by an annual allocation or on a cost recovery basis. Processing and storage requires refrigeration. Costing of blood transfusion services must include the capital and overhead costs. Other topics included in this report are: national blood transfusion service; recruitment and selection of blood donors (voluntary unpaid blood donation and donor recruitment utilizes the importance of this service to society); collection and processing of blood (testing ABO and Rh groups, HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, Chagas disease, and malaria); blood transfusion service in a small hospital; recruitment and training of personnel; and international organizations dealing with blood transfusion.
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  4. 4
    096187

    Tackling population in Sierra Leone.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1994 Jun; (240):6.

    In this interview (April 21) with Yoshio Koike, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) country director, the population situation in Sierra Leone is described. 4.5 million persons inhabit an area of 74,000 sq. km. Independence was achieved in 1961, but the country was under the patronage of the United Kingdom until April 1992 when a military coup occurred. The new leaders are young (22-29 years) and enthusiastic; a democratic general election will be held in 1996 and the municipal assembly election will occur in 1995. Sierra Leone was the ninth African country receiving aid from UNFPA to establish a population policy (1989). A National Population Commission, which has remained dormant, was also established. The population growth rate is 2.4% annually (average for west African countries); the total fertility rate is 6.8. The maternal mortality rate is estimated to be 1400-1700/100,000 live births. The infant mortality rate (IMR) is about 180; for those under 5 years of age, it is 275. Although the country has 470 clinics available on paper, only 25% are operational according to UNFPA. This is the third year of the MCH/FP project, but only 76 clinics provide family planning information and services. Through coordination of nongovernmental and governmental efforts, 20,000 newcomers and acceptors are being recruited for family planning annually. If expansion continues at this rate and repeaters are maintained for 5 years, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) should reach 20%. Currently, it is 2% in rural areas and 9% in cities. The national average is about 4-6%. The CPR should approach the goal of 60% in 10 years. There is no serious objection to family planning on the basis of religion; however, people are not informed about the importance of birth spacing and about where they can obtain services. Information, education, and communication (IEC) activities are being improved.
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  5. 5
    071973

    Process and outcome evaluation: experience with systems analysis in the PRICOR project.

    Heiby J

    In: Operations research: helping family planning programs work better. Proceedings of an International Conference and Workshop on Using Operations Research to Help Family Planning Programs Work Better, held in Columbia, Maryland, June 11-14, 1990, edited by Myrna Seidman, Marjorie C. Horn. New York, New York, Wiley-Liss, 1991. 395-410. (Progress in Clinical and Biological Research Vol. 371)

    Systems analysis was adopted by the AID Office of Health, Primary Health Care Operations Research (OR) Project (PRICOR) for evaluating the process of delivery of child survival services. Actual performance is compared with an accepted standard. The rationale for examining the process of service delivery is provided along with an outline of the process evaluation methodology and an overall framework for examining the different systems. Illustrative examples of findings are given. Applications of this approach for routine management evaluation are discussed with particular reference to small, rapid, cheap and relatively simple OR studies. Outcome analysis screens for unsatisfactory performance, and process analysis specifies certain activities which require management action or improvements in a supervisor's performance. The PRICOR project objective was the development of practical methodologies for gathering information on service delivery and quality of care. The first task was the detailed identification of concrete activities necessary in providing effective services, which were drawn from the public health literature and a panel of outside experts. This thesaurus was used to examine staff performance in 12 countries: Thailand, Zaire, Haiti, Costa Rica, Colombia, Indonesia, Philippines, Peru, Niger, Pakistan, Senegal, and Togo. Although not a statistically representative sample, it was the first large scale, systematic effort. The following areas were evaluated by observation or review: service delivery, clinical and support facilities, home visits, records, informant interviews, role- playing, training courses, supervisory contacts, and population-based surveys. 6000 interviews and observations were addressed to immunizations, maternal health, child spacing, and growth monitoring and promotion. The systems analysis focused on 7 major systems (quality of care, outreach, primary supervision, secondary and higher levels of supervision, training, logistics, and management of information which were subdivided into approximately 40 issues areas which broke down into approximately 200 distinct and observable staff activities. The findings were that there are extensive and serious deficiencies in quality of care, that program mechanisms are poorly developed to detect and correct deficiencies, and that it is feasible to examine the process of service delivery and determine practical solutions.
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  6. 6
    067400

    The promotion of family planning by financial payments: the case of Bangladesh.

    Cleland J; Mauldin WP

    STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING. 1991 Jan-Feb; 22(1):1-18.

    A study investigative the pros and cons of financial payments for sterilizations to clients, medical personnel, and agents who motivate and refer clients was conducted by the government of Bangladesh in conjunction with the World Bank. Results indicate that Bangladeshi men and women opt to be sterilized both voluntarily and after consideration of the nature and implications of the procedure. Clients were also said to be knowledgeable of alternate methods of controlling fertility. A high degree of client satisfaction was noted overall with, however, 25% regret among those clients with less than 3 children. Money is a contributing factor in a large majority of cases, though dominating as motivation for a small minority. Financial payments to referrers have sparked a proliferation of many unofficial, self-employed agents, especially men recruiting male sterilization. Targeting especially poor potential clients, these agents focus upon sterilization at the expense of other fertility regulating methods, and tend to minimize the cons of the process. Examples of client cases and agents are included in the text along with discussion of implications from study findings.
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  7. 7
    064029

    Cote d'Ivoire. Finalization of Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project.

    Kumah OM

    [Unpublished] 1990. [5], 6, [2] p.

    Final plans for the Cote d'Ivoire Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project were reviewed during a visit by the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services Senior Program Officer who visited Abidjan, September 17-21, 1990. The purpose of the visit was to review the project proposal with officials of the Ivorian Family Welfare Association and of the Regional Economic Development Services Office for West and Central Africa (REDSO/WCA); to meet with officials of Dialogue Production who will produce a video involving students in Bouake; and to discuss with REDSO/WCA the prospects for information, education and communication (IEC) and family planning service delivery. The family planning policy of Cote d'Ivoire changed from pro-natalist to pro-family planning in 1989. Changes in policy, budget, strategy and organization were therefore reviewed. It was suggested that emphasis on male attitude and spousal communication be dropped in favor of concentration on women and school-going adolescents. Some of the recommendations were to complete and distribute the project document; to arrange for Mr. Dahily, the Project Coordinator-Designate, to participate in the JHU Advances in Family Health Communication Workshop scheduled in Tunis in November 1991; to obtain quotes form Dialogue Productions and other video production firms; to choose candidates for Assistant Project Coordinator and Administrative Secretary for interviews in October, and to contact the University of Abidjan Center for Communication Training and Research, the National Public Health Institute, and other subcontractors also by October 1990.
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  8. 8
    040754

    [Institutions of youth promotion and services in La Paz, Bolivia: an analytical-descriptive study] Las instituciones de promocion y servicio a la juventud en La Paz, Bolivia. Un estudio analitico-descriptivo.

    Salazar C; La Fuente G; Cisneros C; De Cisneros MT; De Alencar C

    La Paz, Bolivia, Centro de Investigaciones Sociales, [1984]. 104 p. (Estudios de Recursos Humanos No. 8)

    This work presents the results of an evaluation of 30 institutions in La Paz, Bolivia, which offer recreational, nonformal educational, training, and sports programs to young people. The 1st chapter provides theoretical background on the psychological, social, and sexual problems and tasks of adolescents in modern societies. The 2nd chapter briefly discusses the roles of the family, friendships, and organizations in the development of adolescents, and briefly describes the goals, programs, and financing of 17 of the 20 organizations studied. 21 of the 30 had formal legal status. 16 of the organizations were public and 13 were private. 7 were national in scope and 15 had international ties. 2 were for women only, 23 were for both sexes, and 5 included children. The primary program objectives were educational in 11 cases, cultural in 8, and sports and religious in 5 cases each. 24 of the organizations reported that they fulfilled their objectives and 5 that they possibly did so. 9 of the organizations had vertical patterns of authority, 16 had horizontal, and 5 had other types. 26 reported that their personnel were qualified. 21 were financed by member contributions, 5 by donations, and 1 by parental contributions. 21 reported that attendance was normal and 5 that there was little participation or interest among members. None of the organizations provided more than very superficial sex education programs, although 26 organizations indicated their belief that sex education is important. 12 of the organizations had professionals on their staffs and 17 had volunteers only. 19 reported they had sufficient manpower and 2 that they did not. The material resources of the organizations were scarce; only 6 had their own meeting places. 15 relied on financing by members, 8 had governmental help or received donations from nonmembers, and 4 had international assistance.
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  9. 9
    264624

    Assessment of the International Confederation of Midwives.

    Johnsen E; Middleton SA

    [Unpublished] 1977.

    Evaluation of the effectiveness of the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) in promoting greater involvement of physicians, midwives, and trained birth attendants in family planning activities. This review was conducted both at the site of AID offices in Washington, and at the ICM office in London. Extensive written reports along with follow-up correspondence from participating countries were consulted in the evaluation of field activities. Working parties and follow-up visits conducted on a regional basis are intended to encourage the establishment and strengthening of national midwifery associations, and a review of activities and outcomes in less developed countries is presented. Organizational and administrative aspects of the program are examined, considering in particular the adequacy of financial and staff supports. Finally, assessment is made of the activities and perceived outcomes of the project, and recommendations are made for strengthening and continuing its impact on world population control efforts.
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  10. 10
    003861

    Second International Congress, IFFLP.

    Flynn A

    International Review of Natural Family Planning. 1981 Spring; 5(1):83-90.

    The second International Congress of the International Federation of Family Life Promotion (IFFLP) held in Ireland in September 24 to October 1, 1980 was conducted to provide a forum for issues relating to natural family planning (NFP). The Congress was divided into 3 components: 1) scientific status, program development, and NFP programs in their cultural contexts; 2) the IFFLP general assembly; and 3) trainer's workshop. 2 NFP effectiveness studies (Los Angeles study and Colombia study) both comparing the ovulation method and the sympto-thermal method were discussed in terms of recruitment, training, dropouts, and conclusions. Recruitment in both studies was very low (2-3% of population in the Los Angeles study, and less for the Colombia study), raising questions relating to the measure of acceptability of natural methods in the population concerned and the nature of the constraints of the study. Dropout rate reached an alarming 70% at the end of a year in both studies, raising the questions of the validity of the life-table analysis presented. The Pearl Index values for both studies were very high: for the LA study, 18.5/100 woman-years for the sympto-thermal method and 32/100 woman-years for the ovulation method; for the Colombia study, 33/100 for the sympto-thermal method and 35/100 for the ovulation method. The following were deemed as important scientific advances in NFP: 1) clarification of the concept of "basic infertile" pattern of preovulatory mucus (unchanged pattern day after day means continuing infertility); 2) use of cervical mucus as one of the most important indices in infertile/subfertile patients and also during lactation and premenopause; and 3) development of methods for measuring levels of estrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-alpha-glucuronide to predict start and end of fertile phase. A paper presented on the use of the Billings Ovulation Method by 82 postpartum women followed up for an average of 16 months showed that only 4 unplanned pregnancies occurred (2 method and 2 user failures), and 97.8% of the women learned to recognize their postpartum mucus pattern. The Pearl Index was 7.3/100 woman-years and overall method failure rate was 3.6. Other topics discussed were NFP program services and developments in NFP by zonal groups.
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  11. 11
    091196

    Evaluation of the regional advisory services in population education and communication in Sub-Saharan Africa of FAO, the ILO and UNESCO, 1978-1982.

    Blanch JM; Draper M; Roque F; Wayland S; Trone K; Simonen M

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Jun. iv, 64 p.

    This evaluation was conducted to assess alternative modes of providing regional population education and communication (PEC) advisory services in the African Region in the future, in addition to assessing past performance of existing projects. In the absence of specific and measurable project objectives, as well as uniform, reliable and comparative data for the different projects included in this evaluation, it was not possible to determine exactly the quantity and quality of the achievements of the regional advisory projects over the period under review. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the achivements had been relatively limited, partially because of inherent difficulties associated with the provision of advisory services in the region (e.g., distances, inter-and intra-country communication problems) but more so because of weaknesses in the formulation and implementation of the regional advisory projects. These weaknesses include: 1) differing views on the part of the Executing Agencies and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) about the functions of the regional advisors which underlie the rather vaguely defined functions presented in the project documents; 2) insufficient planning of the regional advisory teams' activities; and 3) recruitment difficulties which led to vacancies and high turnover as well as to the hiring of partially qualified advisors. Furthermore, the present arrangement for the delivery of regional PEC advisory services, e.g., separate agency teams and advisors located in different countries, impedes the effective delivery of services because the advisors under this arrangement cannot function as 1 team. It is recommended that the functions of the regional PEC advisors in Africa be concentrated on assistance to country project formulation, advice on country project management and systemenatic particiaption in country project monitoring and evaluation. Recommended regional PEC advisory services are 1 team for PEC in the non-formal sector and another team for population education in the formal sector. Other recommendations deal with the role of Headquarters vis a vis regional follow-up and monitoring/supervision of regional advisors, other in-country activites and need for resident country advisors.
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  12. 12
    118854

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the Swaziland family planning programme.

    Ryder B; Burton J; Frieiro L

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1982 Dec. xi, 44, [10] p. (Project SWA/75/P01)

    The long range objective of this project (1976-1981) was to improve and enhance the health and welfare of mothers and children, especially in rural areas. In assessing Project achievements and the degree to which progress toward the long term objective has been accomplished, the Evaluation Mission found that the immediate objectives had, to a large degree, been met within the general framework of the Ministry of Health's (MOH) development program. Service delivery points in governmental, mission private and industrial/plantation health facilities are now widely distributed throughout Swaziland. The integration of preventive and curative is clearly in place in the rural health clinics and health centers. Analysis of service statistics data indicates that a large % of pregnant women attend antenatal clinics. Family planning services are now offered in 86 clinics with 27,094 clinic attendances recorded for 1981. The pill is the most popular method, followed by condoms, injectables and IUDs. An adequate though incipient health education program is functioning. The MOH strengthened the health infrastructure for, and has in place a program of, maternal child health (MCH) and family planning (FP). The strong points of the program are the government's commitment to MCH/FP, the general strategy, the training component, the number and quality of staff involved in service delivery, the number of service delivery points and the system of recruitment and the employment of Rural Health Motivators (RHM). Weak points, which appear to have hindered a more effective program performance, are planning and management, the lack of solid socio-anthropological knowledge to base, the lack of a focal point for FP, supervision at all levels and the lack of monitoring and evaluation which, if properly undertaken, could have led to changes and adjustments in the program. Future activities supported by the United Nations Fund for Population in the organization and management of family planning activities within the MCH program and within other government and voluntary organizations. UNFPA should help the government prepare a new proposal for UNFPA assistance to family planning activities in the country and should consider supporting supervision and training activities.
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