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Cervical cancer screening and management of cervical pre-cancers. Trainees' handbook and facilitators' guide - Programme managers' manual.
New Delhi, India, WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2017. 145 p.The training manual for programme managers is designed to build the capacity of professionals in managerial positions to develop cervical cancer screening programmes, plan implementation strategies and effectively manage the programme at the national or sub national levels. The guidelines and information included in the manual are intended to be used both by trainees and facilitators while participating in the structured training programme for programme managers. The manual contains different modules to assist trainees to be acquainted with different aspects of planning, implementing and monitoring of cervical cancer screening services. Considering the fact that programme managers need to understand cervical cancer screening in the broader perspective of the national cancer control programme (NCCP), modules describing the planning and implementation of NCCP are also included in the manual. The modules include relevant case studies from real screening programmes in different countries. The manual includes notes to facilitators on how to conduct the various training sessions as per the session plan. The detailed methodology of conducting trainee evaluation is also part of this manual.
International technical guidance on sexuality education. An evidence-informed approach. Revised edition.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2018. 139 p.The fully revised UN International technical guidance on sexuality education advocates for quality comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) to promote health and well-being, respect for human rights and gender equality, and empowers children and young people to lead healthy, safe and productive lives.It is a technical tool that presents the evidence base and rationale for delivering CSE to young people in order to achieve the global Sustainable Development Goals, among which are SGD3 for Health, SDG4 for Quality Education and SDG5 for Gender Equality.
New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016. 24 p.This evaluation focuses on how UNFPA performed in the area of family planning during the period covered by the UNFPA Strategic Plan 2008-2013. It provides valuable insights and learning which can be used to inform the current UNFPA family planning strategy as well as other relevant programmes, including UNFPA Supplies (2013-2020). All the countries where UNFPA works in family planning were included, but the evaluation focuses on the 69 priority countries identified in the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning as having low rates of contraceptive use and high unmet needs. The evaluation took place in 2014-2016 and was conducted by Euro Health Group in collaboration with the Royal Tropical Institute Netherlands. It involved a multidisciplinary team of senior evaluators and family planning and sexual and reproductive health and rights specialists, which was supervised and guided by the Evaluation Office in consultation with the Evaluation Reference Group. The outputs include a thematic evaluation report, an evaluation brief and country case study notes for Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia and Zimbabwe.
New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016 Apr. 105 p.The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the performance of UNFPA in the field of family planning during the period covered by the Strategic Plan 2008-2013 and to provide learning to inform the implementation of the current UNFPA Family Planning Strategy Choices not chance (2012-2020). The evaluation provided an overall independent assessment of UNFPA interventions in the area of family planning and identified key lessons learned for the current and future strategies. The particular emphasis of this evaluation was on learning with a view to informing the implementation of the UNFPA family planning strategy Choices not chance 2012-2020, as well as other related interventions and programmes, such as the Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive Health Commodity Security (GPRHCS- 2013-2020). The evaluation constituted an important contribution to the mid-term review of UNFPA strategic plan 2014-2017. The evaluation features five country case study reports: Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2013 Aug; 122(2):164-8.BACKGROUND: Poor-quality care during institutional births in low- and middle-income countries is a major contributing factor to preventable maternal and newborn harm, but progress has been slow in identifying effective methods to address these deficiencies at scale. Based on the success of checklist programs in other disciplines, WHO led the design and field testing of the WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist-a 29-item tool that targets the major causes of maternal and newborn mortality globally. METHODS: The development process consisted of comprehensive evidence and guideline review, in-person consultation with content experts and other key stakeholders, iterative refinement through ongoing discussions with a wide collaborator network, and field evaluation for usability in 9 countries, primarily in Africa and Asia. Pilot testing in South India demonstrated major improvement in health workers' delivery of essential safety practices after introduction of the program. RESULTS: WHO has launched a global effort to support further evaluation of the program in a range of contexts, and a randomized trial is underway in North India to measure the effectiveness of the program in reducing severe maternal, fetal, and newborn harm. CONCLUSION: A novel checklist program has been developed to support health workers in low-resource settings to prevent avoidable childbirth-related deaths. Copyright (c) 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
The art of knowledge exchange: A results-focused planning guide for development practitioners. 2nd ed.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2013.  p.Knowledge exchange, or peer-to-peer learning, is a powerful way to share, replicate, and scale-up what works in development. Development practitioners increasingly seek to learn from the experiences of others who have gone through, or are going through, similar challenges. They want to have ready access to practical knowledge and solutions and enhance their confidence, conviction, and skills to customize the solutions to their own context. The second edition of the Art of Knowledge Exchange: A Results-Focused Planning Guide for Development Practitioners follows a strategic approach to learning and breaks down the knowledge exchange process into five simple steps. It also provides tools you need to design your knowledge exchange and practical guidance on how to use them to get the results you want from your knowledge exchange. This second edition contains a full revision of the original Art of Knowledge Exchange as well as new chapters on implementation and results of knowledge exchanges. The Guide also distills lessons from over 100 exchanges financed by South-South Facility, analytical work conducted by the World Bank Institute, and the Task Team for South-South Cooperation, and reflects the rich experiences of World Bank staff, learning professionals, government officials, and other practitioners engaged in South-South knowledge exchange activities.
Making health services adolescent friendly: Developing national quality standards for adolescent friendly health services.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012.  p.This guidebook sets out the public health rationale for making it easier for adolescents to obtain the health services that they need to protect and improve their health and well-being, including sexual and reproductive health services. It defines ‘adolescent-friendly health services’ from the perspective of quality, and provides step-by-step guidance on developing quality standards for health service provision to adolescents. Drawing upon international experience, it is also tailored to national epidemiological, social, cultural and economic realities, and provides guidance on identifying what actions need to be taken to assess whether appropriate standards have been achieved.
Cadernos De Saude Publica. 2012 Jan; 28(1):170-6.Given the implications of stigma for HIV/AIDS prevention and control of the epidemic, as emphasized by UNAIDS, this study analyzes the Brazilian academic production on health, AIDS, stigma, and discrimination, available in the SciELO database from 2005 to 2010. Brazilian research on the theme is modest as compared to the international literature, but the studies follow the same trend of focusing on individual experiences of discrimination as opposed to analysis of stigma and discrimination as social processes associated with power relations and domination (macro-social structures) and the characteristics of individuals and social groups that shape social interactions. The current study seeks to analyze the reasons for the scarcity of studies on the social perspective towards stigma and discrimination in the field of public health and the implications for the development of proposals to deal with HIV/AIDS-related discrimination.
[Prevalence of HIV infection and associated factors in the Central African Republic in 2010] Prévalence de l’infection VIH et facteurs associés en République Centrafricaine en 2010.
Calverton, Maryland, ICF International, 2012 Apr.  p.Nearly 68 percent of all HIV-positive individuals worldwide live in Sub-Saharan Africa. The region remains the most severely affected in the world, even though only 12 percent of the world's population lives there. Central Africa, which is less afflicted than Southern and Eastern Africa, nevertheless has a high enough level of infection for it to be characterized as a generalized epidemic. This is the case in the Central African Republic. The Central African Republic has long lacked reliable data on the epidemic, which has slowed the national response that otherwise would have occurred with more factual data. In response to the perceived need, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have financed HIV testing in two multiple indicator cluster surveys--the 2006 MICS and 2010 MICS. This partnership has led to collection of reliable data to monitor trends in HIV prevalence and distribution among the population age 15 to 49. Also monitored are distribution of the epidemic by geographic region and population group. Because the decrease in HIV prevalence between 2006 and 2010 will be interpreted as an encouraging sign of progress, it is important to remain vigilant. The disaggregated results show that the epidemic continues to grow in scope and provokes disastrous consequences in certain groups. For the first time since 2006, the Central African Republic has reliable data to inform decision-making and intervention planning. These data have permitted the pandemic areas in the Central African Republic to emerge from the shadows. For the future, we wish to put in place systematic HIV testing similar to that of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). The UNFPA office in the Central African Republic is committed to improving knowledge about HIV and reinforcing the availability of information for planning, implementation, and follow-up of the country's National Strategic Plan for the Fight against AIDS.
Brave and angry--the creation and development of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF).
European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2010 Dec; 15 Suppl 2:S67-76.This paper looks back on the developments in thinking from birth control, through voluntary family planning, to a comprehensive approach to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), and celebrates some of the key players in this evolution. It tells the story of the creation of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in 1952, and scrutinises how important this organisation was then and is now. It gives an idea of the efforts it took to reassemble initiatives around the world into one body, strong enough to foster the cause to the benefit of all. While IPPF was and still is a unique association, it has increased its partnerships and works together with a multitude of organisations active in the field of SRHR. In the current political context joint efforts are still needed to protect the universally recognised human right of people to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, and their access to adequate education and information.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2010 Sep; 31(3 Suppl):S272-86.This report integrates the results from two working group meetings that were held to familiarize country teams of eastern and southern Africa with research findings to allow countries to develop plans to further reinforce national nutrition information systems. The meetings specifically focused on: reviewing recent trends in child malnutrition in eastern and southern Africa particularly in relation to drought and HIV/AIDS; making recommendations on key technical issues related to sampling, mortality estimation, and indicators used in small-scale nutrition surveys; and making recommendations for the next steps to further develop nutrition information systems in the region.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, [WHO], 2009. 48 p. (Analytic Case Studies. Initiatives to Increase the Use of Health Services by Adolescents)This case study describes how the Government of Mozambique scaled up its successful youth HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health program to a national level. Geared toward developing-country governments and nongovernmental organizations, the case study provides a technical overview of the program and its interventions, a detailed description of the scale-up process and lessons learned, and the program's achievements.
Lancet. 2007 Dec 1; 370(9602):1817-1818.Progress towards making male circumcision for HIV prevention a reality in Africa has been slow because of cultural hurdles in a few countries, financial constraints in most, and a serious shortage of skilled practitioners throughout the continent. Joint Programme on HIV and AIDS made one of the most important policy statements in recent times on the fight against HIV in developing countries. After a 2-day consultation in Montreaux, Switzerland, the UN agencies released a document that urged countries with high rates of heterosexually transmitted HIV to consider adding male circumcision to their armamentarium against AIDS. The recommendation had a sound scientific basis. The results of three randomised controlled trials undertaken in Kisumu, Kenya, Rakai District, Uganda, and Orange Farm, South Africa had shown that male circumcision reduces the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men by around 60%. (excerpt)
International Studies. 2007; 44(1):23-37.The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) exemplify the enduring commitment and potential of the United Nations to serve as a catalyst for collective action in the cause of equitable and all round development of all nations and peoples. Indeed, the restructuring of the development apparatus as an important element of the larger challenge of the UN reform has acquired greater urgency in view of the manifest need to push for timely implementation of MDGs. Strengthening the role of the Economic and Social Council is a tricky issue that apparently puts the industrially advanced countries and the developing countries in opposite camps. Among the issues on which both the European developed and the Asian developing countries have showed interest, the idea of air ticket levy for raising resources for development is worthy of being pursued vigorously as part of the UN reform negotiations. Likewise, there is more than sufficient potential for old European Union countries like Germany and fast developing countries like China to bridge gaps in their policy objectives and work as partners in strengthening the multilateral mechanism dedicated to development purposes. (author's)
Lancet. 2007 Oct 27; 370(9597):1471-1474.With the Paul Wolfowitz era behind it and new appointee Robert Zoellick at the helm, it is time for the World Bank to better define its role in an increasingly crowded and complex global health architecture, says Jennifer Prah Ruger, health economist and former World Bank speechwriter. Just 2 years after taking office as president of the World Bank, Paul Wolfowitz resigned amid allegations of favouritism, and is now succeeded by Robert Zoellick. Many shortcomings marked Wolfowitz's presidency, not the least of which were a tumultuous battle over family planning and reproductive health policy, significant reductions in spending and staffing, and poor performance in implementing health, nutrition, and population programmes. Wolfowitz did little to advance the bank's role in the health sector. With the Wolfowitz era behind it and heightened scrutiny in the aftermath, the World Bank needs to better define its role and seize the initiative in health at both the global and country levels. Can the bank have an effect in an increasingly plural and complex global health architecture? What crucial role can the bank play in global health governance in the years ahead? (excerpt)
Consultation on Indicators for the Right to Health, Chateau de Penthes, Geneva, 1-2 April 2004. Meeting report.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Ethics, Trade, Human Rights and Health Law, 2004 Dec. 18 p.This document provides an overview of the presentations and discussions on the issue of right to health indicators from a workshop held 1-2 April 2004. Part A (Background and rationale) explains the origins and aims of the concept of right to health indicators, as well as the ultimate objective of this series of consultations. Part B (Proposed frameworks and related concepts/initiatives) describes the framework proposed by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health (Paul Hunt) on right to health indicators. Part C (Related conceptual frameworks to human rights) provides an overview of two presentations on (1) the Commission on Human Security's work on human security and the social minimum and (2) WHO's work on Millennium Development Goals and equity. Part D (Work in progress and mapping exercises) contains summaries of a number of presentations relating to ongoing work relevant to right to health indicators. Part E (Conclusions) list ways forward and activities to be completed before the next meeting (tentatively planned for June 2005). (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Human Development Department, Latin America Region, 2005 Nov. 42 p.The goals of the Caribbean HIV/AIDS Review were to (i) assess the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at the national, regional and international levels, and (ii) recommend measures to enhance the effectiveness of the response at all levels. Prompted initially by the World Bank's concern about the slow implementation of its portfolio of ten projects, the Review examined both the World Bank-funded projects and also the international support in the Caribbean Region and collaboration among partners. The recommendations of this report relate not only to the World Bank program but to the overall response to the epidemic by national programs and by regional and international partners. The Terms of Reference for the Review are attached. (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2007. 99 p.Inside Out contains resident education and staff training material primarily for use within drug treatment and rehabilitation centers. Inside Out is specifically written for this purpose: to assist staff and residents of closed settings to act in ways which help prevent the spread of HIV. It is about prevention, prevention, and more prevention. It focuses on providing those in compulsory drug treatment and rehabilitation centers with staff training and resident education materials that promote a harm reduction approach to HIV, both within the center and outside of it: hence the title - Inside Out. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2007. 55 p.The concepts and principles in this document build on the World Health Organization's active ageing policy framework, which calls on policy-makers, practitioners, nongovernmental organizations and civil society to optimize opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance quality of life for people as they age. This requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account the gendered nature of the life course. This report endeavors to provide information on ageing women in both developing and developed countries; however, data is often scant in many areas of the developing world. Some implications and directions for policy and practice based on the evidence and known best practices are included in this report. These are intended to stimulate discussion and lead to specific recommendations and action plans. The report provides an overall framework for taking action that is useful in all settings. Specific responses in policy, practice and research is undoubtedly best left to policy-makers, experts and older people in individual countries and regions, since they best understand the political, economic and social context within which decisions must be made. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006 Dec.  p.A human rights-based approach to programming is a conceptual framework and methodological tool for ensuring that human rights principles are reflected in policies and national development frameworks. Human rights are the minimum standards that people require to live in freedom and dignity. They are based on the principles of universality, indivisibility, interdependence, equality and non-discrimination. Through the systematic use of human rights-based programming, UNFPA seeks to empower people to exercise their rights, especially their reproductive rights, and to live free from gender-based violence. It does this by supporting programmes aimed at giving women, men and young people ('rights holders') the information, life skills and education they need to claim their rights. It also contributes to capacity-building among public officials, teachers, health-care workers and others who have a responsibility to fulfill these rights ('duty bearers'). In addition, UNFPA strengthens civil society organizations, which often serve as intermediaries between governments and individuals, and promotes mechanisms by which duty bearers can be held accountable. (excerpt)
Prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections: draft global strategy. Report by the Secretariat.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006 May 18. 67 p. (A59/11)Nearly a million people acquire a sexually transmitted infection (STI), including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), every day. The results of infection include acute symptoms, chronic infection, and serious delayed consequences such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, cervical cancer, and the untimely deaths of infants and adults. The presence in a person of other STIs such as syphilis, chancroid ulcers or genital herpes simplex virus infection greatly increases the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV. New research suggests an especially potent interaction between very early HIV infection and other STIs. This interaction could account for 40% or more of HIV transmissions. Despite this evidence, efforts to control the spread of STIs have lost momentum in the past five years as the focus has shifted to HIV therapies. Prevention and control of STIs should be an integral part of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services in order to contribute towards the attainment of the MillenniumDevelopment Goals and respond to the call for improved sexual and reproductive health as defined in the programme of action of the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development. The draft global strategy for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections 2006-2015 has two components: technical and advocacy. The technical content of the strategy deals with methods to promote healthy sexual behaviour, protective barrier methods, effective and accessible care for STIs, and the upgrading of monitoring and evaluation of STI control programmes. The steps needed to develop health systems capacity to deliver the programme are explained. Emphasis is placed on a public health approach based on sound scientific evidence and cost-effectiveness. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 May. 24 p. (Good Policy and Practice in HIV and AIDS and Education Booklet No. 1; ED-2006/WS/2; cld 26002)HIV and AIDS affect the demand for, supply and quality of education. In some countries, the epidemic is reducing demand for education, as children become sick or are taken out of school and as fewer households are financially able to support their children?s education. However, it is difficult to generalize about the impact of HIV and AIDS on educational demand and important not to make assumptions about declining enrolments. Lack of accurate data on this question is a problem. For example, in Botswana absenteeism rates are relatively low in primary schools and there is some evidence to show that orphans have better attendance records than non-orphans. In Malawi and Uganda, where absenteeism is high among all primary school age students, there is less difference in school attendance between orphans and non-orphans than expected . (excerpt)
WHO training course for TB consultants: RPM Plus drug management sessions in Sondalo, Italy, September 28 - October 1, 2006: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Center for Pharmaceutical Management, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2006 Oct 18. 26 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ACI-323)WHO, Stop-TB Partners, and NGOs that support country programs for DOTS implementation and expansion require capable consultants in assessing the capacity of countries to manage TB pharmaceuticals in their programs, developing interventions, and providing direct technical assistance to improve availability and accessibility of quality TB medicines. Beginning in 2001, RPM Plus, in addition to its own formal courses on pharmaceutical management for tuberculosis, has contributed modules and facilitated sessions on specific aspects of pharmaceutical management to the WHO Courses for TB Consultants in Sondalo. The WHO TB Course for TB Consultants was developed and initiated in 2001 by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, the S. Maugeri Foundation, the Morelli Hospital, and TB CTA. The main goal of the course is to increase the pool of international level TB consultants. As of December 2005, over 150 international TB consultants have participated in the training, a majority ofwhom have already been employed in consultancy activities by the WHO and international donors. In 2006 fiscal year RPM Plus received funds from USAID to continue supporting the Sondalo Course, which allowed RPM Plus to facilitate sessions on pharmaceutical management for TB at four courses in May, June, July, and October of 2006. RPM Plus Senior Program Associate, Edgar Barillas, traveled to Sondalo from September 28 to October 1 to facilitate the TB pharmaceutical management session at the WHO course for TB Consultants in Sondalo, Italy. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006.  p.This guidance note is based on a UNFPA/WHO Technical Consultation on HPV Vaccines and Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes, held in March 2006 in Montreux, Switzerland. It is intended to alert a broad array of stakeholders -- in sexual and reproductive health, immunization, child and adolescent health, and cancer control programmes -- to some of the key issues surrounding the upcoming introduction of HPV vaccines against cervical cancer. In particular, it highlights the contributions that national immunization programmes, sexual and reproductive health programmes, and cancer control programmes can make in preparing for national introduction of the vaccines in the context of the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy. (excerpt)
Turning research into practice: suggested actions from case-studies of sexual and reproductive health research.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2006. 99 p.The present document identifies common concerns related to research utilization from the perspectives of a range of stakeholders: researchers, donors, policy-makers, and sexual and reproductive health programme managers. The central component of this document is a conceptual framework which highlights a variety of issues and processes that influence the utilization of research results at various stages of the research process. This framework was developed through an analysis of the definitions, determinants and key elements of research utilization as well as of the conceptual pathways to the use of research. The conceptual framework incorporates utilization-related issues at three phases of the research process: preresearch, during research and post-research. Also factored in are contextual influences on research utilization, including the important role of stakeholders and communication in the uptake of research results. The conceptual framework captures many diverse elements of the research-to-policy process and should be considered a generic guide which will need to be adapted depending on the setting. The framework should assist researchers in incorporating actions into their research process and into the process of dissemination of findings so that the actions promote the utilization of the findings to improve sexual and reproductive health. A complete chapter is devoted to guidance for researchers in using the conceptual framework to identify activities aimed at promoting research utilization. Another chapter provides a checklist for policy-makers and programme managers to help them define the potential for utilization of research. (excerpt)