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Engaging men and boys: A brief summary of UNFPA experience and lessons learned. Integrating work with men and boys into core areas of the UNFPA mandate at country, regional and global levels.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2013 Jan.  p.This report presents background about and rationale for engaging men and boys. It illustrates a range of initiatives that have engaged men and boys for the promotion of gender equality as well as sexual and reproductive health and rights. Based on experiences that have emerged over the years, the report presents a set of lessons learned in the areas of evidence and data on engaging men and boys; research, knowledge, and tools for working with men and boys; advocacy; network and partnership building; support at policy and institutional levels; and engaging men and boys at the community and individual levels.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2011.  p.The thirteen case studies contained in this publication were commissioned by the research node of the Knowledge Network on Priority Public Health Conditions (PPHC-KN), a WHO-based interdepartmental working group associated with the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The case studies describe a wealth of experiences with implementing public health programmes that intend to address social determinants and to have a great impact on health equity. They also document the real-life challenges in implementing such programmes, including the challenges in scaling up, managing policy changes, managing intersectoral processes, adjusting design and ensuring sustainability.
Knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of Islamic scholars towards reproductive health programs in Borno State, Nigeria.
African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2007; 11(1):98-106.Some reproductive health policies and activities of international development organizations continued to be criticized by some religious groups. Such criticisms can be serious obstacles in the provision of reproductive health and rights information and services in many communities. This study was conducted to find the knowledge, perception and attitude of Islamic scholars on reproductive health programs and to get some suggestions on the scholars' role in the planning and implementation of reproductive health advocacy and programming. The data were collected by in-depth interview with representative sample of selected Muslim scholars in and around Maiduguri town in Borno State, Nigeria. All the scholars had vague or no idea of what reproductive health is all about. When they were explaining reproductive health, most of the scholars mentioned some of the rights of women especially the need for maintaining the good health of women and their children as reproductive health. Even though they have poorknowledge, all the Muslim scholars interviewed believed that reproductive health is an essential component of healthy living and the programs of the international development organizations are mostly good, but they have reservations and concern to certain campaigns and programs. Scholars that promised their contributions in enhancing reproductive health have a common condition for their continuous support to any international development organization or reproductive health program. Conformity to Islamic norms and principles are prerequisites to their loyalties. The scholars also advised the international development organizations on the need to identify themselves clearly, so that people know from where they are coming, what are their background, and the program that they want to do and the reasons for doing the program in the community. (author's)
Washington, D.C., Action Aid, 2007. 76 p.In response to the growing body of evidence on violence and HIV&AIDS, and in response to calls by human rights advocates for effective action on these issues, international institutions and national governments have articulated a concern to address gender-based violence, including within the context of HIV&AIDS. Little is known, however, about what is actually being done to address these issues in policies, programming and funding, and whether the efforts that are underway are truly based on the human rights and health agenda advocated for so long by women's movements throughout the world. In order to better understand the level of resources - in policy, programming and funding -- committed to this deadly intersection, a report was commissioned by an international coalition of organizations working on women's human rights, development, health and HIV& AIDS. This report, "Show Us the Money: is violence against women on the HIV&AIDS donor agenda?" analyses the policies, programming and funding patterns of the four largest public donors to HIV&AIDS: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/US), the UK Department for International Development (DFID), and the World Bank, and UNAIDS (the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS). The report is the first step in an effort by this coalition to monitor the policies, programmes, and funding streams of international agencies and national governments, and to hold these agencies accountable to basic health and human rights objectives. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 May; 85(5):325-420.Laboratories and laboratory networks are a fundamental component of tuberculosis (TB) control, providing testing for diagnosis, surveillance and treatment monitoring at every level of the health-care system. New initiatives and resources to strengthen laboratory capacity and implement rapid and new diagnostic tests for TB will require recognition that laboratories are systems that require quality standards, appropriate human resources, and attention to safety in addition to supplies and equipment. To prepare the laboratory networks for new diagnostics and expanded capacity, we need to focus efforts on strengthening quality management systems (QMS) through additional resources for external quality assessment programmes for microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing (DST) and molecular diagnostics. QMS should also promote development of accreditation programmes to ensure adherence to standards to improve both the quality and credibility of the laboratory system within TB programmes. Corresponding attention must be given to addressing human resources at every level of the laboratory, with special consideration being given to new programmes for laboratory management and leadership skills. Strengthening laboratory networks will also involve setting up partnerships between TB programmes and those seeking to control other diseases in order to pool resources and to promote advocacy for quality standards, to develop strategies to integrate laboratories' functions and to extend control programme activities to the private sector. Improving the laboratory system will assure that increased resources, in the form of supplies, equipment and facilities, will be invested in networks that are capable of providing effective testing to meet the goals of the Global Plan to Stop TB. (author's)
Atlanta, Georgia, CARE, 2005 Jun. 32 p. (Sexual and Reproductive Health Working Paper Series No. 1)In other words, keep digging below the surface. Getting rid of a thorny plant means digging right to the roots; it is not enough to just cut back the branches! But sometimes, fears of "getting it wrong" and other work pressures can leave staff unsure of how to deal with questions like: What do we really know about what is happening at field level? Do our project designs really achieve their intended effect? Why are we implementing projects this way? How do social and personal relationships in and around the project work? Who holds what power? Are we contributing enough to the creation of positive change in people's lives? How could we do more? These are not easy questions - and there are no simple answers. But by asking such questions throughout the project cycle, and looking for answers and amending work as a result, staff can increase project impact. Making one set of changes, however, is not enough. Staff must keep asking questions. Do the changes work? If so, who do they benefit? How? Where is the power now? Have inequities changed? And what else can be done to create greater change in people's lives? This approach is often referred to as "reflective learning," or learning by inquiry. It is closely linked with organizational learning. (excerpt)
PLoS Medicine. 2006 Apr; 3(4):e211.One of the most unsettling images for newcomers to many parts of Africa is the sight of undernourished women bearing unfeasibly large vessels of water long distances over rough terrain to supply the needs of their families. A sense of outrage that anyone should have to live like this in the 21st century forms the basis of the humanitarian imperative that drives development programs, especially those that focus on basic needs such as access to safe water. When such a program reduces from three hours to 15 minutes the time that women spend fetching water each day, surely it can be described as a success, without the need for any "scientific" assessment of what has been achieved? In this issue of PLoS Medicine, we publish a study that did assess such a program. Mhairi Gibson and Ruth Mace (DOI: 10.1371/journal. pmed.0030087)--from the University of Bristol, United Kingdom--compared villages in Ethiopia that benefited from a tapped water supply with other villages that did not. Outcome measures included the nutritional status of women and children, mortality rates, and birth rates. There were a number of surprising findings, most notably the large increase in birthrate in the villages where the water supply intervention took place. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2006 Sep. 68 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/06.25E)Sex between men occurs in all societies. For a variety of reasons, it is often stigmatized by society. Awareness of male-male sex varies considerably from one country to another and may be lower when stigmatization is common. The term 'men who have sex with men' (MSM) describes a behavioural phenomenon rather than a specific group of people. It is generally the preferred term because, in the context of HIV, the important issue is risk behaviour rather than sexual identity. It includes not only self-identified gay and bisexual men, but also men who engage in male-male sex and self-identify as heterosexual, or those whose sexual identity is but a part of their cultural self identification. In some contexts, 'males who have sex with males' is more accurate, since programmes may target males who are not yet adults (the United Nations defines children as those under 18). The term includes those who desire male-male sexual relations and who have such relations forced upon them. Sex between men frequently involves anal intercourse which, if unprotected, carries a high risk of HIV transmission for the receptive partner, and a significant risk for the insertive partner. At least 5-10% of all HIV infections worldwide are due to sexual transmission between men, though this figure varies within countries and between regions considerably. In Central and Eastern Europe, HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men is much higher than that of the general population. In Asia, men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by HIV. It is estimated that HIV prevalence is as high as 14% in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; 16% in Andrha Pradesh, India; and 28% in Bangkok, Thailand. Less information is available in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world where men who have sex with men typically do not identify as gay, homosexual or bisexual. Circumstances such as incarceration or military service may also encourage male-male sex among men who would not do so in other contexts. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2006 Sep 23; 368(9541):1041-1042.This week, The Lancet presents work that signals the launch of a concerted global effort to scale up country responses to the preventable burden of child mortality. The triggers for this rededication to achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4--to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015--are three-fold. First, in New York on Sept 18, 2006, the Norwegian Government elaborated on plans for the Norway-India partnership to improve child survival. This initiative begins an important series of MDG-4 country partnerships undertaken by Norway. Second, Ann Veneman, Executive Director of UNICEF, is joining Norway's Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg in recommitting her agency to play a major part in achieving MDG-4. Her statement follows a recent analysis of the strengths and potential vulnerabilities of UNICEF's current health and nutrition strategy. Third, the final results of the Countdown to 2015: tracking progress in child survival conference are reported. These findings illustrate the huge gap that exists between what we are doing now and what we must do in the future to achieve MDG-4. In addition, The Lancet is publishing a hopeful evaluation of the GAVI Alliance, with updates on pneumonia, measles, and vitamin A supplementation. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, Global Coalition on Women and AIDS, .  p. (What's Real. Issue No. 2)Violence against women is a global health crisis of epidemic proportions and often a cause and consequence of HIV. Violence and the threat of violence dramatically increase the vulnerability of women and girls to HIV by making it difficult or impossible for women to abstain from sex, to get their partners to be faithful, or to use a condom. Violence is also a barrier for women in accessing HIV prevention, care, and treatment services. That is why the UNAIDS-led Global Coalition on Women and AIDS has made stopping violence against women a top priority. (excerpt)
On the front line: a review of policies and programmes to address HIV / AIDS among peacekeepers and uniformed services.
Copenhagen, Denmark, UNAIDS, Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response, 2003 Aug.  p. (UNAIDS Series: Engaging Uniformed Services in the Fight against HIV / AIDS; UNAIDS/03.44E)This initiative focuses on mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS in three core areas: International security, with the focus on supporting HIV/AIDS interventions within United Nations peacekeeping operations; National security, targeting uniformed services with particular emphasis on young recruits, future peacekeepers and demobilizing personnel; Humanitarian response, which focuses on vulnerable populations in crisis settings and humanitarian workers. As part of its national security initiative, UNAIDS SHR, in collaboration with UN Theme Groups, is providing support to countries for the development and/or strengthening of national responses targeting national uniformed services and, in particular, young recruits, demobilized personnel and peacekeepers. Approximately 45 countries worldwide are currently supported through the Initiative on HIV/AIDS and Security. (excerpt)
Education is empowerment. Promoting goals in population, reproductive health and gender. Report of a technical consultation on UNFPA's role in education, 8-10 December 2003 - New York.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2004. 80 p.UNFPA education programmes fall into three broad categories: Population and Family Life Education, Sexuality Education and Life Skills Education. Necessary components of all programmes include: Advocacy to promote an enabling social/political environment; capacity building (principally in curriculum and materials development and teacher training); and peer education. Population education aims at promoting a greater understanding of the nature, causes and consequences of population changes. Family life education is concerned with marriage, parenting, relationships and responsibilities of family members, and overall family welfare. They are usually taught as part of courses in sociology, geography, home economics, health and hygiene, and so on. Sexuality education is a teaching and learning process concerned with the biological, emotional and social dimensions of human sexuality and its expression. It aims to provide young people with a broad range of knowledge and skills crucial to their sexual health and personal development, including information about reproductive health, discussions of love and sexuality, cultural norms and social pressures, and gender roles and relationships. Activities take place in formal and non-formal settings and involve lectures, group discussions, role plays and elements of life-skills education. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], International AIDS Economics Network [IAEN], 2003 Apr 17. 4 p.Of all the profound changes wrought by the AIDS pandemic, one of the most interesting has been the revolution in thinking about the responsibilities of rich countries toward poor ones. This is easiest to see by looking at the dispute between traditional international health economists and the AIDS advocacy community – a dispute that is quietly played out in academic journals and e-mail exchanges, and loudly reflected in such bold statements as President Bush’s commitment in the State of the Union Address to seek funding for a $15 billion Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. For many years, a large share of health economists working in the field of international health focused in a somewhat single- minded fashion on the following problem: How can limited dollars be allocated to obtain the greatest impact on health in developing countries? Primarily using the tools of cost-effectiveness analysis, combined with epidemiologic data about the leading causes of death and disease in developing countries, recommendations flowed forth from development agencies. With the World Bank leading the charge, Ministries of Health in poor countries were advised to concentrate domestic and external funding on preventive and basic curative services – an “essential package of health services.” They were told to move funding away from high-cost curative, hospital-based services that benefit few to low-cost public health measures that benefit many – and that have the potential to prevent or control many of the leading causes of death in developing countries. Thus, basic childhood vaccinations, prenatal care, TB treatment, home treatment of diarrheal disease to prevent dehydration all were promoted as “best buys,” and eagerly funded by donor agencies. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., PSI, 2002 Jul 1.  p.The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and Population Services International (PSI) have signed an agreement for a five-year, $90 million extension of AIDSMark, a global project that uses social marketing to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The current five-year, $75 million agreement, which started in 1997 and is due to expire this year, will extend AIDSMark activities until September 2007. PSI is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., with social marketing projects in more than 60 countries. "We are pleased to continue our partnership with Population Services International's AIDSMark program," said Dr. Anne Peterson, who runs USAID's Bureau for Global Health. "The services they provide are a critical element in our fight against HIV/AIDS." (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Western Pacific, STI, HIV and AIDS Focus, 2002.  p.Welcome to this package of training materials, designed to help programme managers and technical staff to implement a 100% condom use programme (100% CUP) in entertainment establishments. The strategy advocated by this training package is based on sound public health thinking, and experience to date with this programme has demonstrated its ability to contribute to a remarkable decline in STI/HIV rates among female sex workers (FSWs). The potential contribution of this approach to public health is now challenging policy-makers and programme managers at all levels to explore the feasibility and methods by which the 100% CUP may be implemented in their jurisdiction. (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2002.  p.A 100% condom use programme (100% CUP), targeting female sex workers in entertainment establishments, is important in prevention and control of STIs, including HIV. Monitoring and evaluation to measure the progress of the programme is one of its essential components, and requires appropriate indicators. An indicator is a way in which to quantify or measure the magnitude of progress toward something one is trying to achieve in a programme, whether it is a process, an outcome or an impact. Indicators are just that - they simply give an indication of magnitude or direction of change over time. They cannot tell managers much about why the changes have or have not taken place. While a single indicator cannot measure everything, knowing the magnitude and direction of change in achieving a programme objective is critical information for a manager. A good indicator for monitoring and evaluation needs to be: relevant to the programme; feasible to collect and analyse; easy to interpret; and able to measure change over time. Identifying an indicator to be followed in a 100% CUP also demands attention to how that indicator will be defined, the source of the information needed for it, and the timeframe for its collection and analysis. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004. Prepared for the 4th Meeting of the UNAIDS Global Reference Group on HIV / AIDS and Human Rights, August 23-25, 2004. 7 p.This paper explores issues and approaches relevant to the assessment of the application of a rights based approach to the planning and implementation of HIV/AIDS strategies. It builds on the premise that the Reference Group may wish to recommend to UNAIDS a set of practical steps towards integrating human rights in HIV/AIDS policies and programs and monitoring the compliance of HIV/AIDS policies and programs with international human rights principles and guidelines, in particular those that have been explicitly promoted by UNAIDS in its publications and other work. Some suggested key issues are highlighted and, HIV testing strategies will be used as an example to the extent necessary to clarify concepts. (excerpt)
Report of the fifteenth meeting of the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board, Geneva, 23 and 24 June 2004.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Jul 30. 62 p. (UNAIDS/PCB(15)/04.15)The fifteenth meeting of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Programme Coordinating Board (PCB) took place at the Ramada Park Hotel, Geneva, Switzerland, on 23 and 24 June 2004. The participants are listed in Annex 3. On behalf of Zambia, the outgoing Chair of the PCB, H.E. Dr Brian Chituwo, Minister of Health, opened the fifteenth meeting of the PCB and welcomed all those attending. Dr Chituwo stated that it had been an honour and a privilege on behalf of Zambia to chair the PCB. In light of various international proclamations, including the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, the Copenhagen Consensus and the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, he felt that the global community had given a broad mandate to UNAIDS to take the fight against the pandemic to higher levels, and he noted that UNAIDS had responded by scaling up activities significantly. He warned against complacency, however, and cited the particular challenges posed by the “3 by 5” Initiative, including his country’s own efforts to scale up treatment. He paid tribute to Dr Peter Piot (Executive Director of UNAIDS) and his team and thanked them for their close support during his tenure in office. In closing, he urged all to remain united in the fight against HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
AIDS Treatment News. 2003 Nov 28; (396): p..Three million people died of AIDS this year compared with 2.7 million last year, and five million were newly infected -- both more than ever before, according AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2003, compiled and published by UNAIDS, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS. Forty million people are now living with HIV, up slightly from last year. There is good news from a number of individual countries, as well as increased commitment from many governments, and increased total resources worldwide devoted to the epidemic. Some prevention programs have worked well. But many countries are at a critical stage where they could abort a major epidemic if they act now. Unfortunately some of their governments are still not serious about AIDS. (excerpt)
The role and influence of stakeholders and donors on reproductive health services in Turkey: a critical review.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2004; 12(24):116-127.Since 1965, Turkey has followed an anti-natalist population policy and made significant progress in improving sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents a critical review of the national reproductive health policies and programmes of Turkey and discusses the influence of national and international stakeholders and donors on policy and implementation. While government health services have played the primary role in meeting sexual and reproductive health needs, international donor agencies and national non-governmental and other civil society organisations, especially universities, have played an important complementary role. Major donor agencies have supported many beneficial programmes to improve reproductive health in Turkey, but their agendas have sometimes not been compatible with national objectives and goals, which has caused frustration. The main conclusion of this review is that countries with clear and strong reproductive health policies can better direct the implementation of international agreements as well as get the most benefit from the support of international donors. (author's)
Working with adolescent boys: programme experiences. Consolidated findings from regional surveys in Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia, and Western Pacific.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2000.  p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/00.10)The survey and this report seek to contribute to the understanding of working with adolescent boys in health and health promotion. Pursuant to this purpose, the consultants contacted programmes working in health promotion with adolescent boys in four regions of the world. These contacts did not aspire to include all of the programmes which are working with adolescent boys in these regions, nor do they necessarily represent a random sample of those programmes. Where possible, the survey included a relatively small but representative number of organizations working with adolescent boys in other regions. The organizations were identified via colleague organizations, WHO regional and local offices, the literature review, personal contacts of the survey authors and via non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in health/health promotion. As detailed below, the survey sought to gather information in a dozen specific areas of interest by means of a questionnaire, which was translated into Spanish and Arabic. Programme staff were requested to fill out the questionnaire and return it to the consultants. (excerpt)
Working document on monitoring and evaluating of national ART programmes in the rapid scale-up to 3 by 5.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, . 20 p.Currently, five to six million people infected with HIV in the developing world need access to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy to survive. Only 400,000 have this access. The failure to deliver ARVs to the millions of people who need them is a global health emergency. To address this emergency, WHO is fully committed to achieving the "3 by 5" target - getting three million people on ARVs by the end of 2005. This is a means to achieving the treatment goal: universal access to ARVS for all who need them. WHO will lead the effort, with UNAIDS and other partners, using its skills and experience in coordinating global responses to diseases such as the effective and rapid control of SARS. The monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of the 3 by 5 initiative is a high priority. It will be crucial to know how countries are meeting the agreed goals and objectives and how local levels (districts, Regions or Provinces) are monitoring progress and identifying any problems they may encounter. The need for a substantial amount of country input and ownership of the process will require a refinement of the M&E strategy in close consultation with countries. However, key components of the M&E strategy can be developed now, with further refinements and developments to come later. This document is a work in progress. It represents the best effort to describe a coherent approach to the monitoring and evaluation of scaling up to the reach the goal of 3 by 5 that is possible at this time. This working document is best viewed as a step in a process that will include field testing, the gathering of additional experience, additional review, the validation of indicators presented and subsequently refinement. If inadequacies are found in this working document, they are mostly the result of incomplete information and experience on which to base decisions. That will be corrected as experience mounts. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2003. 5 p.My testimony today will highlight the protection challenges facing women and children in refugee settings, mention a few of the barriers to implementing effective protection programs, and briefly discuss two legislative solutions that address some of these problems. (excerpt)
POPLINE. 2003 Mar-Apr; 25:2.A monumental effort by UNICEF and Afghanistan's interim administration in 2002 succeeded in enrolling one million girls - out of 3 million students - in classes last year. But Bellamy said those numbers were still unacceptably low. (excerpt)
Vietnam Population News. 2002 Oct-Dec; (25):3-4.Furthermore, a fact that development has often bypassed the poorest people, and has even increased their disadvantages. The poor need direct action to bring them into the development process and create the conditions them to escape from poverty. Poverty concerns dignity, opportunity and choice as well as income. Escaping poverty is not purely individual act. It depends on the support of institutions the family, the state, the private sector, the local community and cultural organizations the political, economic and social environment they create, and the support and opportunities they provide. (excerpt)