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In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, . 29-31.This presentation focuses on the changing role of US schools of public health over the past 60 years and covers predictions and trends of future changes. Foreign physician graduates of US schools of public health were not only responsible for founding the WHO, but have also served in positions such as director-general of WHO. Since World War II there has been an increase in foreign students trained in US schools of public health. Between 1965 and 1981 the number of foreign students increased from approximately 250 to about 700/year, and by 1983 the foreign student enrollment in US schools of public health had reached almost 1200. Most of the increase comes from heavily populated countries in Asia and in Africa. India was the country of origin for an average of 24 public health students in the US during 1967-68, but this number declined to 16 by 1977-78 and 1981. Nigeria significantly increased the number of trainees sent to the US from 5 students in 1967-68 to 54 in 1981. Although the total enrollment of foreign students has more than tripled since the 1960s, the % of foreign students in US schools of public health has dropped from over 20% in the early 1960s to about 13% in 1983. A review of all Johns Hopkins medical graduates shows that 75% of over 700 foreign medical graduate students live in their countries of origin, and only 14% live in the US. In general, the number of students from each country reflects that country's need. Assuming adequate levels of financing, US schools of public health should assist in the development of a sufficient number of schools of public health in their countries to meet those countries' needs for public health professionals.
In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, . 26-28.The School of Public Health at Loma Linda University in California was founded in 1967, and as of December 1983 had graduated a total of 1764 students, 187 of whom were physicians. 28 countries and 45 foreign schools were represented in this enrollment. The experience at Loma Linda University is different from many others in that there has been little government sponsorship of foreign medical graduates. Of 89 foreign medical graduates, only 17 were sponsored by the US Agency for International Development or the WHO, and all 17 returned to their home countries where they are making significant contributions in Tanzania, Kenya, Thailand and Indonesia. In 1970, the Loma Linda University School of Public Health developed an evening program in which most of the course work was taught in Los Angeles 1 evening per week over a 2-year period. 10 health officers and a few others completed that program. Their success stimulated extending the program. In 1973 an experimental program teaching a general Master of Public Health (MPH) course to Canadians was initiated. In 1980, Loma Linda University also launched an extended program in the Central American-Caribbean area. In the context of a general program in public health and preventive medicine leading to a Master of Public Health Degree, the curriculum in international health seeks to prepare health workers who will be: trainers of trainers; cross-cultural communicators; managers and supervisors of primary health care services; and practitioners of the integrated approach to community development. Graduates are prepared to deal with sociocultural, environmental and economic barriers. Students not having a professional background in health are required to add an area of concentration to degree requirements. Areas of concentration include: tropical agriculture, environmental health, health administration, health promotion, maternal and child health, nutrition and quantitative methods/health planning. The goal of the International Health Department is to help people help themselves to better health. Loma Linda University has also been involved with schools in Asia, Africa, Latin America and recently in the Philippines. The preventive medicine residency program at Loma Linda is for the 2nd and 3rd years only at the present.