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National responses to global health targets: exploring policy transfer in the context of the UNAIDS '90-90-90' treatment targets in Ghana and Uganda.
Health Policy and Planning. 2018 Jan 1; 33(1):17-33.Global health organizations frequently set disease-specific targets with the goal of eliciting adoption at the national-level; consideration of the influence of target setting on national policies, program and health budgets is of benefit to those setting targets and those intended to respond. In 2014, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS set ‘ambitious’ treatment targets for country adoption: 90% of HIV-positive persons should know their status; 90% of those on treatment; 90% of those achieving viral suppression. Using case studies from Ghana and Uganda, we explore how the target and its associated policy content have been adopted at the national level. That is whether adoption is in rhetoric only or supported by program, policy or budgetary changes. We review 23 (14 from Ghana, 9 from Uganda) national policy, operational and strategic documents for the HIV response and assess commitments to ‘90-90-90’. In-person semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively sampled key informants (17 in Ghana, 20 in Uganda) involved in program-planning and resource allocation within HIV to gain insight into factors facilitating adoption of 90-90-90. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed thematically, inductively and deductively, guided by pre-existing policy theories, including Dolowitz and Marsh’s policy transfer framework to describe features of the transfer and the Global Health Advocacy and Policy Project framework to explain observations. Regardless of notable resource constraints, transfer of the 90-90-90 targets was evident beyond rhetoric with substantial shifts in policy and programme activities. In both countries, there was evidence of attempts to minimize resource constraints by seeking programme efficiencies, prioritization of program activities and devising domestic financing mechanisms; however, significant resource gaps persist. An effective health network, comprised of global and local actors, mediated the adoption and adaptation, facilitating a shift in the HIV program from ‘business as usual’ to approaches targeting geographies and populations.
Follow-up actions to recommendations of the high-level commissions convened to advance women’s and children’s health. Report by the Secretariat.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 Mar 11.  p. (A66/14)This report has been prepared in response to resolution WHA65.7, which requested an annual report to the Health Assembly, through the Executive Board, on progress made in the follow-up of the recommendations of the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women’s and Children’s Health. At the request of a Member State, the report also provides details of the Secretariat’s work on the recommendations and implementation plan of the United Nations Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 Mar 11.  p. (A66/15)Following the close attention given by WHO’s governing bodies to the important role played by social determinants of health in global health, especially in relation to the WHO reform process and the Organization’s future activities, further review and consultation have taken place. Tackling social determinants of health is recognized as being both a fundamental approach to the work of the Organization and a priority area of work in itself in the draft twelfth WHO general programme of work 2014–2019, which has been discussed by the regional committees before its further consideration by Executive Board and the Health Assembly.
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 2010 Sep 10; 26: p.PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent advances in our understanding of prolonged episodes of acute diarrhea and persistent diarrhea in children. The focus is on the contribution of these illnesses to the global burden of diarrhea, their impact on childhood growth and development, novel epidemiologic links between prolonged and persistent diarrheal episodes, and strategies for their prevention and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Although less common than acute diarrhea, prolonged and persistent episodes of diarrhea in childhood constitute a significant portion of the global burden of diarrhea. These episodes also play a key role in the vicious cycle of childhood diarrhea and malnutrition in which undernutrition is both a risk factor and an outcome of diarrhea. Increased efforts to provide WHO-recommended zinc therapy for all children with diarrhea in developing countries will significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. In children who develop persistent diarrhea, yogurt-based or amino acid-based diets may accelerate their recovery. SUMMARY: In addition to increased implementation of strategies already known to effectively prevent and manage acute diarrhea, further research is needed to address the recognition, prevention, and treatment of prolonged episodes of acute diarrhea and persistent diarrhea in resource-limited settings.
New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2008. 101 p.This publication shows how various parts of the United Nations system support youth development with a diverse range of programs covering all 15 priority areas of the World Programme of Action for Youth. Several of these priority areas relate to reproductive health and HIV, and numerous UN agencies include activities on these topics in their programming. This document includes illustrative activities for each agency, key publications, and contact information.
A thematic fund for maternal health. Accelerating progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5: No woman should die giving life.
[New York, New York], UNFPA, . 15 p.The thematic fund (2008-2015) will focus ultimately on supporting 75 countries with the greatest need. In addition to its focus on meeting countries' needs, it will demonstrate good practices for scaling up efforts. It will be launched in a phased manner. This paper provides an overview of the Thematic Fund for Maternal Health and indicative budget for the first period (2008-2011) of US$ 465 million, exclusive of indirect costs. It will be followed by a comprehensive proposal for the first period with an operational plan, which will include a brief preparatory stage followed by phased implementation at scale in at least 25 of the 75 priority countries. Introduction in the remaining countries will continue over the second period (2012-2015), as resources permit and based on a proposal and budget reflecting the experiences of the first period. (excerpt)
The practice of charging user fees at the point of service delivery for HIV / AIDS treatment and care.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005 Dec.  p. (WHO Discussion Paper; WHO/HIV/2005.11)The global movement to expand access to antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS as part of a comprehensive response to the HIV pandemic is grounded in both the human right to health and in evidence on public-health outcomes. However, for many individuals in poor communities, the cost of treatment remains an insurmountable obstacle. Even with sliding fee scales, cost recovery at the point of service delivery is likely to depress uptake of antiretroviral treatment and decrease adherence by those already receiving it. Therefore, countries are being advised to adopt a policy of free access at the point of service delivery to HIV care and treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. This recommendation is based on the best available evidence and experience in countries. It is warranted as an element of the exceptional response needed to turn back the AIDS epidemic. With the endorsement by G8 leaders in July 2005 and UN Member States in September 2005 of efforts to move towards universal access to HIV treatment and care by 2010, health sector financing strategies must now move to the top of the international agenda. Rapid scale-up of programmes within the framework of the "3 by 5" target has underscored the challenge of equity, particularly for marginalized and rural populations. It is apparent that user charges at the point of service delivery "institutionalize exclusion" and undermine efforts towards universal access to health services. Abolishing them, however, requires prompt, sustained attention to long-term health system financing strategies, at both national and international levels. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2007.  p.The influence behind faith-based organizations is not difficult to discern. In many developing countries, FBOs not only provide spiritual guidance to their followers; they are often the primary providers for a variety of local health and social services. Situated within communities and building on relationships of trust, these organizations have the ability to influence the attitudes and behaviours of their fellow community members. Moreover, they are in close and regular contact with all age groups in society and their word is respected. In fact, in some traditional communities, religious leaders are often more influential than local government officials or secular community leaders. Many of the case studies researched for the UNFPA publication Culture Matters showed that the involvement of faith-based organizations in UNFPA-supported projects enhanced negotiations with governments and civil society on culturally sensitive issues. Gradually, these experiences are being shared across countries andacross regions, which has facilitated interfaith dialogue on the most effective approaches to prevent the spread of HIV. Such dialogue has also helped convince various faith-based organizations that joining together as a united front is the most effective way to fight the spread of HIV and lessen the impact of AIDS. This manual is a capacity-building tool to help policy makers and programmers identify, design and follow up on HIV prevention programmes undertaken by FBOs. The manual can also be used by development practitioners partnering with FBOs to increase their understanding of the role of FBOs in HIV prevention, and to design plans for partnering with FBOs to halt the spread of the virus. (excerpt)
In: The HIV challenge to education: a collection of essays, edited by Carol Coombe. Paris, France, UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning, 2004. 253-263. (Education in the Context of HIV / AIDS)Twenty years after the identification of AIDS, some 60 million people have been infected by HIV, a number corresponding to the entire population of France, the United Kingdom or Thailand. Those who have died equal the population of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark combined. Those currently infected - more than 40 million - number more than the entire population of Canada. The number of children thought to be orphaned by HIV/AIDS - some 14 million - is already more than the total population of Ecuador. Over the coming decade their numbers may rise to a staggering 50 million worldwide. In other words, the extent of this pandemic is unprecedented in human history. And the worst is yet to come, for many millions more will be infected, many millions more will die, many millions more will be orphaned. On September 11 2001, more than 3,000 people died in the New York bombings. Every day, around the world, HIV infects at least five times that number. But it is not only individuals who are at risk. The social fabric of whole communities, societies and cultures is threatened. The disease is certain to be a scourge throughout our lifetime. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., United States Department of State, Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator, 2005 Jun. 184 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PC-AAB-508)This June FY 2005 Operational Plan serves as an update of the February 2005 Operational Plan. The FY 2005 Operational Plan follows "The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief -- U.S. Five-Year Global HIV/AIDS Strategy" and sets out a course to have an immediate impact on people and strengthen the capacity of governments and NGOs to expand programs quickly over the next several years. By the end of FY 2005 the Emergency Plan will provide direct and indirect care and support for approximately 3,500,000 individuals, and will facilitate access to antiretroviral therapy for at least 550,000 individuals. Section III of this document provides information on each country's contribution to the total number of individuals to be receiving care and support and antiretroviral therapy by the end of FY 2005. The country-specific target tables also provide the FY 2008 care and treatment targets for each country. The FY 2008 targets were set at the beginning of the Emergency Plan. The sum of all countries' FY 2008 care/support targets equals the Emergency Plan's goal of ten million individuals receiving care and support by the end of year five. The sum of all countries' FY 2008 treatment targets equals the Emergency Plan's goal of two million people on treatment at the end of year five. (excerpt)
The global AIDS crisis, "3 by 5", and a renewed commitment to primary health care. WHO, World Social Forum, 2004.
Contact. 2004 Jan; (177-178):20.On September 2003 at the United Nations General Assembly, the new Director General of the World Health Organization, Dr. Lee, stated: "The AIDS treatment gap is a global public health emergency. We must change the way we think and change the way we act. Business as usual means watching thousands of people die every single day." To address this AIDS treatment crisis, WHO and UNAIDS have committed to leading the "3 by 5" initiative, which targets delivering antiretroviral treatment (ART) to 3 million people in developing countries by the end of 2005. As evident from the experience in industrialized countries since 1996, access to ART has turned HIV/AIDS into a manageable condition, dramatically reducing mortality and morbidity, and allowing people living with HIV/AIDS to live productive, healthy lives. However, in developing countries, these drugs are currently available to only a fraction of those in need. WHO launched the "3 by 5" strategy in December 2003, basing the key elements of the strategy on information gained from numerous pilot programmes that show that it is feasible to provide ARTs in even the very poorest of settings. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, General Assembly, 2006 Aug 25. 23 p. (A/61/292)The present report provides a review and update of the programme and activities of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) for 2005. The report tracks overall progress and highlights concrete results in the implementation of its multi-year funding framework 2004-2007 during the year under review. The report concludes with a set of recommendations on how the development and organizational effectiveness of UNIFEM can be further strengthened. (author's)
Ford Foundation and Elton John AIDS Foundation join Caribbean broadcasters and the Kaiser Family Foundation to advance the Caribbean Broadcast Media Partnership on HIV / AIDS, as part of a global mobilization of media. Partnership includes regional PSA campaign, HIV-themed programming, and other informational resources.
Toronto, Canada, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2006 Aug 16. 2 p.Today, the Ford Foundation and Elton John AIDS Foundation announced they would be joining the Kaiser Family Foundation in together providing one million USD to support the operations of the Caribbean Broadcast Media Partnership on HIV/AIDS, the region's first media-led initiative on HIV/AIDS. Kaiser, which helped initiate and create the Partnership, will also provide ongoing operational and public health expertise. The Partnership -- which responds to U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan's call-to-action to media under the Global Media AIDS Initiative (GMAI) -- promotes collaboration and leverages resources among media in the region with the goal of expanding AIDS programming. The Caribbean region has the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in the world outside sub-Saharan Africa. According to the latest UNAIDS statistics, AIDS is now the leading cause of death among adults in the region ages 15-44 years. Stigma and homophobia have been identified as major contributors to the spread of HIV/AIDS in the region. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE / CIS, Child Protection Unit, 2006. 89 p.This Report outlines some key findings and recommendations from an assessment of the efforts to prevent child trafficking in South Eastern Europe. Its main purpose is to increase understanding of the work prevention of child trafficking, by looking at the effectiveness of different approaches and their impacts. The assessment covered Albania, Republic of Moldova, Romania and the UN Administered Province of Kosovo. The Report is based on a review of relevant research and agency reports as well as interviews with organizations implementing prevention initiatives and with trafficked children from the region. The first part of the Report reviews key terms and definition related to child trafficking, as common understanding about what constitutes trafficking and who might be categorised as a victim is crucial to devising prevention initiatives and guaranteeing adequate protection for trafficked children. Furthermore, to intervene in any of the phases of the trafficking process it is essential to understand specific factors contributing to the situation and the key actors involved. Different approaches to understanding the causes of child trafficking and methods for developing prevention initiatives are also explored. The Report notes that all prevention efforts should incorporate the principles that have proved essential in designing and implementing other initiatives in the ares of child rights and protection. That is, good prevention initiatives should be rooted in child rights principles and provisions, use quality data and analysis, applying programme logic, forge essential partnerships, monitor and evaluate practice and measure the progress towards expected results. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2006 Oct 28-Nov 3; 368(9546):1489-1490.The International AIDS Society (IAS) commends Richard Horton for his provocative analysis of the XVI International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2006), which took place this past August in Toronto, Canada. Critical analysis and debate--two of the hallmarks of the conference--can only strengthen our collective response to this crisis. Yet Horton's claims that the conference is "disengaged", and that the opportunity to produce a road map for the future was "squandered", as outlined in the ten points of his Comment, merit a response from the IAS as lead organiser of these meetings. In 2005, the IAS undertook the first comprehensive review of the conference (the Future Directions project), consulting broadly with our stakeholders in an effort to maximise the reach and impact of the conference. The recommendations from those consultations--among others, to improve the quality of science, to broaden diversity, to facilitate cross-disciplinary links and dialogue, and to strengthen the focus on youth--began to be implemented in the planning for AIDS 2006 and will be implemented more fully in the planning for AIDS 2008. We are also strengthening the conference's role as an accountability mechanism, a focus reflected in the conference theme, Time to Deliver, that has implications across disciplines and settings. (excerpt)
Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. Roll Back Malaria East African Regional Network Partners Meeting, Kampala, Uganda, January 2005: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Feb.  p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-012; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)More than 90% of the clinical cases of malaria each year occur in Africa with much of the burden in children under five years of age. Pregnant women are especially at risk and strategies to decrease the morbidity in this group have been found to be effective. Strategies to address these challenges must be implemented in collaboration with programs aimed at integrated approaches to childhood illness and reproductive health. Management Sciences for Health's (MSH) Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus (RPM Plus) Program has received funds from USAID to develop strategies to implement malaria policies and to provide technical assistance in pharmaceutical management issues for malaria. RPM Plus is a key technical partner in the USAID Malaria Action Coalition (MAC), a partnership among four technical partners: The World Health Organization (WHO), working primarily through its Africa Regional Office (AFRO), the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the ACCESS Program of JHPIEGO and RPM Plus. RPM Plus has been working to improve pharmaceutical management for malaria in countries in Africa by identifying and addressing the causes of poor access, ineffective supply, and inappropriate use of antimalarials. RPM Plus has developed and applied tools to assess pharmaceutical management for malaria and has worked to provide technical assistance to countries by working with policymakers, researchers, managers, and providers in the public and private sectors to implement new and proven interventions. Significant among these interventions are Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2006 Jul 15; 368(9531):253-257.In April, 2005, the World Bank launched a Global Strategy & Booster Program for malaria control. Our mission in this programme is to help developing countries reduce their human misery and economic losses from this entirely preventable and treatable disease. "On the basis of initial demand from clients, the working assumption is that a total commitment of US$500 million to $1 billion is feasible over the next five years."1 World Bank Group President, Paul Wolfowitz, has put the full weight of his leadership behind the Bank's renewed commitment to malaria, with a strong emphasis on results. We are confident that strong country leadership and effective collaboration with our partner agencies will accelerate impact on a larger scale than before. Here, we reflect on the Bank's history of support for malaria control, its ongoing efforts, and plans for the future. We also take the opportunity afforded by The Lancet to respond to various allegations made in this same issue by Prof Amir Attaran and co-authors. (excerpt)
The World Bank: false financial and statistical accounts and medical malpractice in malaria treatment.
Lancet. 2006 Jul 15; 368(9531):247-252.The World Bank has an annual budget of US$20 billion, and is the largest organisation operating with a mission to reduce poverty worldwide. Malaria destroys about 1 million lives a year; the disease is the leading parasitic cause of death for Africa's children and impoverishment for their families. Here we examine how these factors meet in the new Global Strategy & Booster Program, which is the Bank's plan for controlling that disease in 2005--10.1 We believe this plan is inadequate to reverse the Bank's troubling history of neglect for malaria. In the past 5 years, the Bank has failed to uphold a pledge to increase funding for malaria control in Africa, has claimed success in its malaria programmes by promulgating false epidemiological statistics, and has approved clinically obsolete treatments for a potentially deadly form of malaria. Crucially, the Bank also downsized its malaria staff, so that it cannot swiftly execute the restoration it plans under the Global Strategy & Booster Program. We summarise the evidence, show that the Bank possesses demonstrably little expertise in malaria, and argue that the Bank should relinquish its funding to other agencies better placed to control the disease. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2006 Jul 15; 368(9531):197.In their Viewpoint accusing the World Bank of "false financial and statistical accounts and medical malpractice", Amir Attaran and colleagues say that the Bank claims that reported malaria cases in Brazil dropped by 60% between 1989 and 1996 during the Amazon Basin malaria project. This comparison comes from Appendix 3 to the Bank's statement of its Booster Program, which failed to clarify that the number for 1996 refers only to the first 6 months of the year. The Bank has since corrected this statement. The numbers cited come from table 2 of our analysis of the costeffectiveness of the project. The data on cases in the table end at mid-1996 because the data on costs end at that time. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998. 32 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material; UNAIDS/98.25)The aim of this document is to point out the most important ways in which NGOs concerned with HIV/ AIDS and with the persons who have this infection in Latin America and the Caribbean help facilitate access to HIV-related drugs. During the XIth Conference on AIDS, the slogan "No greed, access to all!" was heard. The immediate reason was that the new AIDS drugs, the protease inhibitors, had a high price. This does not, of course, mean that access to all other AIDS-related drugs was easy. It was not, and it is not, especially for persons in developing countries. Thus, although lack of access to AIDS-related drugs is an old subject in developing countries, this topic aroused renewed interest when it affected developed countries. Access to treatment has become a global issue and has given rise to a new phase of global solidarity. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1999 Jun. 55 p. (UNAIDS/99.29E)We live at a turning point in human history. AIDS spotlights all that is strong and weak in humanity: our vulnerability and fears, as well as our strength and compassion, especially for those more vulnerable, less able, or poorer than ourselves. There is still no cure and no vaccine for AIDS. In 1998, 16 000 individuals were infected with HIV every day, and by year's end over 33 million people, a number that exceeds the entire population of Canada, were living with HIV -- although we estimate that nine-tenths of them are unaware of their infection. Most people with HIV or AIDS have no access to medication, even to relieve their pain and suffering. Over 14 million adults and children have already lost their lives to the disease. These deaths will not be the last -- there is worse to come. Every year AIDS takes new directions: India and South Africa, both relatively untouched only a few years ago, now have among the fastest-growing epidemics in the world. New AIDS epidemics are emerging with frightening speed in Eastern and Central Europe. And sub-Saharan Africa remains the hardest-hit region in the world. Globally, young people -- those who must build the bridges, create national wealth and conduct the research of the future -- experience half of all new HIV infections. In many parts of the world, AIDS is the single greatest threat to economic, social and human development. (excerpt)
Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS: guidelines on construction of core indicators.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Jul. 106 p. (UNAIDS/05.17E)The primary purpose of this document is to provide key constituents, who are actively involved in an individual country's response to HIV and AIDS, with essential information on core indicators that measure the effectiveness of the national response. These guidelines will also help ensure the transparency of the process used by national governments and UNAIDS to prepare progress reports on implementation of the UNGASS Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. Countries are strongly encouraged to integrate the core indicators into their ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities. These indicators are designed to help countries assess the current state of their national response while simultaneously contributing to a better understanding of the global response to the AIDS pandemic, including progress towards meeting the Declaration of Commitment targets. Given the parallel applications of the indicators, the guidelines in this document are designed to improve the quality and consistency of data collected at country level, which will enhance the accuracy of conclusions drawn from the data at both regional and global levels. This document also includes an overview of global indicators that will be used by UNAIDS and its partners to assess key components of the response that are best measured on a worldwide basis. (excerpt)
Committing to results: improving the effectiveness of HIV / AIDS assistance. An OED evaluation of the World Bank's assistance for HIV / AIDS control.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, 2005.  p. (Operations Evaluation Studies)The global AIDS epidemic has profoundly affected the quality of life and progress toward poverty alleviation in many of the poorest developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Since the late 1980s, but particularly over the past decade, the World Bank has launched efforts to prevent HIV/AIDS and to mitigate its impact through participation in global programs; financing analytic work; engaging in policy dialogue; and providing loans, credits, and grants for HIV/AIDS projects. As of June 2004, the World Bank had committed $2.46 billion in credits, grants, and loans to 62 low- and middle-income countries for 106 projects to prevent, treat, and mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS, of which about $1 billion had been disbursed. (excerpt)
USAID project profiles: children affected by HIV / AIDS. Fourth edition. [Perfiles del proyecto USAID: niños afectados por VIH/SIDA. Cuarta edición.]
Washington, D.C., Jorge Scientific Corporation, Population, Health and Nutrition Information (PHNI) Project, 2005 Jan. 264 p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00004-00)No generation is spared the catastrophic consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. From newborn babies of HIV-positive mothers to elderly caregivers, the disease does not discriminate. One of the most tragic consequences is the toll on children. In 2003, more than 15 million children under age 18 had lost one or both parents to AIDS. Along with grief and abandonment, children in affected families face the added burdens of responsibilities far beyond their capabilities - nursing a sick or dying parent, raising younger siblings, running the household or family farm, replacing a breadwinner, or struggling for survival on city streets. An estimated 5 percent of children affected by HIV/AIDS worldwide have no support and are living on the streets or in residential institutions. Globally, approximately 2.1 million children under age 15 have HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Towards an AIDS-free generation. The Global Initiative on HIV / AIDS and Education. Briefs for decision-makers.
Paris, France, UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning, IIEP Publications, 2005 May.  p. (IIEP/May 2005/HIV-GI/02.R2)What is the global initiative on HIV/AIDS and Education? The Cosponsoring Organizations of UNAIDS launched the Global Initiative on HIV/AIDS and Education in March 2004. This initiative aims to radically enhance national responses against the epidemic by helping governments to implement comprehensive, nation-wide education programmes for young people. The partners in the Global Initiative are united by a commitment to implement a jointly developed framework on HIV/AIDS and Education. The Global Initiative is designed: To complement and link with the "3 by 5" Initiative to scale up treatment against AIDS; To be part of the broader prevention effort spearheaded by UNAIDS; To facilitate the implementation of the so-called "Three ones" at the country level: One agreed HIV/AIDS Action Framework that provides the basis for coordinating the work of all partners; One National AIDS Coordinating Authority, with a broad-based multisectoral mandate; One agreed country-level Monitoring and Evaluation System. (excerpt)