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European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2010 Oct; 15(5):301-4.Add to my documents.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2010 Dec.  p. (UNAIDS/10.12E/JC2034E)This Strategy has been developed through wide consultation, informed by the best evidence and driven by a moral imperative to achieve universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support and the Millennium Development Goals.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2010.  p. (UNAIDS/10.11E ; JC1958E)The 2010 edition of the UNAIDS Report on the global AIDS epidemic includes new country by country scorecards on key issues facing the AIDS response. Based on the latest data from 182 countries, this global reference book provides comprehensive analysis on the AIDS epidemic and response. For the first time the report includes trend data on incidence from more than 60 countries.
[Washington, D.C]., World Bank. 2010 May.  p.Reproductive health is a key facet of human development. Improved reproductive health outcomes -- lower fertility rates, better pregnancy outcomes, and fewer sexually transmitted infections -- have broader individual, family, and societal benefits. The benefits include a healthier and more productive work force, greater financial and other resources for each child in smaller families, and enabling young women to delay childbearing until they have achieved educational and other goals. Women's full and equal participation in the development process is contingent on accessing essential reproductive health services, including the ability to make voluntary and informed decisions about fertility. Reproductive health issues have only recently begun to be a priority in the development agenda. Even though Official Development Assistance (ODA) for reproductive health has increased, the share of health ODA going to reproductive health declined in the past decade. This document presents a detailed operationalization of the reproductive health component of the Bank's 2007 Health, Nutrition, and Population (HNP) strategy.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2010.  p. (Discussion Paper Series on Social Determinants of Health No. 2)Complexity defines health. Now, more than ever, in the age of globalization, is this so. The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) was set up by the World Health Organization (WHO) to get to the heart of this complexity. They were tasked with summarizing the evidence on how the structure of societies, through myriad social interactions, norms and institutions, are affecting population health, and what governments and public health can do about it. To guide the Commission in its mammoth task, the WHO Secretariat conducted a review and summary of different frameworks for understanding the social determinants of health. This review was summarized and synthesized into a single conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health which was proposed to and, largely, accepted by, the CSDH for orienting their work. A key aim of the framework is to highlight the difference between levels of causation, distinguishing between the mechanisms by which social hierarchies are created, and the conditions of daily life which then result. This paper describes the review, how the proposed conceptual framework was developed, and identifies elements of policy directions for action implied by the proposed conceptual framework and analysis of policy approaches. (Excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2010.  p. (Discussion Paper Series on Social Determinants of Health No. 1)Today an unprecedented opportunity exists to improve health in some of the world's poorest and most vulnerable communities by tackling the root causes of disease and health inequalities. The most powerful of these causes are the social conditions in which people live and work, referred to as the social determinants of health (SDH). The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) shape the current global development agenda. The MDGs recognize the interdependence of health and social conditions and present an opportunity to promote health policies that tackle the social roots of unfair and avoidable human suffering. The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is poised for leadership in this process. To reach its objectives, however, the CSDH must learn from the history of previous attempts to spur action on SDH. This paper pursues three questions: (1) Why didn't previous efforts to promote health policies on social determinants succeed? (2) Why do we think the CSDH can do better? (3) What can the Commission learn from previous experiences -- negative and positive -- that can increase its chances for success? (Excerpt)
Monitoring equity in access to AIDS treatment programmes: a review of concepts, models, methods and indicators.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2010.  p.The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Regional Network for Equity in Health in East and Southern Africa (EQUINET) through REACH Trust Malawi and Training and Research Support Centre (TARSC) developed this review. It provides a practical resource for programme managers, health planning departments, evaluation experts and civil society organizations working on health systems and HIV / AIDS programmes at sub-national, national and regional levels in East and Southern Africa. Many of the orientations and tools in this document were developed through a wide consultation process, starting in 2003. We draw on the broader analysis of health equity advanced by EQUINET, as well as evidence from five background studies on equity and health systems impacts of ART programming in East and Southern Africa which were supported by EQUINET, TARSC and DFID (available at www. equinetafrica.org). (Excerpt)
Lancet. 2010 Dec 4; 376(9756):1874.This editorial argues that despite the report by UNAIDS that the trajectory of the HIV epidemic has been broken, a US Institute of Medicine (IOM) report paints a bleaker picture for the immediate future of HIV/AIDS in Africa. The IOM report states that sub-Saharan Africa bears 68% of the worldwide burden of HIV infection and the gap is growing between the number of people needing treatment and the availability of resources.
Telemedicine: opportunities and developments in Member States: report on the second global survey on eHealth, 2009.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2010.  p.The telemedicine module of the 2009 survey examined the current level of development of four fields of telemedicine: teleradiology, teledermatogy, telepathology, and telepsychology, as well as four mechanisms that facilitate the promotion and development of telemedicine solutions in the short- and long-term: the use of a national agency, national policy or strategy, scientific development, and evaluation. Telemedicine -- opportunities and developments in Member States discusses the results of the telemedicine module, which was completed by 114 countries (59% of Member States). Findings from the survey show that teleradiology currently has the highest rate of established service provision globally (33%). Approximately 30% of responding countries have a national agency for the promotion and development of telemedicine, and developing countries are as likely as developed countries to have such an agency. In many countries scientific institutions are involved with the development of telemedicine solutions in the absence of national telemedicine agencies or policies; while 50% of countries reported that scientific institutions are currently involved in the development of telemedicine solutions, 20% reported having an evaluation or review on the use of telemedicine in their country published since 2006. (Excerpt)
Science. 2010 Jul 9; 329(5988):147-9.This article focuses on the United Nations' goal of universal access to comprehensive programs for HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support by 2010, which has failed to deliver. It discusses how universal access can benefit other health programs such as progress towards universal access has directly advanced efforts to achieve several of the U.N. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) but also includes why some criticize HIV-specific programs.
Journal of Health Care Finance. 2010; 36(4):75-79.When the United Nations declared "health care for all" (at the conferences at Alma-Ata in 1978 and the Ottawa Charter in 1986),(1) the declarations were largely premature to impact the upcoming HIV/AIDS epidemic. These UN declarations still apply today, as multitudes of humanity continue to die from what amounts now to be a treatable chronic disease. Can the wealthier, industrialized countries stand by and watch the decimation of the populations of the developing world by HIV / AIDS? The global "health 9/10 gap," relates that only 10 percent of global heath resources go to developing countries - i.e., those having 90 percent of the poorest world populations. (2) The World Bank/World Health Organization has been at the forefront of providing resources for the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, (3) but for many countries of the developing world (especially Sub-Saharan Africa) it may be too little, too late. This work explores the application of an ecological model to global policy against HIV/AIDS, highlighting access to antiretroviral drugs (ARV). ARV distribution is constrained by patents and laws protecting the intellectual property rights of the international pharmaceutical corporations. In response to this situation, more questions arise. Will governments in the developing world invoke compulsory licensing (patent-breaking) in their negotiations with the international pharmaceutical corporations to provide medications against HIV/AIDS in their countries? Can international political and financial negotiations with these pharmaceutical corporations speed the growing push for a solution to this solvable crisis? The answers may lie in the "Brazilian model," that is a developing world government using all means available to provide ARV drugs for all its citizens with HIV/AIDS. The basis of this model includes negotiating with the pharmaceutical corporations over patent rights and importation of copied drugs from the Far East.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2010. 2 p.This brief argues that despite increases in contraceptive use since 1994, high unmet need for family planning persists. Among the most significant underserved group is a new generation of adolescents. They enter adulthood with inadequate information on sexuality and reproductive health and few skills to protect their health and rights.
[Geneva, Switzerland], Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 2010 Jan 12. 17 p.The AMFm is an innovative financing mechanism to expand access to affordable artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for malaria, thereby saving lives and reducing the use of inappropriate treatments. The AMFm aims to enable countries to increase the provision of affordable ACTs through the public, private not-for-profit (e.g. NGO) and private for-profit sectors. By increasing access to ACTs and displacing artemisinin monotherapies from the market, the AMFm also seeks to delay resistance to the active pharmaceutical ingredient, artemisinin.