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  1. 1
    295384
    Peer Reviewed

    The conceptual framework for estimating food energy requirement.

    Ferro-Luzzi A

    Public Health Nutrition. 2005 Oct; 8(7A):940-952.

    In anticipation of the revision of the 1985 Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/ WHO/UNU) Expert Consultation Report on 'Energy and Protein Requirements', recent scientific knowledge on the principles underlying the estimation of energy requirement is reviewed. This paper carries out a historical review of the scientific rationale adopted by previous FAO/WHO technical reports on energy requirement, discusses the concepts used in assessing basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy expenditure, physical activity level (PAL), and examines current controversial areas. Recommendations and areas of future research are presented. The database of the BMR predictive equations developed by the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation Report on Energy and Protein Requirements needs updating and expansion, applying strict and transparent selection criteria. The existence of an ethnic/tropical factor capable of affecting BMR is not supported by the available evidence. The factorial approach for the calculation of energy requirement, as set out in the 1985 report, should be retained. The estimate should have a normative rather than a prescriptive nature, except for the allowance provided for extra physical activity for sedentary populations, and for the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. The estimate of energy requirement of children below the age of 10 years should be made on the basis of energy expenditure rather than energy intake. The evidence of the existence of an ethnic/tropical factor is conflicting and no plausible mechanism has as yet been put forward. (author's)
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  2. 2
    040749

    Energy and protein requirements.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1973. 118 p. (FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series No. 52; WHO Technical Report Series No. 522)

    The present Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Ad Hoc Expert Committee met from March 22 to April 2, 1971 to consider energy and protein requirements together and to examine fully this interrelationships so that a diet or a food supply might be assessed simultaneously in terms of its energy and protein content. Its specific tasks were to: examine the characteristics and criteria of the reference man and reference woman; review new data as a basis for revising estimates of requirements and recommended intakes for energy, protein, and essential amino acids; and consider the method of chemical scoring and other methods used in the evaluation of the nutritive value of proteins. The committee was asked to examine the interrelationships between requirements for energy and proteins and to recommend means for the integration of requirement scales for energy and proteins, if that were feasible. Additionally, this committee report includes a discussion of basic concepts, a glossary of terms and units, some background information, as well as identification of practical applications and future research needs. 5 annexes contain: percentiles for weight and height of males and females aged 0-18 years; calculation of the energy values of foods or food groups by the Atwater system; conversion of nitrogen to protein; standard basal metabolic rates of individuals of both sexes; and some values of energy expenditures in everyday activities.
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