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European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2008 Mar; 13(1):58-70.Acceptance of sexual and reproductive health as fundamental to the sustainable development of societies has allowed for creation of new reproductive health programmes and policies. WHO sexual and reproductive health (SRH) strategies were developed in the WHO Regional Office for Europe (2001), as well as globally (2004). Adolescent SRH is important in both strategies. Despite these commitments, adolescents remain vulnerable to poor reproductive health. The goal of this paper is to analyse the current status of SRH of adolescents in Europe. Key reproductive health indicators were chosen. Information was obtained from published studies, databases and questionnaires sent to WHO reproductive health counterparts within the health ministries in the Member States of the WHO European Region. Pregnancy rate, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive use at first and last intercourse, contraceptive prevalence, HIV knowledge, and STI rates vary widely according to the population considered. Gender difference and lack of information pertaining to SRH of all adolescent populations are other key findings. While the SRH of most European adolescents is good, they remain a vulnerable population. Lack of standardized reproductive indicators and age specific aggregate data make it difficult to accurately assess the situation in individual countries or perform cross country comparison. (author's)
[Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the 8th International Conference on AIDS / 3rd STD World Congress, Amsterdam, Netherlands, July 19-24, 1992.  p.Three questionnaires which ask questions about prostitutes' sexual contacts with clients, short-term casual partners, and long-term partners were compared to determine whether the most detailed of the 3 would obtain data on unsafe sex practices otherwise overlooked by the other 2 versions. A World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire, a revised version of the WHO questionnaire developed for a Toronto-based study involving IV-drug users, and a 3rd specifically targeting prostitutes were employed. Unsafe sex practices, albeit some considered high-risk and others low-risk, include: anal and/or vaginal intercourse with or without a condom, fellatio without a condom, cunnilingus without a barrier during menses, and the sharing of sex toys. Toronto prostitutes pre-tested the most detailed of the 3 questionnaires. Results indicate that all unsafe sex activities with clients would be reported equally well by each of the questionnaires. The 2 less detailed questionnaires would, however, miss a number of unsafe sex practices between prostitutes and lovers reported in the most detailed questionnaire. Missing data would not be obtained even if both of the less-detailed versions were used. This study highlights the need to develop and use questionnaires which assess all data on unsafe sex behavior which are relevant to the formulation and implementation of effective HIV prevention programs.
Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. 1982 Fall-Winter; 8(2):31-4.This study investigates the contraceptive decision-making processes of 132 sexually active 15 to 19 year old girls. The subjects completed a questionnaire designed to elicit information on their assessment of the personal and social costs of contraceptive use; the personal and social benefits of pregnancy, and their biological ability to become pregnant. Approximately 175 questionnaires were collected from 3 Planned Parenthood clinic sites in Indiana. The only questionnaire item which significantly predicted contraceptive use was the girl's assessment of the financial costs related to contraceptive use. The study confirmed several demographic trends demonstrated in earlier empirical studies: the older a sexually active girl becomes, between the ages of 15 and 19, the more likely she is to be a good contraceptor and the longer a sexually active girl has been dating a particular person the more likely she is to be a good contraceptor. Within the sexually active subsample, only 6.1% agreed that hindrance to spontaneity was a reason for nonuse of contraception, and only 7.1% stated that their partner objected to birth control use. The common assumption that teenagers do not like to appear prepared for sex received only minimal support: 15% said they did not like to think of themselves as prepared, and 8% said they did not like their partners to think of them as prepared for sex. A theme of general embarrassment over the whole process of obtaining birth control was evident, however: 47% said they found going to a clinic for birth control embarrassing; 53.5% said going to a private doctor was embarrassing; and 61.2% agreed that buying foam or condoms in a drug store embarrassing. The study attempted to determine which of the costs of contraception, and which of the benefits of pregnancy, are perceived by teenagers to weigh most heavily in their own informal process of deciding whether or not to use contraception.