Your search found 28 Results

  1. 1

    [Launch of a radio campaign for the participation of rural women in landholding] Lanzamiento de Campaña Radial. Por la participación de las mujeres rurales en la tenencia de la tierra.

    RedAda. 1997 Dec; (26):2-3.

    Given the need for peasant and indigenous women to know about the articles of the Agrarian Reform Institute Law (INRA, Spanish acronym), principally the articles favorable to them, the National Network of Information and Communication Workers, RED-ADA, sponsored by UNIFEM, UNICEF, and SECRAD [Service of Radio and Television Training for Development], has launched the National Campaign "for women's right to land." The first phase of the radio campaign, broadcast by different stations throughout Bolivia, ran for three months, from December 1997 to February 1998, and consisted of six radio spots in four languages: Quechua, Aymará, Guaraní, and Spanish. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Me, you and AIDS. Kenya. A product of a UNESCO-DANIDA workshop for preparation of post-literacy materials and radio programmes for women and girls in Africa.

    Nyingi P

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2000 Jan. [24] p.

    Though the booklets are intended for use with neo-literate women and out-of-school girls, the messages in the stories and the radio programme scripts that accompany them are also relevant for use as supplementary reading materials in formal schools for readers of both sexes. The subjects of the booklets, based on the needs assessments, reflect a wide range of needs and conditions of African women - from Senegal to Kenya, from Mali to South Africa, from Niger to Malawi. A list of common concerns has emerged. These include: HIV-AIDS, domestic violence, the exploitation of girls employed as domestic servants, the lack of positive role models for women and girls, the economic potential of women through small business development, the negative consequences of child marriage, and the need for a more equal division of labour between men and women in the home. Each booklet describes one way of treating a subject of high priority to African women. In the process, the authors have attempted to render the material gender-sensitive. They have tried to present African women and girls and their families in the African context and view the issues and problems from their perspective. We hope these booklets will inspire readers, as they did their authors, to reflect on some of life's common situations, problems and issues that ordinary women and men face every day. The questions accompanying each booklet will help readers ask questions and find answers to some of the issues which also touch their own lives. How the characters in these booklets cope with specific situations, their trials and tribulations, can serve as lessons for women and men living together in 21st Century Africa. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    AIDS: a "real weapon of mass destruction." UN Secretary-General urges greater action.

    Africa Recovery. 2004 Jan; 17(4):4-5.

    Late last year, UN Secretary-General spoke to the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) about the global struggle against HIV/AIDS. The interview was broadcast on World Service Radio and posted on BBC's website on 28 November. The full interview can be heard at: The transcribed excerpts below are reproduced with permission of the BBC. They have been edited slightly for clarity. (author's)
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  4. 4

    [Workshop on Sensitization of Communication Professionals to Population Problems, Dakar, 29 August, 1986 at Breda] Seminaire atelier de sensibilisation des professionnels de la communication aux problemes de population, Dakar du 25 au 29 Aout 1986 au Breda.

    Senegal. Ministere du Plan et de la Cooperation

    Dakar, Senegal, UNICOM, Unite de Communication, 1986. 215 p. (Unite de Communication Projet SEN/81/P01)

    This document is the result of a workshop organized by the Communication Unit of the Senegalese Ministry of Planning and Cooperation to sensitize some 30 Senegalese journalists working in print and broadcast media to the importance of the population variable in development and to prepare them to contribute to communication programs for population. Although it is addressed primarily to professional communicators, it should also be of interest to educators, economists, health workers, demographers, and others interested in the Senegalese population. The document is divided into 5 chapters, the 1st of which comprises a description of the history and objectives of the Communication Unit, which is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Chapter 1 also presents the workshop agenda. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to population problems and different currents of thought regarding population since Malthus, a discussion of the utilization and interpretation of population variables, and definitions of population indicators. The 3rd chapter explores problems of population and development in Senegal, making explicit the theoretical concepts of the previous chapter in the context of Senegal. Topics discussed in chapter 3 include the role of UNFPA in introducing the population variable in development projects in Senegal; population and development, the situation and trends of the Senegalese population; socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Senegalese population; sources of sociodemographic data on Senegal; the relationship between population, resources, environment and development in Senegal; and the Senegalese population policy. Chapter 4 discusses population communication, including population activities of UNESCO and general problems of social communication; a synthesis and interpretation of information needs and the role of population communication; and a summary of the workshop goals, activities, and achievements. Chapter 5 contains annexes including a list of participants, opening and closing remarks, an evaluation questionnaire regarding the workshop participants, and press clippings relating to the workshop and to Senegal's population.
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  5. 5

    Report of the Working Group on Communications Aspects of Family Planning Programmes.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East [ECAFE]

    In: United Nations. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East [ECAFE]. Report of the Working Group on Communications Aspects of Family Programmes and selected papers. Held at Singapore, 5-15 September 1967. Bangkok, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, [1968]. 1-68. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 3)

    The objective of the Working Group on Communications Aspects of Family Planning Programs, meeting during September 1967, was to collate, examine, and evaluate the collective experience in the region of the use of communications media in family planning programs and to try to develop a basic model for using communications to provide information and motivation in family planning programs as an aid to governmental action in this field. Other purposes were: to evolve appropriate guidelines for operational research and evaluation of family planning communication programs; to discuss the best ways in which the family planning communication work can be strengthened through regional cooperation under the aegis of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE); and to seek practical methods of continuing the exchange and pooling of data in the communication effort within the region and from other areas. 20 participants from 13 member countries participated. This report of the Working Group covers the following: national development and family planning; communications in the context of family planning programs (types of communication; objectives of family planning communications; specific functions of family planning communications; target audiences, groups, and individuals; messages; media and materials; staff; and costs); general guidelines for family planning communication programs; communication programs in countries of the ECAFE region (Ceylon, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand); communications media and methods (radio and television, films, newspapers and other printed materials, hoardings and display signs, posters, exhibitions, campaigns, mailings, face to face communications); communication aspects of special significance; practical aspects of a communication organization; production and distribution of communication materials; specialized training for communications; and research and evaluation. Generally, communications about family planning are of 2 types: informal, characterized as being spontaneous, unplanned; and formal communications, those that are planned, organized, intended to serve specific purposes. Family planning communications serve several purposes. Among them are those of informing, educating, motivating, and reassuring large numbers and varieties of people and of legitimating the practice of family planning. The information component of family planning communications will be directed toward individuals, groups, or the public both within the family planning organization and outside it.
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  6. 6

    United Kingdom. BBC's Sexwise provides critical sexual health information worldwide. [Royaume-Uni. L'émission " Sexwise " de la BBC fournit des informations critiques sur la santé sexuelle à un public mondial]

    Making the Connection. 2002; 2(1):6-7.

    The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) are working together to speak to people in their own languages about sexual health and reproductive rights through a program called Sexwise. Sexwise consists of a Web site, book, and radio programs that have been translated into 22 languages by the BBC in collaboration with IPPF and national Family Planning Associations. The program, which has spanned the globe in three phases, aims to provide listeners, readers, and online users with accurate information about sexual health issues along with useful contacts about sexual and reproductive rights. Hence, this collaboration between BBC and IPPF shows how industry and nongovernmental organizations can successfully link their missions to promote public health and well-being.
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  7. 7

    Consultancy report for BASICS on mission to plan radio training in Mali, November 15-22, 1997.

    Myers M; Rasmuson M; Drabo Y

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997. [3], 14, [3] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)

    This report pertains to a consultant visit to Mali, during November 15-22, 1997, to plan a radio training workshop. The workshop was requested as a follow-up to a BASICS regional workshop for radio health messages held in Burkina Faso, in June 1997. The aim of the visit was to decide on an operational plan to deliver health messages aimed at behavioral change, as construed by USAID. The consultants studied the mass media context in Mali, and planned a training workshop for radio journalists and health personnel on an appropriate child health topic. Mali has a thriving independent radio network and a good degree of communal listening to the radio. Health agencies have prioritized the most important child health need as maternal and infant malnutrition and nutritional practices that are harmful to child health. High infant mortality is attributed to withholding of fluids in cases of infant diarrhea and delayed breast feeding. About 50% of mothers are anemic. Meetings were held with many radio-related persons in Bamako, in order to determine the extent and focus of the training need. The family health director of the Ministry of Health (DSF) suggested targeting participants beyond the BASICS area. DSF is BASICS' key partner and one that has contact with 2 local radio stations. Meetings included child health and IEC specialists with USAID/Bamako, which supports 64 community radios outside Bamako. USAID has contacts with major supporters of radio. Meetings were held with people from Plan International, UNICEF, PANOS Institute, Groupe Pivot, SOMARC, World Vision, CNIECS, and potential collaborators.
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  8. 8

    Statistics on children in UNICEF assisted countries.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 1992 Jun. [360] p.

    This compendium provides statistical profiles for 136 UNICEF countries on the status of children. Statistics pertain to basic population, infant and child mortality, and gross national product data; child survival and development; nutrition; health; education; demography; and economics. Official government sources are used whenever possible. The nine major sources include the UN Statistical Office, UNICEF, the UN Population Division, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the World Bank, Demographic and Health Surveys, and UNESCO. Statistics rely on internationally standardized estimates, and whenever standardized estimates were unavailable, UNICEF field office data were used. Some statistics may be more reliable than others. Countries are divided into four groups for under-five mortality: very high (140 deaths per 1000 live births); high (71-140/1000); middle (21-70/1000); and low (20/1000 and under). The median value is the preferred figure, but the mean is used if the range in data is not extensive. Data are footnoted by definitions, sources, explanations of signs, and individual notation where figures are different from the general definition being used. Comprehensive and representative data are used where possible. Data should not be used to delineate small differences. Countries with very high child mortality include Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Yemen.
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  9. 9

    Country watch: Comoros and Morocco.

    Brunger W


    The European Commission (EC) supports programs using radio to inform and educate about HIV and AIDS in developing countries, particularly with regard to illiterate or rural populations. In 1992, in Comoros (where 80% of adults and 65% of persons aged 15-25 listen to radio and there is no national television and only one printed medium--a French magazine), as part of a National AIDS Programme initiative aimed at mobilizing youth and women leaders, two journalists of the national radio channel produced an EC-supported series of 20 radio programs that were broadcast twice weekly every other week as part of the popular program "Sante" (Health). A series of 11 programs were broadcast in 1994-95 by Radio Comoros and by two private stations that were popular with youth. Surveys showed the following: 1) the popular shows were the main source of information on HIV/AIDS and were particularly successful in rural communities when broadcast in the local language; 2) the majority of villagers wanted this and other health information to continue; and 3) public information regarding sexuality was accepted by a large majority. The radio series caused Islamic religious leaders to discuss HIV prevention and condoms. An EC-supported project in Morocco occurred in 1993. The 3-month national information campaign about HIV/AIDS covered myths and rumors, infection risks, prevention measures, the disease and women and youth, the epidemic's socioeconomic impact, the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the role of the media. A 1-hour program in Arabic was broadcast twice a week for 24 weeks, 12 30-minute programs were broadcast in three Berber dialects, and several short spots were aired daily. The program format included presentations and discussions by health staff, psychologists, sociologists, and NGO staff; listener participation was allowed. 1000 men and 700 women were surveyed using a questionnaire. Roadside interviews were conducted in some cities. These showed that the information was understood. Many listeners criticized the lack of information on television and wanted more information broadcast.
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  10. 10

    Learning for life.

    Fisher N

    NEW AFRICAN. 1989 Jul; (262):18-21.

    UNICEF's position on education availability in Africa is posited, and both recent initiatives taken on its own and those conducted through collaborative efforts with other international agencies are described. UNICEF supports the notion of learning for life, with education being accessible to all of Africa's children. Learning should be relevant and responsive to the needs of individuals and communities, helpful for surviving and developing in a dynamic environment, and emphasize their roles in the community, the nation, the work force, and the household. UNICEF supports low cost, community-based early child care and education programs, with a view to maintaining flexible approaches depending upon the types of education which may be required in different contexts. Presently, UNICEF's work in Africa centers upon communicating practical child survival and maternal health information to children, families, opinion leaders, and communicators. Collaborative efforts by UNICEF, WHO, and UNESCO include publishing a new book entitles "Facts for Life," and implementing an action-oriented school health curriculum for primary schools in 5 countries. "Health-into-Mathematics" is another UNICEF publication integrating the 2 fields for children. women in development, the importance of primary education, and the use of radio in education are also addressed. In the face of economic crisis and destabilization, education services must be protected. An initiative to promote renewed national and international commitment to basic education for all, a World Conference on Education for All-Meeting Basic Learning Needs," is noted.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Universal immunization in urban areas: Calcutta's success story.

    Chaudhuri ER

    INDIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1990 Oct-Dec; 34(4):227-34.

    The Central Government of Calcutta, India aimed to immunize 85% (85,262) of the city's >12 month old infants against polio, diphtheria, measles, tuberculosis, pertussis and tetanus. The Universal Immunization Program (UIP) achieved this target 3 months earlier than intended. In fact, at the end of December 1990, it achieved 110.6% for DPT3, 142.16% for OPV3, 151.96% for BCG, and 97% for measles. UIP was able to surpass its targets by emphasizing team work. Government, the private sector, UNICEF, and the voluntary sector made up the Apex Coordination Committee on Immunization headed up by the mayor. The committee drafted an action plan which included routine immunization sessions on a fixed day and intensive immunization drives. Further the involved organizations pooled together cold chain equipment. In addition, the District Family Welfare Bureau was the distribution center for vaccines, syringes, immunization cards, report formats, vaccine carriers, and ice packs. Health workers administered immunizations from about 300 centers generally on Wednesday, National Immunization Day. Intensive immunization drives focused on measles immunizations. UIP leaders encouraged all center to routinely record coverage and submit monthly progress reports to the District Family Welfare Bureau. The Calcutta Municipal Corporation coordinated promotion activities and social mobilization efforts. Promotion included radio and TV announcements, newspaper advertisements, cinema slides, billboards, and posters. The original UIP plan to use professional communicators to mobilize communities was ineffective, so nongovernmental organizations entered the slums to encourage people to encourage their neighbors to immunize their children. Further Islamic, Protestant, and Catholic leaders encouraged the faithful to immunize their children. A UNICEF officer noted that this success must be sustained, however.
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  12. 12

    World population day, 11 July 1990.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1990. 22 p.

    World Population Day (WPD) was observed on July 1, 1990 in more than 90 countries with media coverage or special events. July 11 was designated WPD by the UNDP/UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Governing Council. This was the 1st year WPD was observed. A poster was issued in many languages and distributed globally. A brochure was produced that featured a reproduction of the poster on the cover. A special videotape entitled "Population: The Challenge Ahead" was produced. Cassettes were sent to all UNFPA country directors. A "Population Issues Briefing Kit" was produced and sent to UNFPA headquarters and field staff. Media coverage was extensive. African nations had a variety of event of WPD. In Benin, a major conference was held to discuss "Rapid Population Growth: Its effects on satisfying basic needs." A television program with the same theme was shown and a radio show for children featured songs, poems, and sketches. Burundi also held a conference on the problems of population growth, the legal and social status of women, and the division of land. A dance competition took place in Cape Verde. WPD observances in the Congo were done over a 3-day period. There were special radio and television broadcasts. Guinea devoted a whole week (July 5-11, 1990) to population issues which ended with the celebration of WPD. Tanzania had an award ceremony for the winners of an essay contest for primary and secondary school students on "Population and the Quality of Life." In Iraq, a special television program was shown which involved UNFPA visual materials. Population Day activities also took place in Europe, Asia, the Pacific, and the Arab States, as well as Asia and the Pacific. The national television network in India broadcast the videotape. Extensive coverage was given to WPD by Sri Lankan radio, television, and the press. Many Latin American and Caribbean countries also had special activities. A whole week was given to WPD in Mexico. Jamaica also held an essay contest for schoolchildren on population issues. The winners received copies of the UNFPA book "The Exploding City." The UN organizations and specialized agencies also held WPD activities, as did many nongovernmental organizations, intergovernmental organizations, and training and research institutes.
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  13. 13

    Report of the POPIN-Africa working group on population information dissemination and diffusion (Addis Ababa, 16-20 October 1989).

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa

    [Unpublished] 1989. 28 p. (ECA/PO/PAWID/89/7/Rev.1)

    Representatives of press, radio, print, news and television agencies, population experts, communication training institutions attended the meeting. The presentation on the Union of National Radio and Television Organizations of Africa (URTNA) consisted of 2 major parts: 1) background on URTNA; and 2) a detailed description of its activities. The presentation from the Pan African News Agency is discussed. An overview of the status of mass communication in Africa was given by the African Council on Communication Education Executive Coordinator. The structure and activities of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization-BREDA projects were discussed. The "Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour de development" representative outlined the institution's goals. Information about the activities of the New Agency of Nigeria was presented. The New Agency of Nigeria representative also talked about the role that journalists could play in disseminating population data. A representative of the School of Communication Studies at the University of Ghana shared Ghana's experience with population information dissemination. The new population policy in Senegal was discussed by the "Agency Press Senegalaise." The representative of the Office of the National Committee of Central Planning in Ethiopia spoke of the organizations responsibility for coordinating all planning activities pertaining to Ethiopia's socioeconomic development. Discussions on obstacles to population information diffusion and dissemination: proposed solutions to these obstacles; sources of population information; channels of disseminating population information; activities, outputs, and services; ways of presenting population information; and framework for cooperation took place. 4 major areas of priority were identified: 1) information sharing; 2) training; 3) promotion and publications; and 4) research. A summary of recommendations is given on institution building; information sharing; training; publications and promotion; and research.
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  14. 14

    Broadcasters' questions and answers on AIDS.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1989. [4], 55 p. (WHO/GPA/HPR/89.1; AIDS Prevention Through Health Promotion)

    This document was prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program on AIDS as a resource for radio broadcasters. Radio broadcasters are in an ideal position to increase public knowledge about AIDS and reduce misconceptions; however, to play this role, they must themselves to be well informed. The information in this manual is organized into 13 topics: what is AIDS, AIDS background, AIDS and nightlife, AIDS and you, AIDS next door, AIDS on the street, AIDS at work, AIDS and pregnancy, insects and AIDS, AIDS and travel, international AIDS, national AIDS, and AIDS radio serial. The presentation of each of these topics includes questions and answers, as well as a brief scenario that places the information in the context of daily life. The information can be used by radio broadcasters for shows that cover health topics, question and answer programs, plays, stories, short talks, public service announcements, and radio spots. It is expected that broadcasters will adapt the material to local languages, use scenarios relevant to local high-risk populations, respect local customs and values, use familiar characters and place names, and prepare dialogue and narratives.
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  15. 15

    Assessment of the experience in the production of messages and programmes for rural communication systems: the case of the Wonsuom Project in Ghana.

    Obeng-Quaidoo I

    GAZETTE. 1988; 42(1):53-67.

    In 1983 there was a rural broadcast and newspaper project called the Wonsuom Project sponsored by UNESCO in Ghana. This project was centered around the Swedru district, in a Fante speaking area of 18 villages and towns with a population of 90,000, with the main industries fishing and farming. The broadcast part of the project started producing programs with farmers, fisherman, village nurses, and cultural groups. The second part of the project was a rural newspaper in Fante, with the purpose of supplying useful and timely information and news on health, agriculture, civic education, culture, and entertainment to areas around the town of Swedru. The goals of the rural broadcasts are to create awareness of the Wonsuom Project, promote all types of adult education, to assist people in the area to improve their quality of life, and to work in cooperation with any local organizations in relation to the project. The paper contains information on everything from crop planting information to agricultural loan information. There were also Wonsuom clubs formed that have become involved in many projects to help develop their communities. The newspaper was divided into 3.95% health items, 8% on agriculture, 6.3% on religion, 9% on education, 7% on politics, 7.2% on economics, 24.3% on social issues, 19% on the project itself, 15.7% on entertainment, and 5.8% on culture. The government is not continuing the regular radio broadcast relay station, but going to FM broadcasting which may be a problem since few people can afford FM receivers. The other problems include illiteracy and the financing available to continue and maintain the project. By using advertising and government support the project could continue.
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  16. 16

    Profile of Liberia on IEC management in population programs.

    Sherman JW

    [Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the 1986 ICOMP Biennial International Conference, San Jose, Costa Rica, May 1-4, 1986. 10, [1] p.

    Only about 5% of women in Liberia of child-bearing age who need family planning services have access to such services. A recent study on adolescent sexuality in Monrovia, the capital city of Liberia, revealed that lack of information and unavailability of services accounted for 90% of contraceptive nonuse. In rural areas of the country, there is a belief that a large number of children have high economic value-- daughters bring dowries while sons help with farm work. There is a high infant mortality rate, and parents tend to have many children with the hope that some will survive to adulthood. The society looks with disfavor on those sought to be infertile or unable to have children as often as other persons of similar age. And political leaders are reluctant to advocate any policies on family planning. Given this cultural environment, communications components are essential to any effective family planning programs. Radio and television would be ideal media for publicizing family planning information, but commercial broadcasting is expensive and public service spots are limited. The press cannot be utilized effectively in a country with a literacy rate of 25%. The only communications tool utilized to any extent by family planning programs in Liberia is interpersonal contact through clinic and home visits, lectures, and counseling. But there is little supervision of such contacts and a virtual absence of systematic evaluation to determine the impact of these contacts on family planning services. Agencies in Liberia providing family planning services such as the Family Planning Association of Liberia (funded by IPPF) and the government's Ministry of Health and Social Welfare should build effective communications programs to improve their services.
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  17. 17

    1987 annual report.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea [PPFK]

    Seoul, Korea, Republic of, PPFK, 1988 Apr 20. 50 p.

    The focus in the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea for 1987 annual report is on information and publications programs, education programs, women and youth programs, projects of the UNFPA, and international relations. Throughout 1987 television programs concentrated on advocating preference for the 1-child family as part of the effort to realize the goal of 1% population growth in 1993. The PPFK also sponsored several radio programs to promote the organization of a nationwide network of the fraternities of 1-child families. Newspapers, and magazines produced editorials, feature stories, columns, and cartoons on the impending population crisis symbolized by exceeding the 5 billion mark. A mobile IEC team visited many communities in suburban and other vulnerable areas to launch 45 group educational programs. 4 leaflets were produced and 900,000 copies were printed to publicize the 5 billion world population figure. Education programs targeted military surgeons and armed service personnel, and Dong-level (the lowest administrative subdivision) family planning counselors. Intensive population/family planning IEC programs were conducted for residents of low-income urban communities. These programs were designed to cultivate an attitude favorable toward small family size and planned parenthood. Those women's associations which had distinguished themselves in family planning, maternal and child health services, and community development were honored. UNFPA projects took the form of educational programs conducted through the senior citizens' fraternities, sex counseling centers for youth, the training of foreigners in the development of IEC materials, educational broadcasting for the sex education of youth, and community-based international training for women leaders from abroad.
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  18. 18

    Communication, development, and the Third World. The global politics of information.

    Stevenson RL

    New York, New York, Longman, 1988. xv, 223 p.

    In 1964 Wilbur Schramm, on a grant from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), wrote a book called "Mass Media and National Development." It painted a glowing picture in which the mass media would reveal the way to development and enable the Third World countries to achieve in a few decades the development that had occurred over centuries in the West. By the 1970s it became clear that population growth was overtaking development. The Third World nations began to see the mass media as tools of the conspiracy of transnational corporations in their to keep the Third World a source of cheap labor. The Third World countries began to seek an alternate route to development, without help from either the East or the West. Their ideal and model was China, where the radical alternative had been shown to work. The Third Word countries joined together as the "Non-Aligned MOvement," a organization which had been founded in Indonesia in 1955. By the 1970s the Third Word countries constituted a majority in UNESCO, which they turned into a forum of resentment against the Western mass media, which they perceived as using dominance over world news flow to keep the Third World in a state of cultural dependency on the West. The poverty of the Third World nations, they claimed, was the heritage of colonialism, and the West owed them restitution. The Western news media were identified as the modern day equivalent of the colonial armies of imperialism. The debate over the dominance of Western influence in world news flow was launched in UNESCO by a request from the Soviet Union in 1972 for "a declaration on the fundamental principles governing the use of the mass media with a view to strengthening peace and understanding and combatting war, propaganda, radicalism, and apartheid." The debate in UNESCO took on a new name, the "New World Information Order," in which the Third World nations argued that they had the right to restrict the free flow of news across their borders. UNESCO Director General, Amadou M 'Bow, tabled the resolution and appointed a commission, headed by Sean MacBride, to undertake general review of communications problems in modern society. The report, entitled "Many Voices, One World," was in many ways vague, but it at least endorsed the Western values of free flow of information. The Us offered technological assistance to the Third World under the auspices of the International Program for the Development of Communication. This institution was designed as a world clearinghouse for communication development, but as such it accomplished little. Meanwhile, the Third World countries gave priority to developing their own national news agencies and the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool, dedicated to the "journalism of national development." What this meant, if effect, was journalism limited to "development news" (which by definition was always good)and to "protocol news," i.e., ribbon-cutting and other ceremonial events. By the time of the US withdrawal from UNESCO at the end of 1984, the issue was becoming, if not resolved, at least quiescent, with some indications of progress. At the 1983 conference at Talloires, the World Press Freedom Committee and the Associated Press put together a list of 300 journalistic exchange, training, and internship programs in 70 countries. The World Bank issued a report on "Telecommunications and Economic Development," and a report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the International Telecommunications Union pointed out the cost-benefit relationship of telecommunications to economic development. Finally, a report by an international commission headed by Sir Donald Maitland stressed the importance of shifting existing resources to telecommunications so that basic communications services would be available to everyone on earth by the early 21st century.
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  19. 19

    Draft team member contributions to mid-term evaluation of the Population and Family Planning Project (608-0171) in Morocco.

    Bouhafa M

    [Unpublished] 1988 Mar. 13 p.

    The draft team member contributions to the mid-term evaluation of the population and family planning project in Morocco examine current progress and address future needs. Increased awareness of at least 1 method of family planning was attributed to a USAID-funded project. But, problems of access, religious constraints, and lack of method-specific media campaigns need to be addressed. An increased effort to direct promotion efforts toward men is needed, as a prior immunization program showed that the husband was a key factor in encouraging mothers to bring their children to be vaccinated. Because the local health worker plays a critical role at the community level, training and support for these workers should be emphasized. Media-specific and audience-specific campaigns, by the government and private sector, should focus on the most cost-effective means of reaching the provincial level population. Donor organizations (such as UNICEF, UNFPA and USAID) should address the IEC needs identified by the central health education office, whose role and supporting functions need to be strengthened. Content of family planning materials must be method-specific, using a systematic methodology to address problems of inappropriateness, inadequate contraceptive mix, and lack of field worker training materials. Improved distribution methods for existing materials, as well as increased use of television and mass media are viable options. Using the community more effectively by encouraging leader motivation and instituting incentives could help to improve promotional and distributional activities at the provincial level. An evaluation of training needs revealed that the workshop method of training may be overemphasized, and most health workers expressed a desire for lengthened training. The private sector could be sensitized to public health issues and needs and, in conjunction with out of country technical assistance, produce effective social marketing of contraceptives within the Moroccan context. Coordination with other donors would be beneficial, with the exchange of documents and meetings between the groups.
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  20. 20

    URTNA Family Health Project, URTNA - SP-131: Project description and budget.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Family Planning International Assistance [FPIA]

    [Unpublished] [1986]. 4 p.

    The Union of National Radio and Television Organizations of Africa/Program Exchange Center (URTNA/PEC) Family Health Project has been funded by Family Planning International Assistance to produce and exchange radio and TV programs on family planning issues. URTNA staff and offices in Dakar, Senegal and PEC staff and office in Nairobi, Kenya will administer the grant. 3 member countries will be selected from Tanzania, Ethiopia, Angola and Algeria for mini-grants of $2500-5000 to produce programs. 9 broadcast activities are suggested, such as short radio dramas on male responsibility for child spacing, workshops for broadcasters and health specialists, and evaluation of an existing broadcast. Details on how the program is to be administered and evaluated are presented. It is estimated that 18 radio, 9 TV tapes and 18 bulletins will be exchanged among participating countries during the grant's lifetime.
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  21. 21

    International cooperation in the development of West African mass media.

    Fisher HA

    In: Mass communication, culture and society in West Africa, edited by Frank Okwu Ugboajah. [Oxford, England], Hans Zell Publishers, 1985. 74-84.

    Due to the fact the most independence came in the late 1950s and early 1960s, most of the new African nations faces a broadening gap between themselves and the developed world. Their media systems were inadequate fro an ascent to modernization, and a communications revolution in the Western world was threatening to make their systems even more antiquated. A wide array of individuals and national and international medis, business and governmental organizations and foundations provided assistance and cooperation for theis catch up process. Most, but not all, were motivated by a sincere desire to aid development. A perusal of some of these external groups' activities, in the form of projects, training schemes, bilateral exchanges, broadcasts, and organizational influences, should help the reader to gain insights into the nature and effects of such outside assistance. External assistance has been given both by individual nations and by multilateral cooperation to experimental programs and projects in several newly independent African nations. A few of the more successful projects are examined. Possibly the best known cooperatively sponsored projects have been those in rural radio, with Ghana's rural radio farm forum a prime example. UNESCO and the Canadian government cooperated in 1964-65 with the government of Ghana in a 6-month pilot project in which rural radio forums were tested in 60 villages. The project promoted the educational programs, organized listener groups, led follow-up discussions, and encouraged group action. A number of unique educational projects utilizing radio or television have been cooperatively supported. A wide range of bilateral programs involving the receiving countries have been devised to help the development of African media. Sometimes, due to their government-to-government nature, these programs have been suspect in the eyes of Africans. Several universities outside Africa have provided resources for assisting the African media systems. Most university programs are at least partially supported by governmental grants, but they usually are careful to avoid promulgation of a specific political viewpoint. Possibly the most significant and welcome external cooperation and aid has been in the form of training of African media personnel. Help in this task has come from numerous sources, including organizations in former colonial mother countries. Short courses and training institutes ranging from a few days in length to 6 months or more have been sponsored by outside media organizations, governments, and foundations. In 1972, 40 nations outside Africa were broadcasting to the African continent. This situation remains virtually unchanged today. There is little question that outside broadcasts have influenced Africans.
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  22. 22

    Media and population in Zambia.

    Mijoni V

    [Unpublished] [1978]. [6] p.

    Zambia's mass media has the dual task of informing the public about development issues and about Zambia's role in the liberation wars of other south African countries. To adequately fulfill these tasks, the mass media must overcome communication obstacles which stem from the historical development of the nation's mass media system. In the past, Zambia's wealth was derived primarily from copper mining. As a result, development and urbanization was confined to the Copperbelt region of the country. The mass media was developed with money derived from the copper industry and created to serve the needs of the urban elite residing in the Copperbelt. The majority of the population lives in the rural areas and is, therefore, excluded both as an audience and as a source of news. Efforts are now underway to improve the 2-way flow of information between urban and rural areas. This flow is essential for promoting public understanding of development issues. To increase the flow from the rural areas to the urban areas government reporters are now assigned to each provincial information office. The reporters send all the news from their areas by telex to the government's Information Department but also to the Zambian News Agency, which then distributes it to radio and television stations and to the newspapers. Efforts to increase the information flow from the urban areas to the rural areas includes a plan to introduce television into all the rural areas of the country. Currently, television is available in the major urban province and in 1 rural province. In reference to newspapers, there are 2 major dailies in the urban region and small government newspapers are published twice a month in each rural province. These rural newspapers are of poor quality. To improve news availability in rural areas, summaries of the news carried in the major daily urban papers are now published each week and distributed in the rural areas. An additional problem faced by the Zambian mass media is the need to depend on foreign news services for international news. These services tend to report African issues from a biased perspective and generally attribute the problems of African countries to tribalism or economic mismanagement. To overcome some of the problems associated with dependency on the foreign new services, Zambia recently joined the African Media Foundation. This organization will gather and distribute news from numerous African countries.
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  23. 23

    Using the mass media to expand child care in Central America.

    Naranjo C

    Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):267-72.

    The Regional Program on Early Stimulation, initiated by UNICEF in Central America and later extended to Latin America, was designed as an educational child rearing program for families in the lowest income group and based on nonformal methods to be used outside the scope of official education programs. The program started with the preparation of a series of booklets with information on illnesses, immunization, nutrition and on the stimulation children require at each stage of their development if they are to achieve their maximum potential. A simple, universal, easy-to-read vocabulary was used. The next step was to introduce some of the concepts contained in the booklets into newspapers and radio programs. In Guatemala, a phone-in program was broadcast with enormous success by a commercial radio station. As a result, a television program was planned. It was decided that a film should be made to illustrate the basic concepts underlying the integral development of the child. In Costa Rica, the film was broadcast by a national television station and seen by almost the entire country. With the help of these materials, and the use of teacher-training courses, group dynamics and special techniques, over 6000 people were trained in early stimulation in Central America. A more comprehensive strategy was devised to make further use of the mass media in Central America. A number of film scripts, television and radio programs were developed in El Slavador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. In other countries radio and television have been used to teach the care required to improve children's biological, psychological and social development. Throughout Central and Latin America, use of the mass media for educational purposes is welcomed. Many of the projects undertaken during the International Year of the Child have been established on a peermanent basis in Central American countries.
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  24. 24

    Family planning communication reach study.

    Waliullah S; Nessa S

    Dacca, Bangladesh, Directorate of Population Control and Family Planning Research, Evaluation, Statistics and Planning Wing, April 1977. 30 p.

    Upon completion of a report on Research Inventory and Analysis of Family Planning Communication Research in Bangladesh, the convenor of Task Force II proposed a study on Family Planning Communication Audience, a top priority study, as documented by the Task Force II in its report submitted earlier to the government. The objectives of this study are to: 1) examine if 2 steps or a multi-step communication model is in operation in Bangladesh; 2) determine which of the media has the largest audience; 3) determine the contribution of each of the mass media in disseminating the family planning message; and 4) determine socioeconomic characteristics of various media audiences. The sample design included exposure to 5 mass media: newspapers, television, radio, audiovisual van, and village bard. The study shows that: 1) both groups of respondents (male and female) have been exposed to the mass media in varying degrees, but that the audiences, after receiving the message, did not keep it confined to themselves; 2) the 2 and 3 step model of communication is in operation in the sample population; 3) in terms of exposure, the data show that radio had larger audiences among both male and female respondents; 4) newspapers, radio, and television audiences differ from the audiences of the other 2 media--village bard, and audiovisual van--in the following areas: education, age, income, and parity. Recommendations are made for further development of family planning communication programs through the mass media: 1) More news, advertisements, pictures, and features printed in the daily newspapers "Ittefaq," and "Dainik Bangla," which are widely read by rural populations; 2) installation of radios and television sets at public sites will enable public service announcements on family planning to be viewed; 3) the musical drama, "Jatragan," by the village bard is highly effective in delivering the family planning message; 4) future studies should include control groups for each of the 5 media audiences; and 5) since women cannot join men in viewing the audiovisual van performances, special arrangement should be made for them.
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  25. 25

    Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.

    Waliullah S; Mia A; Rahman M

    [Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.

    Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
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