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  1. 1

    Population growth and economic and social development.

    Clausen AW

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 36 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    In his address to national leaders in Nairobi, Kenya, Clausen expresses his views on population growth and development. Rapid population growth slows development in the developing countries. There is a strong link between population growth rates and the rate of economic and social development. The World Bank is determined to support the struggle against poverty in developing countries. Population growth will mean lower living standards for hundreds of millions of people. Proposals for reducing population growth raise difficult questions about the proper domain of public policy. Clausen presents a historical overview of population growth in the past 2 decades, and discusses the problem of imbalance between natural resources and people, and the effect on the labor force. Rapid population growth creates urban economic and social problems that may be unmanageable. National policy is a means to combat overwhelmingly high fertility, since governments have a duty to society as a whole, both today's generation and future ones. Peoples may be having more children than they actually want because of lack of information or access to fertility control methods. Family planning is a health measure that can significantly reduce infant mortality. A combination of social development and family planning is needed to teduce fertility. Clausen briefly reviews the effect of economic and technological changes on population growth, focusing on how the Bank can support an effective combination of economic and social development with extending and improving family planning and health services. The World Bank offers its support to combat rapid population growth by helping improve understanding through its economic and sector work and through policy dialogue with member countries; by supporting developing strategies that naturally buiild demand for smaller families, especially by improving opportunities in education and income generation; and by helping supply safe, effective and affordable family planning and other basic health services focused on the poor in both urban and rural areas. In the next few years, the Bank intends at least to double its population and related health lending as part of a major effort involving donors and developing countries with a primay focus on Africa and Asia. An effective policy requires the participation of many ministeries and clear direction and support from the highest government levels.
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  2. 2

    FPIA helps expand contraceptive services.

    Groot H

    Planned Parenthood Review. 1984 Spring-Summer; 4(1):18.

    Since the beginning in 1971 of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America's international program, Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA), US$54 million has been contributed in direct financial support for the operation of over 300 family planning programs in 51 countries; over 3000 institutions in 115 countries have been supplied with family planning commodities, including over 600 million condoms, 120 cycles of oral contraceptives, and 4 million IUD; and about 1 million contraceptive clients were served by FPIA funded projects in 1982 aone. Since 1971, however, the world's population has increased from 3.7 billion to around 4.7 billion people. About 85 million people are added to the world each year. There is consensus that without organized family planning programs, today's world population would be even higher. FPIA measures its progress in terms of expanding the availability of contraceptive services in devloping countries. FPIA supported projects have helped make services available in areas previously lacking them, and has helped involve a wide variety of organizations, such as women's groups, youth organizations, and Red Cross Societies, in family planning services. A prime concern of FPIA, which has limited resources, is what happens to projects once FPIA support is terminated. FPIA has been paying attention to local income generation to help projects become more self-supporting and to increas staff members' management skills. The more successful income-generating schemes appear to be directly related to family planning, selling contraceptives and locally produced educational materials, and charging fees for family planning and related medical services and tuition for training courses. FPIA funded to projects use management by objectives (MBO) to help improve management skills. MBO helps grantees improve their ability to set objectives, plan, monitor, report, and do day-to-day project management.
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  3. 3

    The human right to family planning. Report of the Working Group on the Promotion of Family Planning as a Basic Human Right to the Members' Assembly and the Central Council of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, November 1983.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Working Group on the Promotion of Family Planning as a Basic Human Right

    London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1984. 52 p.

    This report examines the problems involved in the exercise of the right to family planning; reviews the approaches taken towards overcoming these problems and promoting the right to family planning at local, national, and international levels, including the experience of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF); and makes recommendations to the 1983 meetings of the Central Council and the Members' Assembly on the action that should be taken by the IPPF and its members to enhance the commitment to family planning as a basic human right during 1982-84 Plan and beyond. The report's 5 sections discuss the following: the concept of the right to family planning (historical background and a conceptual elaboration); links between the right to family planning and other human rights (basic human rights and needs, advocacy for social development, and women's rights); access to fertility regulation information and services (full and voluntary choice of methods, rights of young people, financial accessibility of fertility regulation services, and the right to have children); incentives and disincentives to individuals and couples, incentives to providers of fertility regulation information and services, and research needs; and strategies for promoting family planning as a basic human right (ensuring that the individual has the knowledge of the right to fertility regulation and understands the options, generating societal support for family planning, ensuring ready access to the means ror fertility regulation, legal support for the right to family planning, and increasing political commitment to the right to family planning). The application of the term "the right to family planning" to many different elements of personal and social behavior as well as to policy making and program development has led to some confusion and potential conflict between rights and responsibilities. It is recommended that a clear distinction be made in the definition of the right to family planning to reflect 2 important components, namely, the right of everyone to have ready access to information, education, and services for fertility regulation; and the right of everyone to make decisions about reproductive behavior. Family planning organizations canachieve institutional credibility as caring organizations and assure program effectiveness by encouraging the recognition of the links between the right to family planning and the right to other social and economic improvements that are the essence of development.
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  4. 4

    Population and the role of the family, statement made at the Scientific Conference on Family and Population, sponsored by the International Union of Family Organizations, Hanasaari, Espoo, Finland, 26 May, 1984.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1984]. 5 p. (Speech Series No. 112)

    The family is the fundamental guarantor of the past, present and future of society. The social norms and values of a culture are transmitted from generation to generation through the family. Through the family, fresh influences are modulated and filtered and eventually harmonized with accepted norms. It is a highly influential instrument of social change. The family is also the guardian of social stability. In many developing countries the major social change affecting the family has been the fall in fertility which has been going on since the mid-1960s and has become a definite trend. The implication of lower fertility is that the nuclear family will become more socially significant than the extended family. This raises questions such as the role and care of the elderly, and women's role as workers outside the home. 2 main considerations are imbedded in the recommendations to the International Conference on Population in 1984: 1) that free choice in the size and spacing of the family is a basic human righ and that access to informatin and the means of family planning is a part of that right; 2) that it is the right and responsibility of governments to develop and implement population policies in the context of national development goals. These twin principles of respect for the rights of individuals and respect for national sovereignty are fundamental to all international agreements and action in population.
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