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Washington, D.C., Advocates for Youth, 2005.  p. (Issues at a Glance)Clinical considerations for the pediatrician: Help ensure that all adolescents have knowledge of and access to contraception, including barrier methods and emergency contraception supplies. Pediatricians should actively support and encourage the use of reliable contraception and condoms by adolescents who are sexually active or contemplating sexual activity. In the interest of public health, restrictions and barriers to condom availability should be removed. Schools are an appropriate site for the availability of condoms in a community program because they contain large adolescent populations. Health professionals have an obligation to provide the best possible care to respond to the needs of their adolescent patients. This care should, at a minimum, include comprehensive reproductive health services, such as sexuality education, counseling...[and] access to contraceptives. (excerpt)
Geneva, WHO, 1975. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 564) 41 p.Studies indicate that seriously debilitating mental illness is likely to affect at least 1% of any population at any one time and at least 10% at some time in their life. Since about half the population in many developing countries is under age 15 there is a high quantity of child and adolescent disorders. The prevalence of organic brain damage will diminish with the introduction of public health services, but the same measures are liable to increase the number of surviving children with brain damage. The World Health Organization recommends the pooling of mental health experts to aid the developing countries lacking personnel and resources to cope with mental disorders. Pilot programs in mental care are also recommended to create awareness in communities that mental illness exists and can be treated.
Evaluation of two new neuropsychological tests designed to minimize cultural bias in the assessment of HIV-1 seropositive persons: a WHO study.
ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 1993 Mar-Apr; 8(2):123-35.In preparation for a World Health Organizations (WHO) study of human immunodeficiency virus-1-associated neurological and psychiatric disorders in a variety of geographic and sociocultural settings, 2 new tests of neuropsychological performance were evaluated. The goal was to identify instruments that are not only able to tap the primary functional domains affected in symptomatic HIV-1 cases but also suitable for cross-cultural use. The WHO/UCLA Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) presents subjects with a list of words with universal familiarity drawn from 5 categories (body parts, animals, tools, household objects, and vehicles), while Color Trails 1 and 2 is based on the use of numbered colored circles and universal sign language symbols. These instruments represent modifications of the previously utilized Rey AVLT and Trail Making A and B tests. Both the new instruments and the reference tests were administered to healthy or HIV-infected volunteers in 2 developed country settings (Germany and Italy) and 2 developing country sites (Thailand and Zaire). There was a significant correlation between scores on each new test and those on the reference tests, indicating that the new instruments tap the same functional domains. The variance of the z-transformed scores from test site to site was reduced for the WHO/UCLA AVLT compared to the Rey AVLT and for the Color Trails 2 compared to the Trail Making B, suggesting that the new tests are more culture-fair than their predecessors. Finally, the percentage of impaired subjects identified through the new tests was significantly higher among seropositive than seronegative subjects, indicating that these instruments are indeed sensitive to HIV-21 associated cognitive damage across different cultures.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1983. 60 p. (IPPF Medical Publications)This publication provides comprehensive information and instructions for the various ways of using periodic abstinence for contraception, along with a restatement of the position of the International Planned Parenthood Federation that periodic abstinence cannot be considered an equal alternative to other more effective family planning methods but that it should be offered by family planning associations for couples desiring it for religious or other reasons. The manual describes the historical development of the abstinence methods and reviews the physiology of the menstrual cycle as background for the careful instructions for each variant. The methods covered include the basal body temperature method in which the "3 over 6" rule for identifying the temperature shift is endorsed but others, such as the cervical mucus method, cervical palpation, sympto-thermal method, and calendar method are described. Other chapters discuss the psychological and motivational aspects of use of periodic abstinence methods; identify research issues and present data on effectiveness especially of the cervical mucus and sympto-thermal methods; discuss side effects and advantages and disadvantages of the methods; and consider special problems of use in developing countries.