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WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1985; (724):1-206.In 1981, participants in the Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation on Energy and Protein Requirements met in Italy to reexamine the interrelationships between energy and protein requirements and to recommend methods to integrate requirement scales for energy and proteins. They stated that the use of a reference man or woman to determine energy requirements should no longer be used since it is unduly restrictive and there is a wide range of body size and patterns of physical activity. The tables exhibit this wide range so users can use those values that best apply to his or her conditions. Overall the participants agreed that estimates of energy requirements should be based on actual or desirable energy requirement estimates. In terms of children, however, this principle cannot be applied since there is not enough information available about their energy expenditure. Further no one could agree on how to determine what actual intakes are needed to maintain health in its broadest sense in either developing or developed countries since observed actual intakes are not necessarily those that maintain a desirable body weight or optimal levels of physical activity. Divers patterns of physical activity in different age and sex groups are presented nonetheless to guide users in applying requirement estimates. The maintenance protein requirements identified by the 1971 consultation for the young child < 6 years old, e.g. 1 g/kg.day for 5-6 year old, and the young male adult (.54-.99 g.kg/day) remained the same. The participants made indirect estimates of protein needs for the remaining age and sex groups. They acknowledged that digestibility can affect the availability of protein and protein requirements need to be adjusted for fecal losses of nitrogen. They concluded that the natural diets for infants and preschool children contain sufficient amount of essential amino acids, but not those of the remaining groups.