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Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Jun 27; 6(2):247-248.Add to my documents.
Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Jun 27; 6(2):257-259.Add to my documents.
Programme reporting standards for sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 32 p.Information about design, context, implementation, monitoring and evaluation is central to understanding the processes and impacts of sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (SRMNCAH) programmes, in support of effective replication and scale-up of these efforts. Existing reporting guidelines do not demand sufficient detail in the reporting of contextual and implementation issues. We have, therefore, developed programme reporting standards (PRS) to provide guidance for complete and accurate reporting on the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes of SRMNCAH programmes. The PRS can be used by SRMNCAH programme implementers and researchers. The PRS can be used prospectively to guide the reporting of a programme throughout its life cycle, or retrospectively to describe what was done, when, where, how and by whom. The PRS is intended as a guide for implementation researchers who need to document important details of implementation and context in addition to the results of their studies. The PRS is intended for programme managers and other staff or practitioners who have designed, implemented and/or evaluated SRMNCAH programmes. It can be used by governmental and nongovernmental organizations, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as by the private sector. The PRS is also intended as a guide for implementation researchers who need to document important details of implementation and context in addition to the results of their studies
Implementing comprehensive HIV and STI programmes with transgender people: practical guidance for collaborative interventions.
New York, New York, UNDP, 2016 Apr. 212 p.This publication provides guidance to programme designers, implementers, policymakers and decision-makers on how to meaningfully engage adolescents in the AIDS response and in broader health programming. It also demonstrates why adolescents and youth are critical in efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. The publication additionally highlights what steps should be taken to implement programmes and policies that improve adolescent health outcomes (including for HIV) at the national, regional and global levels.
Ethical and safety recommendations for intervention research on violence against women. Building on lessons from the WHO publication, "Putting women first: ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence against women".
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 43 p.As the evidence base on the magnitude, context and consequences of violence against women (VAW) has grown, research efforts and attention have begun to focus on decreasing the knowledge gap on effective responses through intervention research. Demonstrating this focus, in November 2012 the WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research convened a group of experts to discuss health sector-based research to respond to violence against women. This global network of researchers, scientists and practitioners was brought together to enhance existing research efforts and to advocate for greater funding for research on interventions to address VAW and policies and programmes related to it. With the increased interest in and attention of the global community of researchers, practitioners and policy-makers regarding rigorous intervention research for preventing and responding to VAW, a discussion of the ethical considerations specific to this type of research is warranted. These recommendations have been developed to help answer questions specific to conducting research on health-based interventions to prevent and respond to VAW. Research on strategies that use health or health care as an entry point (regardless of the implementation setting, such as a clinic or community) is the focus. However, the discussion may be relevant to research on other kinds of VAW interventions.
Design and initial implementation of the WHO FP umbrella project - to strengthen contraceptive services in the sub Saharan Africa.
Reproductive Health. 2017 Jun 15; 14(1):1-6.BACKGROUND: Strengthening contraceptive services in sub Saharan Africa is critical to achieve the FP 2020 goal of enabling 120 million more women and girls to access and use contraceptives by 2020 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets of universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services including family planning by 2030. METHOD: The World Health Organization (WHO) and partners have designed a multifaceted project to strengthen health systems to reduce the unmet need of contraceptive and family planning services in sub Saharan Africa. The plan leverages global, regional and national partnerships to facilitate and increase the use of evidence based WHO guidelines with a specific focus on postpartum family planning. The four key approaches undertaken are i) making WHO Guidelines adaptable & appropriate for country use ii) building capacity of WHO regional/country staff iii) providing technical support to countries and iv) strengthening partnerships for introduction and implementation of WHO guidelines. This paper describes the project design and elaborates the multifaceted approaches required in initial implementation to strengthen contraceptive services. CONCLUSION: The initial results from this project reflect that simultaneous application these approaches may strengthen contraceptive services in Sub Saharan Africa and ensure sustainability of the efforts. The lessons learned may be used to scale up and expand services in other countries.
What can we learn from nutrition impact evaluations? Lessons from a review of interventions to reduce child malnutrition in developing countries.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2010 Aug.  p.This paper reviews recent impact evaluations of interventions and programs to improve child anthropometric outcomes- height, weight, and birth weight-with an emphasis on both the findings and the limitations of the literature and on understanding what might happen in a non-research setting. It further reviews the experience and lessons from evaluations of the impact of the World Bank-supported programs on nutrition outcomes. Specifically, the review addresses the following four questions: 1) what can be said about the impact of different interventions on children's anthropometric outcomes? 2) How do these findings vary across settings and within target groups, and what accounts for this variability? 3) What is the evidence of the cost-effectiveness of these interventions? 4) What have been the lessons from implementing impact evaluations of Bank-supported programs with anthropometric impacts? Although many different dimensions of child nutrition could be explored, this report focuses on child anthropometric outcomes-weight, height, and birth weight. These are the most common nutrition outcome indicators in the literature and the ones most frequently monitored by national nutrition programs supported by the World Bank. Low weight for age (underweight) is also the indicator for one of the Millennium Development Goals.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006.  p. (Health, Nutrition, and Population Series)The prevalence of child undernutrition in India is among the highest in the world, nearly double that of Sub-Saharan Africa, with dire consequences for morbidity, mortality, productivity, and economic growth. Drawing on qualitative studies and quantitative evidence from large household surveys, this book explores the dimensions of child undernutrition in India and examines the effectiveness of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, India’s main early child development intervention, in addressing it. Although levels of undernutrition in India declined modestly during the 1990s, the reductions lagged behind those achieved by other countries with similar economic growth. Nutritional inequalities across different states and socioeconomic and demographic groups remain large. Although the ICDS program appears to be well designed and well placed to address the multidimensional causes of undernutrition in India, several problems exist that prevent it from reaching its potential. The book concludes with a discussion of a number of concrete actions that can be taken to bridge the gap between the policy intentions of ICDS and its actual implementation.
Guidelines or other tools for integrating gender considerations into climate change related activities under the Convention.
[Bonn, Germany], UNFCCC, 2016. 33 p.Drawing on relevant web-based resources, this technical paper aims to provide an overview of existing methodologies and tools for the integration of gender considerations into climate change related activities under the Convention. The paper assesses selected tools and guidelines in terms of their methodology, information and data requirements, capacity-building needs, lessons learned, gaps and challenges, and relevance for social and environmental impacts. Parties may wish to use the information contained in this paper in their consideration of entry points for the integration of gender considerations into the formulation and implementation of strategies for mitigating and adapting to the impacts of climate change.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015. 199 p.The sustained benefits of early childhood interventions are well established in developed countries. Early development plays a major role in subsequent school performance, health, socialization, and future earnings. For children born into poverty, the equity enhancing impact of early childhood interventions hold the promise of overcoming social disadvantages and breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty. The World Bank’s support to early childhood development (ECD) is well aligned with the Bank’s twin goals of reducing extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity. This evaluation by the Independent Evaluation Group examines the Bank’s design and implementation of projects across sectors supporting ECD interventions to inform future operations and provide inputs to the new Global Practices and Cross-Cutting Solutions Areas.
The art of knowledge exchange: A results-focused planning guide for development practitioners. 2nd ed.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2013.  p.Knowledge exchange, or peer-to-peer learning, is a powerful way to share, replicate, and scale-up what works in development. Development practitioners increasingly seek to learn from the experiences of others who have gone through, or are going through, similar challenges. They want to have ready access to practical knowledge and solutions and enhance their confidence, conviction, and skills to customize the solutions to their own context. The second edition of the Art of Knowledge Exchange: A Results-Focused Planning Guide for Development Practitioners follows a strategic approach to learning and breaks down the knowledge exchange process into five simple steps. It also provides tools you need to design your knowledge exchange and practical guidance on how to use them to get the results you want from your knowledge exchange. This second edition contains a full revision of the original Art of Knowledge Exchange as well as new chapters on implementation and results of knowledge exchanges. The Guide also distills lessons from over 100 exchanges financed by South-South Facility, analytical work conducted by the World Bank Institute, and the Task Team for South-South Cooperation, and reflects the rich experiences of World Bank staff, learning professionals, government officials, and other practitioners engaged in South-South knowledge exchange activities.
Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: adapting guidance to meet the challenges.
Current Opinion In HIV and AIDS. 2013 Jan; 8(1):12-8.PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the evolution of WHO guidelines for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected individuals, considering the key epidemiological, scientific, programmatic, and political changes over the last decade, and highlights the major trends for the management of the HIV disease in future guidelines revisions. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last few years, new evidence has emerged supporting the potential preventive benefit of ART in reducing HIV transmission. This, together with the potential clinical benefits of earlier initiation of therapy, has led to the consideration of the broader strategic use of ART, taking into account the clinical and public health benefit, and programmatic feasibility. SUMMARY: In 2002, WHO established its first guidelines for ART use, primarily focused on a public health approach for resource-limited settings. These recommendations were updated in 2003, 2006, and 2010, incorporating progressive changes reflecting progressive increase in the knowledge of HIV pathogenesis, development of new drugs and diagnostics, and increased experience of HIV treatment and prevention programs. The impact of several international political commitments and scale-up initiatives such as the 3 by 5 Initiative, Universal Access targets, and the Treatment 2.0 Strategy were also important drivers of the global response, increasing the treatment coverage and catalyzing the necessary environment for the establishment of operational and programmatic components for an expanded and sustainable global response to HIV/AIDS.
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, .  p. (\)Designing and implementing knowledge exchange initiatives can be a big undertaking. This guide takes the guesswork out of the process by breaking it down into simple steps and providing tools to help you play a more effective role as knowledge connector and learning facilitator. It will help you: identify and assess capacity development needs; design and develop an appropriate knowledge exchange initiative that responds to those needs; implement the knowledge exchange initiative; measure and report the results.
Paris, France, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2012. 158 p.The education sector has a significant role to play in the response to HIV and AIDS. The sector can help to prevent the spread of HIV through education, and, in countries that are highly affected by HIV, by taking steps to protect itself from the effects of the epidemic. It can also make a significant contribution by supporting health improvement more generally and by helping to improve the sexual and reproductive health of young people in particular.This framework is designed to help those working in the education sector at a national level to understand the need for a robust response to HIV and AIDS in order to achieve Education for All (EFA) and the education-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The document also highlights the education sector’s role in contributing to universal access to HIV and AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support.
Combination HIV prevention: Tailoring and coordinating biomedical, behavioural and structural strategies to reduce new HIV infections. A UNAIDS discussion paper.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2010 Sep.  p. (UNAIDS Discussion Paper No. 10; UNAIDS - JC2007)This discussion paper summarizes the approach to HIV prevention programming known as “combination prevention” that UNAIDS recommends to achieve the greatest and most lasting impact on reducing HIV incidence and on improving the well-being of affected communities around the world.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2011.  p.This book offers an accessible introduction to the topic of impact evaluation and its practice in development. Although the book is geared principally toward development practitioners and policy makers, we trust that it will be a valuable resource for students and others interested in impact evaluation. Prospective impact evaluations assess whether or not a program has achieved its intended results or test alternative strategies for achieving those results. We consider that more and better impact evaluations will help strengthen the evidence base for development policies and programs around the world. Our hope is that if governments and development practitioners can make policy decisions based on evidence -- including evidence generated through impact evaluation -- development resources will be spent more effectively to reduce poverty and improve people's lives. The three parts in this handbook provide a nontechnical introduction to impact evaluations, discussing what to evaluate and why in part 1; how to evaluate in part 2; and how to implement an evaluation in part 3. These elements are the basic tools needed to successfully carry out an impact evaluation. The approach to impact evaluation in this book is largely intuitive, and we attempt to minimize technical notation. We provide the reader with a core set of impact evaluation tools -- the concepts and methods that underpin any impact evaluation -- and discuss their application to real-world development operations. The methods are drawn directly from applied research in the social sciences and share many commonalities with research methods used in the natural sciences. In this sense, impact evaluation brings the empirical research tools widely used in economics and other social sciences together with the operational and political-economy realities of policy implementation and development practice. (Excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, 2009.  p.Over 2008, wide global consultation revealed considerable interest and frustration among researchers, funders and policy-makers around our limited understanding of what works in health systems strengthening. In this current Flagship Report we introduce and discuss the merits of employing a systems thinking approach in order to catalyze conceptual thinking regarding health systems, system-level interventions, and evaluations of health system strengthening. The Report sets out to answer the following broad questions: What is systems thinking and how can researchers and policy-makers apply it? How can we use this perspective to better understand and exploit the synergies among interventions to strengthen health systems? How can systems thinking contribute to better evaluations of these system-level interventions? This Report argues that a stronger systems perspective among designers, implementers, stewards and funders is a critical component in strengthening overall health-sector development in low- and middle-income countries. (Excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, [WHO], 2009. 48 p. (Analytic Case Studies. Initiatives to Increase the Use of Health Services by Adolescents)This case study describes how the Government of Mozambique scaled up its successful youth HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health program to a national level. Geared toward developing-country governments and nongovernmental organizations, the case study provides a technical overview of the program and its interventions, a detailed description of the scale-up process and lessons learned, and the program's achievements.
Supporting civil society organisations to reach key populations in the Latin American and Caribbean region. A look at HIV / AIDS projects financed by the World Bank.
[Brighton, United Kingdom], International HIV / AIDS Alliance, 2006. 52 p.The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which World Bank financed projects are supporting civil society organisations (CSOs) to reach four key populations (men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers (SW), intravenous drug users (IDUs) and persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. The study refers to the first three key populations (KPs) as 'at-risk KPs' when discussing KPs who may or may not be HIV infected. The study has two main outputs: an initial mapping of World Bank financed AIDS prevention and control projects in LAC and the role of CSOs and KPs in those projects; identification of factors that impede or facilitate CSO access to World Bank resources that target KPs. The International HIV/AIDS Alliance has commissioned this study to improve understanding of the dynamics at the country level with World Bank financed projects concerning CSOs and KPs. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007. 37 p.One fifth of the world's population - a total of 1.2 billion people - are adolescents, and 85% of them are in the developing world. Adolescence is a time of unprecedented promise - and peril. During the second decade of life, young people can encounter a rapidly widening world of opportunities, as they gradually take on adult characteristics in size, sexual characteristics, thinking skills, identity and economic and social roles. Too often, however, the widening world also exposes adolescents to serious risks before they have adequate information, skills and experience to avoid or counteract them. Their level of maturity and social status is no match for some challenges, unless they are provided with support, information and access to resources. Without help, the consequences of health risk behaviours in adolescence can be life-threatening and life-long. Nearly two thirds of premature deaths and one third of the total disease burden in adults can be associated with conditions or behaviours that begin in youth. 1 To protect and preserve our subsequent generations, no better investment can be made in the developing world than to foster promotion of adolescent development and prevention of health risk behaviours among adolescents. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2007.  p.The influence behind faith-based organizations is not difficult to discern. In many developing countries, FBOs not only provide spiritual guidance to their followers; they are often the primary providers for a variety of local health and social services. Situated within communities and building on relationships of trust, these organizations have the ability to influence the attitudes and behaviours of their fellow community members. Moreover, they are in close and regular contact with all age groups in society and their word is respected. In fact, in some traditional communities, religious leaders are often more influential than local government officials or secular community leaders. Many of the case studies researched for the UNFPA publication Culture Matters showed that the involvement of faith-based organizations in UNFPA-supported projects enhanced negotiations with governments and civil society on culturally sensitive issues. Gradually, these experiences are being shared across countries andacross regions, which has facilitated interfaith dialogue on the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of HIV. Such dialogue has also helped convince various faith-based organizations that joining together as a united front is the most effective way to fight the spread of HIV and lessen the impact of AIDS. This manual is a capacity-building tool to help policy makers and programmers identify, design and follow up on HIV prevention programmes undertaken by FBOs. The manual can also be used by development practitioners partnering with FBOs to increase their understanding of the role of FBOs in HIV prevention, and to design plans for partnering with FBOs to halt the spread of the virus. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007.  p. (UNAIDS/07.07E; JC1274E)These Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access are designed to provide policy makers and planners with practical guidance to tailor their national HIV prevention response so that they respond to the epidemic dynamics and social context of the country and populations who remain most vulnerable to and at risk of HIV infection. They have been developed in consultation with the UNAIDS cosponsors, international collaborating partners, government, civil society leaders and other experts. They build on Intensifying HIV Prevention: UNAIDS Policy Position Paper and the UNAIDS Action Plan on Intensifying HIV Prevention. In 2006, governments committed themselves to scaling up HIV prevention and treatment responses to ensure universal access by 2010. While in the past five years treatment access has expanded rapidly, the number of new HIV infections has not decreased - estimated at 4.3 (3.6-6.6) million in 2006 - with many people unable to access prevention services to prevent HIV infection. These Guidelines recognize that to sustain the advances in antiretroviral treatment and to ensure true universal access requires that prevention services be scaled up simultaneously with treatment. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006 Dec.  p.A human rights-based approach to programming is a conceptual framework and methodological tool for ensuring that human rights principles are reflected in policies and national development frameworks. Human rights are the minimum standards that people require to live in freedom and dignity. They are based on the principles of universality, indivisibility, interdependence, equality and non-discrimination. Through the systematic use of human rights-based programming, UNFPA seeks to empower people to exercise their rights, especially their reproductive rights, and to live free from gender-based violence. It does this by supporting programmes aimed at giving women, men and young people ('rights holders') the information, life skills and education they need to claim their rights. It also contributes to capacity-building among public officials, teachers, health-care workers and others who have a responsibility to fulfill these rights ('duty bearers'). In addition, UNFPA strengthens civil society organizations, which often serve as intermediaries between governments and individuals, and promotes mechanisms by which duty bearers can be held accountable. (excerpt)
Report by the Director-General on implementing the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board recommendations.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 Feb 23. 5 p. (174 EX/7)This document informs the Executive Board about efforts to implement UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board (PCB) recommendations. The recommendations are the result of extensive consultation and negotiation by the Global Task Team to identify how the United Nations system can achieve greater cohesion and effectiveness in our response to HIV and AIDS at the country level. The PCB developed these recommendations following strong pressure from donors and Member States to streamline and harmonize how United Nations agencies assist countries with the implementation of their national action plans on HIV and AIDS. The 2005 World Summit: High-Level Plenary Meeting of the sixtieth session of the General Assembly in September reaffirmed the urgency of intensifying the response to AIDS by endorsing the recommendations, as have heads of United Nations agencies, and the boards of some cosponsors. (author's)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006. 93 p. (WHO/HTM/STB/2006.37)A significant scaling up of advocacy, communication and social mobilization (ACSM) will be needed to achieve the global targets for tuberculosis control as detailed in the Global Plan to Stop TB 2006--2015. In 2005, the ACSM Working Group (ACSM WG) was established as the seventh working group of the Stop TB Partnership to mobilize political, social and financial resources; to sustain and expand the global movement to eliminate TB; and to foster the development of more effective ACSM programming at country level in support of TB control. It succeeded an earlier Partnership Task Force on Advocacy and Communications. This work-plan focuses on those areas where ACSM has most to offer and where ACSM strategies can be most effectively concentrated to help address four key challenges to TB control at country level: Improving case detection and treatment adherence; Combating stigma and discrimination; Empowering people affected by TB; Mobilizing political commitment and resources for TB. (excerpt)