Your search found 25 Results

  1. 1
    390667
    Peer Reviewed

    Documentation of polio eradication initiative best practices: Experience from WHO African Region.

    Okeibunor J; Nshimirimana D; Nsubuga P; Mutabaruka E; Tapsoba L; Ghali E; Kabir SH; Gassasira A; Mihigo R; Mkanda P

    Vaccine. 2016 Oct 10; 34(43):5144-5149.

    BACKGROUND: The African Region is set to achieving polio eradication. During the years of operations, the Polio Eradication Initiative [PEI] in the Region mobilized and trained tremendous amount of manpower with specializations in surveillance, social mobilization, supplementary immunization activities [SIAs], data management and laboratory staff. Systems were put in place to accelerate the eradication of polio in the Region. Standardized, real-time surveillance and response capacity were established. Many innovations were developed and applied to reaching people in difficult and security challenged terrains. All of these resulted in accumulation of lessons and best practices, which can be used in other priority public health intervention if documented. METHODS: The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa [WHO/AFRO] developed a process for the documentation of these best practices, which was pretested in Uganda. The process entailed assessment of three critical elements [effectiveness, efficiency and relevance] five aspects [ethical soundness, sustainability, involvement of partners, community involvement, and political commitment] of best practices. A scored card which graded the elements and aspects on a scale of 0-10 was developed and a true best practice should score >50 points. Independent public health experts documented polio best practices in eight countries in the Region, using this process. The documentation adopted the cross-sectional design in the generation of data, which combined three analytical designs, namely surveys, qualitative inquiry and case studies. For the selection of countries, country responses to earlier questionnaire on best practices were screened for potential best practices. Another criterion used was the level of PEI investment in the countries. RESULTS: A total of 82 best practices grouped into ten thematic areas were documented. There was a correlation between the health system performances with DPT3 as proxy, level of PEI investment in countries with number of best practice. The application of the process for the documentation of polio best practices in the African Region brought out a number of advantages. The triangulation of data collected using multiple methods and the collection of data from all levels of the programme proved useful as it provided opportunity for data verification and corroboration. It also helped to overcome some of the data challenge. Copyright (c) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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  2. 2
    375674

    Designing contracts for the Global Fund: Lessons from the theory of incentives.

    Wren-Lewis L

    Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2016 Feb. 38 p. (Center for Global Development Working Paper 425)

    This paper uses contract theory to suggest simple contract designs that could be used by the Global Fund. Using a basic model of procurement, we lay out five alternative options and consider when each is likely to be most appropriate. The rest of the paper then discusses how one can build a real-world contract from these theoretical foundations, and how these contracts should be adapted to different contexts when the basic assumptions do not hold. Finally, we provide a synthesis of these various results with the aim of guiding policy makers as to when and how ‘results-based’ incentive contracts can be used in practice.
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  3. 3
    353317
    Peer Reviewed

    The Global Fund: getting the reforms right.

    Feachem RG

    Lancet. 2011 Nov 19; 378(9805):1764-5.

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  4. 4
    312815

    Evaluation of the United Nations Declaration on HIV / AIDS resource targets.

    Teixeira L

    Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:52-59.

    This study evaluates the targets of the United Nations Declaration on HIV/AIDS Resource Targets, the attainment of which are premised on promoting three fronts: reduction of material and services costs, increased efficiency in access to and management of funds, and the channeling of new funds. Data were derived from studies of National Accounts of HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean and from the recent available literature on the global dynamics of HIV/AIDS resources. The economic concept of global public good occurs throughout the text. The article discusses factors that constrain funding, and thus compel the adoption of new strategies in Brazil. The issues addressed include: difficulties in maintaining the downward tendency in the cost of items related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the incorporation each year of thousands of persons needing antiviral therapy, the rise in patient survival and increased diagnosis for the control of HIV/AIDS transmission. It is concluded that, in order to guarantee additional resources to combat the epidemic, the discussion on funding must necessarily focus on both the share of AIDS support for the Brazilian Ministry of Health, and, more importantly, on an increase in health funding as a whole. The recognition that HIV/AIDS control contributes to the global public good should facilitate increases in development assistance from international funding sources. (author's)
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  5. 5
    310954
    Peer Reviewed

    Sexual and reproductive health for all: a call for action.

    Fathalla MF; Sinding SW; Rosenfield A; Fathalla MM

    Lancet. 2006 Dec 9; 368(9552):2095-2100.

    At the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994, the international community agreed to make reproductive health care universally available no later than 2015. After a 5-year review of progress towards implementation of the Cairo programme of action, that commitment was extended to include sexual, as well as reproductive, health and rights. Although progress has been made towards this commitment, it has fallen a long way short of the original goal. We argue that sexual and reproductive health for all is an achievable goal--if cost-effective interventions are properly scaled up; political commitment is revitalised; and financial resources are mobilised, rationally allocated, and more effectively used. National action will need to be backed up by international action. Sustained effort is needed by governments in developing countries and in the donor community, by inter-governmental organisations, non-governmental organisations, civil society groups, the women's health movement, philanthropic foundations, the private for-profit sector, the health profession, and the research community. (author's)
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  6. 6
    309889

    A healthy partnership -- a case study of the MOH contract to KHANA for disbursement of World Bank funds for HIV / AIDS in Cambodia.

    Wilkinson D

    [Brighton, England], International HIV / AIDS Alliance, 2005 Mar. 12 p.

    In 1998, the Cambodian Ministry of Health was experiencing difficulties in disbursing World Bank funds earmarked for local NGOs/CBOs, and in 1999, contracted Khana to manage the disbursement process. Given the scarcity of documented successful government-NGO/CBO disbursement initiatives, the Alliance commissioned a case study of this mechanism of making World Bank funds more accessible to civil society organisations. This report of the case study outlines the background and context to adopting the disbursement mechanism, explains the selection of the disbursing agency and the process of contract negotiation, details the nature and quantity of the disbursement, and identifies the strengths, weaknesses and lessons learned from this model. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    284310

    Cost of mother-child care in Morelos State, Mexico. Costo de la atención materno infantil en el estado de Morelos, México.

    Cahuana-Hurtado L; Sosa-Rubí S; Bertozzi S

    Salud Pública de México. 2004 Jul-Aug; 46(4):316-325.

    The objective was to compare the cost of maternal and child health care (current model) to that of the WHO Mother-Baby Package if it were implemented. A pilot cross-sectional case study was conducted in September 2001 in Sanitary District No. III, Morelos State, Mexico. Two rural health centers, an urban health center, and a general hospital, all managed by the Ministry of Health, were selected for the study. The Mother-Baby Package Costing Spreadsheet was used to estimate the total cost and cost per intervention for the current model and for the Mother-Baby Package model. The total cost of the Mother-Baby Package was twice the cost of the current model. Of the 18 interventions evaluated, the highest proportion of total costs corresponded to antenatal care and normal delivery. Personnel costs represented more than half of the total costs. The Mother-Baby Package Costing Spreadsheet is a practical tool to estimate and compare costs and is useful to guide the distribution of financial resources allocated to maternal and child healthcare. However, this model has limited application unless it is adapted to the structure of each healthcare system. (author's)
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  8. 8
    191585
    Peer Reviewed

    Marvellous microbicides. Intravaginal gels could save millions of lives, but first someone has to prove that they work.

    Brown H

    Lancet. 2004 Mar 27; 363(9414):1042-1043.

    Preventing AIDS is theoretically simple: encourage mutual monogamy or consistent condom use. But experts warn that if responsibility for protection stays with men, these interventions will produce only small gains in the fight against AIDS. The majority of women in some parts of sub-Sarahan Africa are in immediate danger of contracting HIV. But these women are powerless to protect themselves because most are dependent on men for economic security, and are often unable to negotiate safe sex. If a method of HIV prevention were available that women could administer themselves, the situation could rapidly become very different. Alan Stone, chairman of the International Working Group on Microbicides believes that microbicides —topical agents that stop the HIV virus being transmitted during intercourse— are the only realistic option. “There is absolutely nothing else on the horizon that could make a large-scale impact”, he says. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    182409

    Summary measures of population health in the context of the WHO framework for health system performance assessment.

    Murray CJ; Frenk J

    In: Summary measures of population health: concepts, ethics, measurement and applications, edited by C.J.L. Murray, J.A. Salomon, C.D. Mathers and A.D. Lopez. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. 1-11.

    This volume addresses the conceptual, ethical, empirical and technical challenges in summarizing the health of populations. This is critical for monitoring whether levels of population health are improving over time and for understanding why health differs across settings. At the same time, it is also important to recognize that improving population health is not the only goal of health policy and to understand the way health improvements interact with these other goals. For that reason, we briefly review the World Health Organization (WHO) framework for assessing the performance of health systems and the role of summary measures of population health (SMPH) in this framework. Following the recent peer review of the methodology used for health system performance by WHO (Anand et al. 2002), this framework will continue to evolve in response to the detailed recommendations of the scientific peer review group and to ongoing scientific debates and research. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    177603
    Peer Reviewed

    The effect of structural characteristics on family planning program performance in Cote d'Ivoire and Nigeria. [Effet des caractéristiques structurelles sur les performances du programme de planning familial en Côte d'Ivoire et au Nigeria]

    Mancini DJ; Stecklov G; Stewart JF

    Social Science and Medicine. 2003 May; 56(10):2123-2137.

    This paper uses Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria survey data on both supply and demand characteristics to examine how structural and demographic factors influence family planning provision and cost. The model, which takes into account the endogenous influence of service provision on average cost, explains provision well but poorly explains what influences service cost. We show that both size and specialization matter. In both countries, vertical (exclusive family planning) facilities provide significantly more contraception than integrated medical establishments. In the Nigeria sample, larger facilities also offer services at lower average cost. Since vertical facilities tend to be large, they at most incur no higher unit costs than integrated facilities. These results are consistent across most model specifications, and are robust to corrections for endogenous facility placement in Nigeria. Model results and cost recovery information point to the relative efficiency of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, which operates large, mostly vertically organized facilities. (author's)
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  11. 11
    069430

    Evaluation of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) of Belize, 26 March to 13 April 1984.

    Belize. Ministry of Health; Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    Belize City, Belize, Ministry of Health, 1984. [3], 54 p. (EPI/84/003)

    An evaluation of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Belize was conducted by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization at the request of the country's Ministry of Health. The evaluation was undertaken to identify obstacles to program implementation, and subsequently provide national managers and decision makers with viable potential solutions. General background information is provided on Belize, with specific mention made of demographic, ethnic, and linguistic characteristics, the health system, and the EPI program in the country. EPI evaluation methodology and vaccination coverage are presented, followed by detailed examination of study findings and recommendations. Achievements, problems, and recommendations are listed for the areas of planning and organizations, management and administration, training, supervision, resources, logistics and the cold chain, delivery strategies, the information and surveillance system, and promotion and community participation. A 23-page chronogram of recommended activities follows, with the report concluding in acknowledgements and annexes.
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  12. 12
    106881
    Peer Reviewed

    India urged to rethink family planning programme.

    Kumar S

    Lancet. 1995 Jul 29; 346(8970):301.

    The World Bank, in "India's Welfare Programme: Towards a Reproductive and Child Health Approach," a review done with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, makes the following recommendations: 1) eliminate method-specific contraceptive targets and incentives, and replace them with broad reproductive and child health goals and measures; 2) increase the emphasis on male contraceptive methods (which account currently for only 6% of contraceptive use); 3) improve access to reproductive and child health services; 4) increase the role of the private sector by revitalizing the social marketing program; and 5) encourage experimentation with an expanded role for the private sector in implementing publicly funded programs. Since the launch of the family planning program in 1951, mortality has fallen by two-thirds, and life expectancy at birth has almost doubled. However, the population has almost doubled since 1961. By 2025, it is expected to be 1.5-1.9 billion. By 1992, India had achieved 60% of its goal for replacement fertility (2.1 births per woman), decreasing from 6 births per woman in 1951-1961 to 3-4 births per woman. Meeting India's unmet need for family planning would allow the replacement fertility goal to be reached. Female education and employment would add to the demand for smaller families and assure continuing declines in fertility and population growth rate. The report also highlights problems in implementation of the program, including program accessibility and quality of care. The report cites National Family Health Survey data which shows that only 35% of children under 2 received all six vaccines in the program, while 30% received none. The bank's "1993 World Development Report" recommended spending $5.40 per head for maternal and child health and family welfare programs; India spends $0.60. Massive borrowing will be required.
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  13. 13
    073437

    Managing external collaboration in family planning.

    Yang JM

    In: Korean experience with population control policy and family planning program management and operation, edited by Nam-Hoon Cho, Hyun-Oak Kim. [Seoul], Korea, Republic of, Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, 1991 Sep. 311-27.

    The Korean experience with collaboration in family planning (FP) is explored in this chapter. Attention is paid to the nature of the decision, external resources (International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in detail and the following in brief: the UN Economic and Social Commission (UNECOSOC) and the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the Population Council of New York (PC), the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation (JOICFP)). Suggested criteria for FP projects include, community concern, prevalence, seriousness of unmet need, and manageability, but with external collaboration, consideration should be given to whether domestic resources are insufficient, the priorities of potential donors, expected problems with compliance with the grant, and government commitment to the project. External collaboration can take the form of moral support, technical cooperation, or financial support. The nature of the project as well as the expected achievements of the project need to be identified. Resources may be manpower, facilities, commodities, money, and/or time. The Korean experience with IPPF began with a visit by IPPF in 1960. In 1961, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) was accepted as a member of IPPF. Support which began in 1961 has reached over 16 million dollars cumulatively. At present about 25% of support for FP comes form IPPF. The author's experience as a representative of PPFK to IPPF and other groups is described. Tables provide information on commodities supplied by year and dollar amount, and allotment of UNFPA Assistance to Ministries and Institutions between 1973-86 by the number of projects and the dollar amount; types of program activity and dollar amount from UNFPA is also provided.
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  14. 14
    069644

    Paying for family planning. Le financement du planning familial.

    Lande RE; Geller JS

    Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 1991 Nov; (39):1-31.

    This report discusses the challenges and costs involved in meeting the future needs for family planning in developing countries. Estimates of current expenditures for family planning go as high as $4.5 billion. According to a UNFPA report, developing country governments contribute 75% of the payments for family planning, with donor agencies contributing 15%, and users paying for 10%. Although current expenditures cover the needs of about 315 million couples of reproductive age in developing countries, this number of couples accounts for only 44% of all married women of reproductive age. Meeting all current contraceptive needs would require an additional $1 to $1.4 billion. By the year 2000, as many as 600 million couples could require family planning, costing as much as $11 billion a year. While the brunt of the responsibility for covering these costs will remain in the hand of governments and donor agencies (governments spend only 0.4% of their total budget on family planning and only 1% of all development assistance goes towards family planning), a wide array of approaches can be utilized to help meet costs. The report provides detailed discussions on the following approaches: 1) retail sales and fee-for-services providers, which involves an expanded role for the commercial sector and an increased emphasis on marketing; 2) 3rd-party coverage, which means paying for family planning service through social security institutions, insurance plans, etc.; 3) public-private collaboration (social marketing, employment-based services, etc.); 4) cost recovery, such as instituting fees in public and private nonprofit family planning clinics; and 5) improvements in efficiency.
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  15. 15
    070873

    Report of the Seminar on Programme Sustainability through Cost Recovery, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 21-25 October, 1991.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1991. 15, [2] p.

    In the face of widespread user acceptance, rapidly growing demand, and developing country financial constraints, family planning associations must learn how to operate more efficiently and mobilize new resources with a view to ensuring greater long-term sustainability. Cost recovery was therefore identified as a means of maximizing the use of limited resources, improving program quality, strengthening management, and making service providers more accountable to clients. This document reports results from seminar participants organized to share the benefits of cost recovery with the international community, and to review policy and management issues. Reviewed in the seminar were country experiences with cost recovery, working group discussions on the definition of sustainability, the cost framework of family planning, determining user fees and clients' willingness to pay, preconditions for setting user fees, prerequisites for social marketing, models for cost sharing with the government and private sector, and country case studies from the Gambia, India, and Kenya. Those programs attaining highest self-sufficiency were aided by strong government commitment to either support family planning or to not impede program progress. Also helpful were a businesslike approach to service provision, a strong promotional campaign, organizational structure conductive to effective resource management, and resolve to try diverse approaches. In concluding, the importance of placing the customer first, cost-effectiveness, cost analysis, strategic planning, inter-FPA cooperation, and business plans are mentioned.
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  16. 16
    059872

    Private sector joins family planning effort.

    FRONT LINES. 1989 Dec; 6, 13.

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost.
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  17. 17
    069695
    Peer Reviewed

    Integrating health services: the experience of NGOs in Ethiopia.

    Walley J; Tefera B; McDonald MA

    HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1991 Dec; 6(4):327-35.

    Many non-governmental organizations (NGO) remained in the Wollo region of Ethiopia following famine relief and emergency medical service efforts of 1984-85. Since then, these organizations have helped identify strategies and processes needed to implement Ministry of Health (MOH) policies, especially in the area of integrated maternal-child/curative health services. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of 4 broad approaches to health development adopted by the NGOs over the post-famine relief period of 1986-88, and considers further strategic adaptation in later years. Under the themes of direct management, clinic adoption, impact area, and air-drop resources, earlier NGO approaches largely suffered poor sustainability, non-replicability, and inefficient use of resources. Moreover, these approaches distracted the MOH from pursuing its own viable approaches, effectively stymieing the development of district and regional health systems. Later NGO approaches support improvements in the MOH's priority health programs through the provision of technical and material assistance for analyzing, developing, and implementing improved systems of district health management and care. NGOs wishing to adapt their existing programs into a comparable health systems approach should build upon existing relationships with the MOH in support of district and regional health services, foster skill development among indigenous health personnel, seek avenues to improve efficiency, and promote activity-based training and regional and district health team management.
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  18. 18
    063922

    The population IEC operation in Eastern and Southern Africa. Operational research report one: inventory overview.

    Johnston T

    Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1990. 57 p. (Operational Research Report 1)

    In the context of rapid population growth in Africa, population information, education, and communication (IEC) programs and projects have been implemented in the region. An initial report was prepared describing population IEC operational research in Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Fieldwork on the research project was conducted by a small team of researchers who surveyed/inventoried population IEC program and project development. The study was conducted in resource terms, attempting to identify operational problems or deficiencies posing obstacles to improved field activity effectiveness and efficiency. 7 questionnaires were developed and presented to program and project directors, managers, and coordinators to find detailed answers to specific concerns and questions. Researchers wanted to know the extent to which population IEC programs and projects were part of any larger national effort of development support communication, the variety and frequency of different IEC activities within the operation, where programs were failing to meet objectives, and the quantity and quality of available program resources, especially for training and materials development. Personal views, perceptions, and opinions of the interviewees were also sought. Additional questions addressed the relevance and significance of population IEC research to fertility management and communication strategy development. Compiling directories of people and institutions involved in population IEC research, training, and materials production and dissemination was a final purpose of the questionnaires. Common program features are highlighted.
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  19. 19
    065514

    Management information systems in maternal and child health / family planning programs: a multi-country analysis.

    Keller A

    STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING. 1991 Jan-Feb; 22(1):19-30.

    Management and information systems (MIS) in maternal and child health were surveyed in 40 developing countries by trained consultants using a diagnostic instrument developed by UNFPA and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The instrument covered indicators of input (physical infrastructure, personnel, training, finances, equipment, logistics), output (recipients of services, coverage, efficiency), quality, and impact, as well as frequency, timeliness and reliability of information. The consultants visited national and 2 provincial level administrative and service points of public and private agencies. Information on input was often lacking on numbers and locations of populations with access to services. In 15 countries data were lacking on personnel posts filled and training status. Logistics systems for equipment and supplies were inadequate in most areas except Asia, resulting in shortfalls of all types of materials and vehicles coinciding with idle supplies in warehouses. Financial reporting systems were present in only 13 countries. Service outputs were reported in terms of current users in 13 countries, but the proportion of couples covered was unknown in 25 countries. 2 countries had cost-effectiveness figures. Redundant forms duplicated efforts in half of the countries, while data were not broken down at the usable level of analysis for decision-making in most. Few African countries had either manual or computer capacity to handle all needed data. Family planning data especially was not available to draw the total picture. Often information was available too late to be useful, except in Portuguese speaking countries. Even when quality data existed, managers were frequently unaware of it. It is recommended that training and consultancies be provided for managers and that these types of surveys be repeated periodically.
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  20. 20
    055333

    Towards effective family planning programming.

    Dondi NN

    Nairobi, Kenya, Family Planning Association of Kenya, 1980. [5], 164 p.

    The proceedings of the Second Management Seminar for senior volunteers and staff of the Family Planning Association of Kenya (FPAK), held in December 1979, with appendices, are presented. The 1st 3 days consisted of lectures and plenary discussions on topics such as communication strategies, family guidance, youth problems, and contraceptive methods; the last 2 days were group discussions, reports and summary evaluations. 40 participants took part in the evaluation, expressing satisfaction with knowledge gained in communications, family life education, and IPPF organization and skills. They expressed the need to learn more about family counseling, youth problems, population, and integrated approaches. The seminar recommended that FPAK be more innovative to retain volunteers, plan its communication strategy more carefully, train and involve volunteers in programming, study traditional family planning methods, provide family counseling services, fully exploit the media, and use it to clarify misconceptions and introduce community-based distribution.
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  21. 21
    048164

    Management information systems and microcomputers in primary health care: issues and challenges.

    Schware R

    In: Management information systems and microcomputers in primary health care, edited by Ronald G. Wilson, Barbara E. Echols, John H. Bryant, and Alexandre Abrantes. Geneva, Switzerland, Aga Khan Foundation, 1988. 17-20.

    A wide array of issues must be addressed if the development and use of management information system (MIS) and microcomputers are to improve management of primary health care (PHC) programs and increase the equity and cost-effectiveness of PHC. These issues include: specification of the purpose and objectives of MIS at community and district levels; distinquishing types of information required; the understanding of organizational issues that must be resolved as a result of introducing MIS; the practical definition of the most useful indicators of program effectiveness and efficiency; the specification and monitoring of data collection, compilation, and analysis requirements and procedures; procedures for generating and using processed MIS data and management information; the PHC program's capacity to absorb technological innovations; and personnel requirements. The need for improved data systems must be recognized. Data quality and systematic flow of information must be ensured from the field level upwards, and minimum information requirements need to be defined. The success of any MIS is heavily dependent on feedback of the data collected. Unless staff at all levels of a PHC program understand the importance of the data they are collecting, the value and use of the information system will be negligible. Examples of the Egyptian government's National Health Information System and the role of the World Bank are used to show how MIS and microcomputer can be introduced and used in PHC.
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  22. 22
    268459

    Annual report of the director, 1984.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    Washington, D.C., PAHO, Pan American Sanitary Bureau/Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 1985. xix, 265 p. (Official Document No. 201)

    Efforts to meet the goal of health for all by the year 2000 have been hampered by the internal and external problems faced by many countries of the Americas. The pressures of external debt have been accompanied by a reduction in the resources allocated to social sector programs, including health programs. In addition, the conflict in Central America has constrained solutions to subregional problems. The health sector suffers from uncoordinated services, lack of trained personnel, and waste. Thus 30-40% of the population do not have access to basic health services. In 1984, the governments in the region, together with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), undertook projects in 5 action areas: new approaches and technology, development, intra- and intersectoral linkages, joint activities by groups of countries, mobilization of national resources and external financing, and preparation of PAHO to meet the needs of these processes. New approaches include the expansion of epidemiological capabilities and practices, the use of low-cost infant survival strategies, the improvement of rural water supplies, and the development of domestic technology. Interorganizational linkages are aimed at eliminating duplication and filling in gaps. Ministers of health and directors of social security programs are working together to rationalize the health sector and extend coverage of services. Similarly, countries have grouped to deal with common problems and offer coordinated solutions. The mobilization of national resources involves shifting resources into the health field and increasing their efficiency and effectiveness by setting priorities. External resources are recommended if they supplement national efforts and are short-term in nature. In order to enhance these strategies, PAHO has increased the managerial and operating capacity of its central and field offices. This has required consolidating programs, retraining staff, and instituting information systems to monitor activities and budgets. The report summarizes health indicators and activities by country, for all nations under PAHO.
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  23. 23
    264608

    A comprehensive review of the objectives, activities and performance of the family planning programs of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

    Chen LC; Parker DA

    [Unpublished] 1981. 97 p.

    Evaluative report on the progress of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in its family planning programs, the stated goal of which is to provide assistance to developing countries in the area of population control. Of particular interest is UNFPA's strategy for support of family planning programs which include substantial assistance for health related services. Several specific objectives of the review can be named: 1) identification of the major categories of family planning assistance supported by UNFPA; 2) specification of the nature of and rationale behind regional differences in UNFPA support for family planning programs; 3) description of and rationale behind UNFPA health programs which exclude family planning; and 4) analysis of UNFPA's strategy and practice for contraceptive procurement. The review was conducted between February and May of 1981 and drew on interviews with policy and technical staff, on-site visits, and review of a wide range of documents. Included in 2 appendices is a listing of personal contacts made and documents reviewed. Overall, the review indicated that UNFPA was carrying out its objectives and program activities adequately in all areas. It had established a system of voluntary incoming contributions, and an equitable system of disbursement to country and intercountry programs. Secondly, it had established resources and staff for the technical support and coordination of activities. The principal needs of the future are seen to be concerned with increased effectiveness of resource utilization and in even more forceful leadership in the population field.
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  24. 24
    259455

    The management problems in national family planning programmes.

    World Bank

    In: The Population Debate: Dimensions and Perspectives, Vol. II. N.Y., U.N., 1975, pp. 506-513. (Population Studies, No. 57)

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  25. 25
    266344

    Evaluation report of UNFPA assistance to the National Family Planning Programme of Thailand: Project THA/76/PO1--expansion of family planning services and support to the infrastructure of the NFPP and Project THA/76/PO5--National Family Planning Communication Programme.

    Adhikarya R; Dodd N; Wright N; McWilliam JA

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, April 1982. 74 p.

    Looks at the contribution of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) to Thailand's National Family Planning Program (NFPP) and assistance given to NFPP through project THA/76/PO1: Expansion of Family Planning Services and Support to the Infrastructure of the NFPP, and THA/76/PO5: National Family Planning Communication Program. The UNFPA has been assisting population projects in Thailand since 1971. Over 90% of the funding has gone to support the NFPP in its service delivery activities, training, and information, education, and communication activities. The long range objectives of both projects was to contribute to decreasing the annual rate of population growth from above 2.6% in 1976 to 2.1% by the end of 1981. The THA/76/PO1 project was to assist the Ministry of Public Health in implementing its national population policy through expansion of its family planning service network. The THA/76/PO5 project was to assist the Ministry of Public Health in its communication program in support of family planning. Achievements and projects of the NFPP are discussed and their general strategy, planning, research, evaluation, approaches in mass communication, and small group activities are also covered. The evaluation Mission made numerous recommendations and suggestions concerning reprogramming of 1982 activities. The recommendations and suggestions were addressed to the government for its consideration and to UNFPA for policy and program decisions.
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