Your search found 10 Results

  1. 1
    313995
    Peer Reviewed

    Generations and Gender Survey (GGS): Towards a better understanding of relationships and processes in the life course.

    Vikat A; Speder Z; Beets G; Billari FC; Buhler C

    Demographic Research. 2007 Nov 30; 17(14):389-440.

    The Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) is one of the two pillars of the Generations and Gender Programme designed to improve understanding of demographic and social development and of the factors that influence these developments. This article describes how the theoretical perspectives applied in the survey, the survey design and the questionnaire are related to this objective. The key features of the survey include panel design, multidisciplinarity, comparability, context-sensitivity, inter-generational and gender relationships. The survey applies the life course approach, focussing on the processes of childbearing, partnership dynamics, home leaving, and retiring. The selection of topics for data collection mainly follows the criterion of theoretically grounded relevance to explaining one or more of the mentioned processes. A large portion of the survey deals with economic aspects of life, such as economic activity, income, and economic well-being; a comparably large section is devoted to values and attitudes. Other domains covered by the survey include gender relationships, household composition and housing, residential mobility, social networks and private transfers, education, health, and public transfers. The third chapter of the article describes the motivations for their inclusion. The GGS questionnaire is designed for a face-to-face interview. It includes the core that each participating country needs to implement in full, and four optional submodules on nationality and ethnicity, on previous partners, on intentions of breaking up, and on housing, respectively. The participating countries are encouraged to include also the optional sub-modules to facilitate comparative research on these topics. (author's)
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  2. 2
    311687

    Fulfilling reproductive rights for women affected by HIV / AIDS. A tool for monitoring progress toward three Millennium Development Goals. Updated version.

    de Bruyn M

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Ipas, 2006 Aug. 20 p.

    In 2004, more than 25 national and international organizations presented a statement to the secretariat of the United Nations (UN) Commission on the Status of Women that highlighted relatively neglected areas in the reproductive health of women affected by HIV/AIDS. In collaboration with the International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW), the Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE) and the Pacific Institute for Women's Health, Ipas used that statement and a literature review to develop this practical tool to help nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) address those neglected areas of reproductive health. Since the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have become a common framework for assessing progress in development, the tool links those areas of reproductive health to three of the MDGs related to empowering women, improving maternal health and combating HIV/AIDS. This document is an updated version of the original resource published in 2004. Changes were made after the eight partner NGOs listed below piloted the benchmarks in 11 developing countries. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    296082

    MICS, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.

    UNICEF

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Mar. [2] p.

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a household survey programme developed by UNICEF to assist countries in filling data gaps for monitoring human development in general and the situation of children and women in particular. MICS is capable of producing statistically sound, internationally comparable estimates of social indicators such as the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) indicators. It is a flexible tool that is reasonably inexpensive and relatively quick to implement. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    275666
    Peer Reviewed

    The members' enquiry service: frequently asked questions.

    Stephen G; Brechin S; Penney G

    Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2004; 30(4):253-254.

    The Clinical Effectiveness Unit (CEU) presents an illustrative response of a frequently asked question to the Members’ Enquiry Service on whether or not hormonal contraceptive use by women with a history of pregnancy-related cholestasis is safe or associated with recurrence of cholestasis. The Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs) for combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and progestogen-only pills (POPs) advise against use by women with a history of cholestatic jaundice or with severe pruritis in pregnancy. The World Health Organization (WHO) Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (WHOMEC), however, recommends that for women with pregnancy-related cholestasis the benefits of COC use outweigh the risks (WHO Category 2) and progestogen-only methods or non-hormonal methods can be used without restriction (WHO Category 1). No evidence was identified to support an increased risk of recurrence of symptoms with hormonal contraceptive use. The CEU advises that women with a history of pregnancy-related cholestasis should be informed about the unknown risk of recurrence with hormonal contraceptive use. After counselling regarding non-hormonal methods, women with a history of pregnancy-related cholestasis may choose to use hormonal methods (COCs, POPs, progestogen-only injectables, implant or intrauterine system). Women should be informed that the use of COCs and POPs in this situation is outside the product licence. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    188500

    Development of a scale to assess maternal and child health and family planning knowledge level among rural women.

    Sood AK; Nagla BK

    Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues. 2000; 23(1):37-52.

    This paper presents a tool specifically developed for assessing the knowledge of rural women in Rohtak district of Haryana regarding maternal and child health. This tool can also be used for (i) identification of high risk women groups in the community by the programme managers as well as by the researchers; (ii) quantitative analysis of the relationship between various decisions making variables and the knowledge level of women regarding MCH and FP and (iii) impact evaluation of the IEC programme on the knowledge of women regarding maternal and child health. (author's)
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  6. 6
    182630
    Peer Reviewed

    Initial steps to developing the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL) module for international assessment in HIV / AIDS. WHOQOL HIV Group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. WHOQOL HIV Group

    AIDS Care. 2003 Jun; 15(3):347-357.

    This paper reports on the three initial steps taken to develop the World Health Organization’s Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL) module for assessment of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). First, a consultation of international experts was convened to review the suitability of the generic WHOQOL-100 for assessment of PLWHA. The experts proposed additional facets that are specific to the lives of PLWHA. Second, 42 focus groups (N=235) were conducted by six culturally diverse centres comprising of PLWHA, informal carers and health professionals to (1) review the adequacy of the WHOQOL for PLWHA, (2) review the additional facets proposed by the experts, and (3) write additional facets and items for a pilot instrument. Third, results of steps 1 and 2 were consolidated, and a total of 115 items, covering 25 new facets and sub-facets for assessment of QoL specific to PLWHA, were prepared for pilot testing. The new facets included symptoms of HIV, body image, sexual activities, work, social inclusion, disclosure, death and dying, and forgiveness. The implications of cross-cultural QoL assessment for PLWHA are discussed. (author's)
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  7. 7
    180915

    Bangladesh: contraceptive logistics system. Review of accomplishments and lessons learned.

    Kinzett S; Bates J

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], Family Planning Logistics Management [FPLM], 2000. x, 67 p. (USAID Contract No. CCP-C-00-95-00028-00)

    This report documents the status of technical assistance provided by the USAID-funded Family Planning Logistics Management project to the Bangladesh Family Planning Program in developing a countrywide contraceptive logistics system. A study conducted in November 1999 to evaluate the impact of technical assistance on logistics management and contraceptive security is detailed. The report concludes with findings from the study, lessons learned, and recommendations to continue improvements in the system. (author's)
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  8. 8
    272535

    Measuring childhood mortality: a guide for simple surveys.

    David PH; Bisharat L; Hill AG; Bennett S

    Amman, Jordan, United Nations Children's Fund, Regional Office of the Middle East and North America, 1990. 172 p.

    This handbook is intended to aid the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) handle surveys of childhood mortality added to vaccination coverage surveys (expanded program of immunization- -EPI) surveys or to diarrheal mortality and morbidity surveys (MMT). By including all women of reproductive ages in each household as part of EPI coverage surveys, the survey window has widened. The core modality module (CMM) locks neatly into this flow. It is not intended to be a substitute for other ways to measure child mortality. Infant and under- age-5 mortality are indicators of social welfare. The reasons why these surveys are called "simple" or "rapid" are listed. Measurement of mortality is covered in Chapter 1. The Brass method, the birth history, the preceding births technique, and the design and execution of a simple mortality survey are discussed here. Formulating the questionnaire is covered in the next chapter. Discussed here are the mortality module; translation, layout and pretesting of the questionnaire; the screening questionnaire, and the mortality questionnaire (Modules A and B). Chapter 3 discusses the design of a sample survey to measure childhood mortality. Discussed here are cluster and stratified sampling, modifying EPI surveys for purposes of mortality estimation, selecting the sample and the clusters, determining sample size, and the requirements of a good sample. Collecting the data is discussed in chapter 4. Topics discussed include field work, preparation of the interview instructions, field supervisor and interviewers, selection and training of field staff, training course outline, selecting households in the sample, quality control; supervisor's responsibilities, how to handle an interview, and how to fill in the questionnaire. The 5th chapter discusses data analysis. Under data analysis, data tabulation of the mortality data, the Brass estimates of childhood mortality and trends, preceding birth technique estimates, estimates from the short birth history, technical note: calculating sampling error for proportions and points to remember are described. How to write the report is discussed in chapter 6.
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  9. 9
    032594

    Some lessons from the attempt to retrieve early KAP and fertility surveys.

    Hermalin AI; Entwisle B; Myers LG

    New York, New York, Population Council, 1985 Sep. 5, [6] p. (Fertility Determinants Research Note No. 5)

    One of the notable features of population studies in the past 35 years has been the increasing reliance on sample surveys as the primary source of demographic data. Past surveys of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of contraception in developing countries are important resources. These early KAP and fertility surveys, conducted 10 or more years ago, provide benchmarks for the study of how group differentials in behavior and attitudes evolve with time. Together with recent surveys, they help to monitor the pace and nature of the transition from 1 demographic regime to another within societies. Attempts to retrieve the earlier data produced constructive lessons and recommendations on how to safeguard current and future surveys and promote their use. 3 recommendations emerge that will help safeguard current and future surveys and promote their use. 1) Develop standards of documentation and maintenance, including how long questionnaires are to be retained, now much of the detail of sampling design should be saved, what constitutes an adequate description of interviewer characteristics and instruction. 2) Arrange for public access and the mechanisms to promote it. Funds should be budgeted for this purpose from the outset. Surveys that are still not generally available after a reasonable number of years lose much of their value and deprive the demographic community of a valuable resource. 3) Create structures to preserve and disseminate KAP and fertility surveys. The need for this is greatest for surveys not associated with large international programs. In all cases arrangements for longterm preservation must be made. Tables are included which describe 3rd world countries in which KAP or fertility surveys were conducted before 1981, and an inventory of pairs of surveys for potential use in conparative and over-time analysis.
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  10. 10
    011482

    Further thoughts on the definitions of economic activity and employment status

    Blacker JGC

    Population Bulletin of the Economic Commission for Western Asia. 1980; (19):69-80.

    The author cites problems in the definitions of different categories of economic activity and employment status which have been made by the UN. The term "casual workers" has never been clarified and these people were described as both employed and unemployed on different occasions; there is also no allowance for the term underemployed in the UN classification. The latter term, he concludes, is not included in most censuses. The UN in its Principles and Recommendations for Population Censuses, discusses sex-based stereotypes which he states are based on a set of conventions that are arbitrary, irrational, and complex. However on the basis of the UN rules it is possible to divide the population into 3 categories: 1) those who are economically active (black), 2) those who are not active (white), and 3) those whose classification is in doubt (gray). In developed countries most people are either in the black or the white area and the amount in the gray area is small, but in developing countries the gray area may be the majority of the population. In the Swaziland census no attempt was made to provide a clear picture of employment. In view of the complexity of the underlying concepts, the decisions as to whether a person should be classified as economically active or not should be left to the statisticians, not the census enumerators.
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