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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Appropriate infant feeding practices result in better growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh.

    Saha KK; Frongillo EA; Alam DS; Arifeen SE; Persson LA; Rasmussen KM

    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008 Jun; 87(6):1852-1859.

    The World Health Organization and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund recommend a global strategy for feeding infants and young children for proper nutrition and health. We evaluated the effects of following current infant feeding recommendations on the growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh. The prospective cohort study involved 1343 infants with monthly measurements on infant feeding practices (IFPs) and anthropometry at 17 occasions from birth to 24 mo of age to assess the main outcomes of weight, length, anthropometric indexes, and undernutrition. We created infant feeding scales relative to the infant feeding recommendations and modeled growth trajectories with the use of multilevel models for change. Mean (+or- SD) birth weight was 2697 +or- 401 g; 30%weighed less than 2500 g. Mean body weight at 12 and 24 mo was 7.9 +or- 1.1 kg and 9.7 +or- 1.3 kg, respectively. More appropriate IFPs were associated (P less than 0.001) with greater gain in weight andlength during infancy. Prior IFPs were also positively associated (P less than 0.005) with subsequent growth in weight during infancy. Children who were in the 75th percentile of the infant feeding scales had greater (P less than 0.05) attained weight and weight-for-age z scores and lower proportions of underweight compared with children who were in the 25th percentile of these scales. Our results provide strong evidence for the positive effects of following the current infant feeding recommendations on growth of infants and young children. Intervention programs should strive to improve conditions for enhancing current infant feeding recommendations, particularly in low-income countries. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Child mortality since the 1960s: a database for developing countries.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Development. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. viii, 400 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/128)

    Available child mortality data are provided since the 1960s for 82 developing countries, arranged alphabetically, with a population of >1 million. The scope and methodology of the data, the main findings, a guide to the notation and layout of the database, and country specific profiles are included. Available data are included from many different sources without adjustment; graphs are provided. There is a brief discussion of the nature of child mortality and the methods used to measure it such as the crude death rate, age specific death rates, the infant mortality rate, <5 mortality, mortality 1-5 years, and model life tables for age specific child mortality. There is also discussion of the various data sources and estimation methods: vital registration data, prospective surveys, household surveys, prospective sample surveys, surveillance systems, retrospective questions in censuses and surveys, questions on recent household deaths by age, Brass method questions to whom on aggregate number of children born or dead, questions on women's most recent birth and survival, and maternity histories. Commentary is provided on the common index approach and the intersurvey change approach to evaluation of child mortality estimates. There is not 1 best method for measuring mortality. Countries with the most complete reporting of vital registration data are Hong Kong, Israel, Mauritius, Puerto Rico, and Singapore. Countries with incomplete data which does not provide a good measure of child mortality are Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. Brass estimates which agree with vital registration data include the following countries: Costa Rica, Cuba, Kuwait, and Peninsular Malaysia. Indirect estimates which confirm vital registration data pertain to Chile and Uruguay. Brass questions provide satisfactory results in Costa Rica, Cuba, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Sri Lanka, and Trinidad and Tobago. Underestimates are expected for Argentina and Egypt. Indirect methods applied to census data provide good estimates for 23 countries, indirect methods applied to survey data yields good estimates for 21 countries, and direct calculations from maternity histories provide good estimates for 20 countries. 17 countries have poor results from maternity histories alone. Child mortality may have fallen by >50% in developing countries between 1960-85.
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  3. 3

    Population and development.


    The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) recently organized a workshop to develop an analytical framework for population research and development planning. The workshop goal was to enable study directors to review and discuss research methodology and guidelines for a series of country studies to be undertaken as part of a large project devoted to integrating population and development. The overall project objective is to provide individual national entities with current and scientifically sound descriptions, analyses, and interpretations of significant population and development trends and their interrelationships along with assessments of the implications of such trends and relationships for the formulation and improvement of public policy. 1 reason for the limited progress in the integration of population and development planning is the lack of useful and applicable scientific information for responsible planners as well as a lack of analytical frameworks. If the results of the research are to be made useful for decisionmaking purposes, processing of the information is required. The need exists for current critical analysis and synthesis of available information at the country level on significant population and development trends and their interrelationships and an assessment of their implications for the formulation and improvement of public policy and programs. In regard to an analytical framework, much work has been done in the areas of population development interrelationships and their modelling. Bangladesh, Nepal, the Philippines, and Thailand are the countries which have been selected for investigation for the ESCAP project. The comparative analysis that is to be conducted will facilitate understanding of current population development research activities and the future needs of these countries.
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