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  1. 1

    Problems of AIDS in developing countries [editorial]

    Dutta GP


    The Chair of the Subject Committee on Health and Family Welfare of the Government of West Bengal and a Member of the West Bengal Legislative Assembly questions WHO's reasoning for testing an AIDS vaccine on Asians or any people in developing countries when most AIDS cases are in the US and Europe. Plus Asia is the least affected continent. WHO has skipped time-consuming laboratory trials to test the AIDS vaccine in humans in Brazil, Rwanda, Thailand, and Uganda. No case reports of full-blown AIDS cases have been published in Indian medical journals, and few people in India have seen an AIDS patient. WHO officials at the South-East Asian headquarters do not directly answer questions. Developed countries tend to dictate what actions developing countries should take to prevent and control the spread of AIDS. Since they are the source of AIDS in developing countries, they should help developing countries improve the health of their people, but let developing countries plan their own AIDS programs. The Indian legislator considers posters claiming AIDS is spread through breast milk, salvia, and urine and reports on estimated AIDS cases and HIV-infected cases to be propaganda. He contends that their purpose is to instill fear. Other questions include the vagueness of AIDS' clinical symptoms, not all AIDS cases are infected with HIV, and cofactors are responsible for the destruction of immune system cells. The legislator disapproves developed countries' unifactorial approach to combat AIDS (i.e., AIDS vaccine), which provide them commercial benefits and allows them to politically dominate developing countries. First and foremost, India needs to identify its priorities and combat AIDS accordingly. It should train clinicians to identify suspected AIDS cases and high risk groups, promote risk reduction behavior, and provide laboratories to do HIV serodiagnostic tests.
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  2. 2

    IBFAN: on the cutting edge.

    Allain A

    DEVELOPMENT DIALOGUE. 1989; (2):5-38.

    The story of IBFAN, the International Baby Food Action Network, from its beginning with 6 members in 1979, to its status of 140 groups worldwide in 1989 is told by its founder, Annelies Allain. IBFAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in October 1989 with a week-long Forum of 350 organizers from 67 countries. IBFAN is a single-tissue grass-roots organization, almost entirely women: the issue is that bottle-feeding kills babies. It has mounted a successful campaign ending in passage of the WHO/UNICEF International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in 1981. With this success, the political power of the "third system," of people, as opposed to government and transnational corporations, was recognized. The most important fundamental activity of IBFAN is to amass information to make its point that million of babies, primarily in developing countries, have died from consuming powdered formula instead of breast milk. IBFAN also set out to show that milk companies have influenced medical school training, health care providers, UN and WHO policies, and governments of developing countries through advertising and tax income. IBFAN's methods are boycott, corporate marketing analysis, shareholder, resolutions, and numerous strategies invented by local activists. The baby food industry responded by forming the International Council of Infant Food Industries, headed by a former WHO Assistant Director General, and applied for registration as an official NGO with the WHO. Again in 1987 they formed the Infant Food Manufacturers Associations, headed by a former WHO staff member, and gained WHO NGO status, claiming to advance infant nutrition and adhere to the WHO Code. Ibfan's current emphasis is on combatting free infant formula given out at maternity hospitals, the most effective way to block successful lactation, is developed as well as developing countries. An effort to monitor this activity will mark the 10th anniversary of the Code in 1991.
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  3. 3

    The advent and growth of television broadcasting in Nigeria: its political and educational overtones.

    Umeh CC

    AFRICA MEDIA REVIEW. 1989; 3(2):54-66.

    In 1959, the regional government of Western Nigeria established the 1st television station in Nigeria and in Africa. Even though it promoted the station as a means to educate the people about development and the world, it initially served as a means for an opposition leader to address the people of Western Nigeria. The regional governments of Eastern and Northern Nigeria and the federal government in Lagos followed and started their own TV stations in the early 1960s. All 4 of these stations basically existed to serve partisan political objectives for the various governments. Any stations established after these 4 continued this same political and regionalistic heritage. In 1973, a new surge of regional consciousness occurred after the now military government allowed the division of the country into 19 states. This change, the concurrent oil boom, and the effectiveness and importance of existing TV broadcasting led to a new surge of state owned TV stations. 3 years later, the military government established the National Television Authority (NTA) to coordinate nationwide coverage. The NTA then acquired existing TV stations. This event slowed the growth of TV broadcasting until 1979 when military government rule ended. The 5 political parties vying for election in the states revoked the NTA charter and a proliferation of TV stations occurred. This also happened because the civilian administration was disorganized. As regionalization played a role in the broadcasting of political propaganda, so did it play a role in educational programming, Despite TV broadcasting's political ties, it has been successful in producing quality educational programs for schools and colleges nationwide via the NTA network with the assistance of UNESCO.
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  4. 4

    [Manual of questions and answers on family planning] Manual de preguntas y respuestas sobre planificacion familiar.

    Klenicki AR; Olaya CI

    New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 1983. 89 p. (Population Information for Policy Makers (PIPOM))

    This manual of questions and answers on family planning, based on an issues manual and a public affairs manual of the International Planned Parenthood Federation Western Hemisphere Region, is intended for consultation by family planning personnel who interact with policymakers, government leaders, legislators, and the mass media. The manual contains 2 major sections, 1 of which describes the process of communications with leaders and mass media while the other contains information on contraception, sterilization, other medical services, medical examinations, services for adolescents, sex education, publications, financing, international family planning, and population. Each of the 11 sections has 5 parts: an index, a perspective which places the topic in a general context, the position of the Associations on the particular topic, questions and answers regarding frequent objections raised about the topic, and suggested additional readings. The manual is contained in a 3-ring notebook intended to facilitate incorporation of pertinent local information. A brief introductory statement explains the purpose of the manual in making available information that will allow family planning personnel to respond to attacks on the program by opponents of birth control, and provides general suggestions for dealing with such attacks.
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