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[Paris, France], UNESCO, 2003. 37 p. (SHS/SRP/MIG/2003/PI/H/2)Globalization and increased population flows across borders have created a daunting challenge for the international community: the need to address the particular vulnerability of migrants. While migrant workers often make significant contributions to the economies and societies of the State in which they work and of their State of origin they remain, from a legal point of view, more vulnerable than many other groups who have the benefit of clearer and more wide-ranging international and regional legal protections. This is because the development and acceptance - especially from more developed States - of international legal standards to protect migrants' rights has been very slow, with the UN Convention on the Protection of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families only entering into force in 2003. The rights contained in the Migrant Workers' Convention are human rights. They are indicators as to how governments may protect migrants and better manage the problems and opportunities of international migration. This may also help avoid the dangers of racism, intolerance and xenophobia which may result when there is not a balanced view of both positive and negative aspects of migration movements and their effects on the economies and societies of both host States and States of origin. The global challenge which international migration represents calls for a global approach. UNESCO - as part of its role in the field of migration, social integration and cultural diversity - has been bringing together researchers, policy-makers, NGOs and other interested parties to deal with various facets of this challenge, including the adoption of the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity and the launch of a much needed campaign for the ratification of the Migrant Workers' Convention. (author's)
Kathmandu, Nepal, UNESCO, 2006.  p. (UNESCO Kathmandu Series of Monographs and Working Papers No. 8; KAT-SHS-2006/01)Socio-cultural diversity is one of the important features of Nepalese society. Its people are categorized into a number of caste groups as well as ethnic communities. They possess different types of cultural traditions and assume different levels of economic standing. In view of these diversities, public debates in Nepal have raised the issue that these different types of social categories share the opportunities and privileges available in this society differentially. Given this, this report aims to: highlight the existing forms and patterns of social discrimination experienced by people of Nepal, as they occur, on the grounds of their caste, ethnicity, gender, and religion-based identities, draw attention to the difference types of social discrimination experienced by people of the aforementioned social categories, and discover the variations of social discrimination among people, as they occur, in terms of their class-based position within these social categories. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1992 Dec; 29(4): p..Slavery, sex tourism and xenophobia were among the broad range of issues addressed by the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities at its forty-fourth session (3-28 August, Geneva). Racial discrimination, the rights of minorities and indigenous peoples, economic, social and cultural rights, the administration of justice and other human rights matters were also on the agenda. As the principal subsidiary of the Commission on Human Rights, the 26-member Subcommission asked that increased attention be paid to issues related to trafficking in children, child labour and prostitution, children in armed conflicts and commercial or exploitative adoptions. The Subcommission was gravely concerned over sex tourism and requested the World Tourism Organization to discuss ways of preventing that phenomenon. States should take urgent measures to protect minors from exposure to or involvement in child pornography, it said. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2000 Dec; (9): p..This article examines the ethnically-discriminatory nature of Kenya's refugee policy, its influence on the administration and practice of refugee affairs, especially by relief agencies, and its role in encouraging sexual violence against women refugees. The sexual violence against refugees in Kenya in the 1990s occurred against the backdrop of a huge increase in the refugee population, a shift in its ethnic composition and the rise of ethnicity as the dominant ideological force in Kenya's refugee administration. (excerpt)
AIDS ANALYSIS AFRICA. 1995 Jun; 5(3):3.The World Health Organization (WHO) is not as prestigious as it used to be. It operates on a relatively small annual budget of $1.8 billion, the WHO 1995 audit suggested irregularities in the way contracts were awarded and criticized a lack of control over funds at the WHO's African headquarters in the Congo, and its director, Hiroshi Nakajima, has been accused of being a racist against Africans. Nakajima complained during a January 1995 WHO board meeting that some African members had poor English skills. Delegates from several African nations to the annual World Health Assembly, which began in Geneva on May 1, subsequently raised the issue and called for the Japanese director to resign. The release of the recent WHO health report, "Bridging the Gaps," was an attempt by the organization to regain some its international respect, but little new was reported. Basic messages were that poverty is the most important cause of ill health, 60% of all new HIV infections occur among people aged 15-24 in many countries, 50% of people with HIV globally are younger than 25 years old, 60% of infections in women occur by age 20, and life expectancy is increasing in all countries except Cote d'Ivoire, Central African Republic, Congo, Uganda, and Zambia, all countries hard-hit by HIV/AIDS. For now, Nakajima has retained his position, although British and US donors stress that they will keep closer watch over the organization and that reforms must be made.
Apartheid and health. Part I. Report of an international conference held at Brazzaville, People's Republic of the Congo, 16-20 November 1981. Part II. The health implications of racial discrimination and social inequality: an analytical report to the conference.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1983. 258 p.This mongraph is organized into 2 parts. Part I includes an introduction consisting od election of officers, method of work, and participants. Opening statements by Comlan A. A. Quenum, Regional Director for Africa, World Health Organization (WHO); Alfred Nzo, Secretary-General of the African National Congress; John Nyati Pokela, Chairman of the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania; Iyambo Indongo, Secretary of Health, South West Africa People's Organization; and Halfdan Mahler, Director-General, World Health Organization are given. The main themes of discussion were the choice between health or apartheid, an analysis of the system of health care delivery in South Africa, and the interrealtionships between apartheid and maternal and child health, workers' health, and mental health. In the course of its discussions the Conference reached a consensus on the following: 1) direction, coordination, and management; 2) health systems infrastructure; and 3) health science and technology. The strategy for health for all by the year 2000 in the African Region, action against apartheid and its harmful effects on health development is discussed, as is the place of the struggle against apartheid in regional and global strategies. The Brazzaville Declaration is given. In Pari II, the health implications of racial discrimination and social inequality are discussed. An introduction is given and the nature of apartheid is discussed, as is the origin of South African society and its health care system. Living conditions and disease patterns, the extent and effect of malnutrition, the impact of apartheid on psychosocial development, occupational health and disease, and the politics of care are also discussed in Part II. The concluding discussion covers disease and health care in South Africa and the constitution of the World Health Organization.