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  1. 1
    331506

    How to be reasonably sure a client is not pregnant. [Checklist].

    Family Health International [FHI]

    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, FHI, 2008. [2] p.

    In order to help nonmenstruating clients safely initiate their method of choice, Family Health International (FHI) developed a simple checklist for use by family planning providers. Although originally the Pregnancy Checklist was developed for use by family planning providers, it can also be used by other health care providers who need to determine whether a client is not pregnant. For example, pharmacists may use this checklist when prescribing certain medications that should be avoided during pregnancy (e.g., certain antibiotics or anti-seizure drugs). The checklist is endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and is based on criteria established by WHO for determining with reasonable certainty that a woman is not pregnant. Evaluation of the checklist in family planning clinics has demonstrated that the tool is very effective in correctly identifying women who are not pregnant. Furthermore, recent studies in Guatemala, Mali, and Senegal have shown that use of the checklist by family planning providers significantly reduced the proportion of clients being turned away due to menstrual status and improved women's access to contraceptive services.
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  2. 2
    329559

    Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. 2008 update.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2008. [12] p.

    The Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use -one of the four cornerstones of the World Health Organization's (WHO) evidence-based family planning guidance -provides evidence-based recommendations on whether an individual can safely use a contraceptive method. This guideline is intended for use by policy-makers, programme managers, and the scientific community in the preparation of national family planning/sexual and reproductive health programmes for delivery of contraceptives. The first edition of the Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use was published in 1996; subsequent editions were published in 2000 and 2004.
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  3. 3
    328042
    Peer Reviewed

    Global initiatives for improving hospital care for children: state of the art and future prospects.

    Campbell H; Duke T; Weber M; English M; Carai S; Tamburlini G

    Pediatrics. 2008 Apr; 121(4):e984-92.

    Deficiencies in the quality of health care are major limiting factors to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals for child and maternal health. Quality of patient care in hospitals is firmly on the agendas of Western countries but has been slower to gain traction in developing countries, despite evidence that there is substantial scope for improvement, that hospitals have a major role in child survival, and that inequities in quality may be as important as inequities in access. There is now substantial global experience of strategies and interventions that improve the quality of care for children in hospitals with limited resources. The World Health Organization has developed a toolkit that contains adaptable instruments, including a framework for quality improvement, evidence-based clinical guidelines in the form of the Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children, teaching material, assessment, and mortality audit tools. These tools have been field-tested by doctors, nurses, and other child health workers in many developing countries. This collective experience was brought together in a global World Health Organization meeting in Bali in 2007. This article describes how many countries are achieving improvements in quality of pediatric care, despite limited resources and other major obstacles, and how the evidence has progressed in recent years from documenting the nature and scope of the problems to describing the effectiveness of innovative interventions. The challenges remain to bring these and other strategies to scale and to support research into their use, impact, and sustainability in different environments.
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  4. 4
    329388
    Peer Reviewed

    Essential contraceptives: public movement and technical advocacy.

    Edouard L

    Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2008 Oct; 34(4):269-70.

    User choice is central to contraceptive practice, as opposed to therapeutic care where the view of the prescriber tends to prevail. Provider organisations have to make difficult decisions in selecting the methods of contraception that are offered, particularly with the multitude of new products and the controversies that have surrounded the value of some of them. The World Health Organization (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines is a valuable tool in strengthening the provision of contraceptive commodities as part of international development efforts.
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