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In: World Health Organization (WHO). World Health Organization expanded program of research, development and research training in human reproduction: fourth annual report. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, November 1975. 65-69. (HRP/75.3)In this year's evaluation of the RTCs, performances were assessed in terms of research contributing to the objectives of the expanded program and internal reorganization of the institutions to fit the concept of a research and training center. The outcome was generally positive. A large amount of mission-oriented research has been conducted that either supports task force efforts directly or provides methodology required for this research. Considerable progress has been made in developing a prostaglandin vaginal suppository for 1st trimester termination of pregnancy. Each RTC has conducted a number of non-goal-oriented fundamental studies on entirely new approaches to fertility regulation. There has been a marked increase in the number of publications in the field of fertility regulation in the RTCs. Of the projects reviewed, the most impressive have been those that have used a team approach, for a coherent output has resulted which is considerably more significant than that from unrelated efforts of single scientists. The number of scientists involved in research on fertility regulation has increased in all the centers, and collaborative multidisciplinary and interdepartmental activities have grown. Research training has also been an important activity of the centers. Interinstitutional collaboration has greatly influenced the orientation of the centers and has been invaluable. A description of major research activities during the past year is given for the training centers.
In: Sciarra, J.J., Markland, C. and Speidel, J.J., eds. Control of male fertility. (Proceedings of a Workshop on the Control of Male Fertility, San Francisco, June 19-21, 1974). Hagerstown, Maryland, Harper and Row, 1975. p. 274-307Literature on research approaches to permanent and relatively reversible methods of male fertility control is reviewed. Sources and expenditures for research into male fertility control are noted. Permanent methods discussed include electrocautery of the vas, transcutaneous interruption of the vas, vasectomy clips, chemical occlusion of the vas, and passive immunization. Reversible methods reviewed include vasovasotomy, intravasal plugs, and vas valves. Current research into animal models, reversibility after vas occlusion, nonocclusive surgical techniques, pharmacological alteration of male reproductive function, including adrenergic blocking agents, steroidal compounds, inhibitors of gonadotropin secretion, clomiphene citrate, organosiloxanes, prostaglandins, alpha-chlorohydrin, heterocyclic agents, and alkylating agents, and delivery systems for antifertility agents is discussed. Research into semen storage and improved condoms is also reviewed. As a relatively low proportion of funds are committed to research in male fertility control, a greater investment in applied and clinical research is warranted.