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U S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: adapted from the World Health Organization Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 4th edition.
MMWR. Recommendations and Reports. 2010 Jun 18; 59(RR-4):1-86.CDC created U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, from guidance developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and finalized the recommendations after consultation with a group of health professionals who met in Atlanta, Georgia, during February 2009. This guidance comprises recommendations for the use of specific contraceptive methods by women and men who have certain characteristics or medical conditions. The majority of the U.S. guidance does not differ from the WHO guidance and covers >60 characteristics or medical conditions. However, some WHO recommendations were modified for use in the United States, including recommendations about contraceptive use for women with venous thromboembolism, valvular heart disease, ovarian cancer, and uterine fibroids and for postpartum and breastfeeding women. Recommendations were added to the U.S. guidance for women with rheumatoid arthritis, history of bariatric surgery, peripartum cardiomyopathy, endometrial hyperplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, and solid organ transplantation. The recommendations in this document are intended to assist health-care providers when they counsel women, men, and couples about contraceptive method choice. Although these recommendations are meant to serve as a source of clinical guidance, health-care providers should always consider the individual clinical circumstances of each person seeking family planning services.
Do health sector reforms have their intended impacts? The World Bank's Health VIII project in Gansu province, China.
Journal of Health Economics. 2007 May; 26(3):505-535.This paper combines differences-in-differences with propensity score matching to estimate the impacts of a health reform project in China that combined supply-side interventions aimed at improving the effectiveness and quality of care with demand-side measures aimed at expanding health insurance and providing financial support to the very poor. Data from household, village and facility surveys suggest the project reduced out-of-pocket spending, and the incidence of catastrophic spending and impoverishment through health expenses. Little impact is detected on the use of services, and while the evidence points to the project reducing sickness days, the evidence on health outcomes is mixed. (author's)
Manual on field practice in internal displacement. Examples from UN agencies and partner organizations of field-based initiatives supporting internally displaced persons.
New York, New York, United Nations, Inter-Agency Standing Committee, 1999 Nov. 92 p.This Manual on Field Practice in Internal Displacement describes activities undertaken in situations of internal displacement so as to strengthen the link between assistance and protection activities. The intent of this compilation is to provide field practitioners with examples from a variety of country contexts of interventions on behalf of the internally displaced in promoting standards for protection and assistance to internally displaced persons. It demonstrates that something can be done and is being done by international and local organizations to address the issue of internal displacement, as well as give support to efforts by governments and agencies to implement the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. These principles restate and consolidate in one document the relevant principles applicable to the internally displaced, providing practical guidance for use in responding to situations of internal displacement. Each principle is discussed and summarized in the manual, followed by examples of field practices geared toward the fulfillment of each. More than 60 concise examples of program initiatives undertaken by operational agencies, by governments, and by the displaced themselves are presented.
In: Evaluation and development: proceedings of the 1994 World Bank conference, edited by Robert Picciotto and Ray C. Rist. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. 83-92. (World Bank Operations Evaluation Study)This paper presents an introduction to the law of public institutions and the way in which the law shapes institutions that provide goods and services to the public. This introduction serves to help evaluators distinguish basic institutional types and understand how institutional choices can affect performance, capacity, accountability, and potential life cycles. The second part of this paper outlines the legal framework that helps to determine the quality of public institutions. It distinguishes between agencies of government and private instrumentalities of government. The law governing each of these types of institution differs with the legal framework that applies to private companies that serve private goals. The third part of this paper reviews some of the ways that the legal framework helps to determine the external environment, capacity and incentives, nature of service to public purposes, and life cycles of each type of institution. The final and concluding part of this paper suggests aspects of the legal framework of an institution that deserve scrutiny in an assessment of its quality.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1990. xii, 260 p.The overview of poverty in 1990 is that countries with economic stagnation and rapid population growth have greater poverty. A disproportionate share of poverty belongs to women and children. Life expectancy is lower among the poor. The 1950s' and 1960s' objective was to reduce poverty with growth; the 1970s focused on health, nutritional, and educational services. The 1980s questioned policy and readjusted to global recession. The 1990s need to reexamine how policy can reduce poverty. Well-targeted readjustments of public spending can benefit the poor. External assistance should be more closely linked to country efforts to reduce poverty. Careful judgement is required. If real aid flows at 3% annually and industrial countries grow at 3% annually, the income/capita in developing countries will grow between 5.1%/year in east Asia and .5%/year in Africa. By 2000, the number of poor should be reduced by more than 300 million. Regional variation occurs, however, and sub-Saharan Africa would see an increase of 100 million. The discussion centers on diverging trends in the world economy, the nature of poverty (poor families, measuring poverty, characteristics of the poor, and treatment of poverty), progress on poverty and lessons for the future, promoting opportunities for the poor, delivering social services to the poor, transfers and safety nets, the 1980s, international factors (trade, debt, and aid) in reducing poverty, and future prospects. Statistical tables provide data on population growth for 1965-90, growth rates for 1965-89, population and gross domestic product (GDP) for 1965-89, GDP for 1980, GDP structure of production for 1965-88, sector growth rates for 1965-89, consumption and investment and savings for 1965-88, growth of exports for 1965-88, change in export prices and terms of trade for 1965-89, investment and savings and current account balance before official transfers for 1965-88, and composition of outstanding debt for 1970-88. Caveats regarding the ambitious effort to prevent the number of poor from rising in Africa and reducing poverty in the developing world by 400 million by 2000 are 1) that a less buoyant external environment would strain developing country resources, and 2) failure to undertake policy reforms and reduce income inequality and safeguard social services and real income would reduce potential gains.
Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1983 May. 16 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)Cofinancing is a useful method of development finance that offers the potential for increasing the effectiveness of the US Agency for International Development's (USAID) resources by broadening the scope of investment opportunities beyond those that are within its singular capacity. Cofinancing is any formal arrangement under which USAID loan and/or grant funds are associated with funds from one or more different sources (private or public) outside the borrowing country to finance a particular program. Cofinancing may be used to leverage USAID resources with those of the external private sector as well as to facilitate the transfer of skills and technology. The Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has viewed cofinancing primarily in the context of its ability to improve the quality of assistance (additionality). Multilateral Development Bank (MDB) participation in USAID-sponsored cofinancing arrangements should generally be in the form of at risk lending as a means of enhancing the prospects for additionality over the medium to longer term. While USAID in appropriate conditions is willing to provide relief, it will not generally link its loans to those of other cofinancing participants through the use of mandatory cross-default clauses but may use optional cross-default clauses in the case of private lenders. In addition to advantages in the application of development assistance resources, cofinancing offers the potential for enhancing the effectiveness of USAID's policy dialogue with the respective less developed countries (IDCs). Although cofinancing has a number of potential advantages, particular care should be exercised to insure that cofinancing does not become an end itself, but rather remains a mechanism among other alternatives to be utilized when it represents the most efficient application of USAID resources in the context of the development objectives of country-specific strategies.