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  1. 1
    340991

    Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. Draft 1.0. Submitted to the Executive Board (138th Session).

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] [2015]. [40] p.

    In May 2014, the Sixty-seventh World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA67.24 on Follow-up of the Recife Political Declaration on Human Resources for Health: renewed commitments towards universal health coverage. In paragraph 4(2) of that resolution, Member States requested the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop and submit a new global strategy for human resources for health (HRH) for consideration by the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly. 2. Development of the draft Global Strategy was informed by a process launched in late 2013 by Member States and constituencies represented on the Board of the Global Health Workforce Alliance, a hosted partnership within WHO. Over 200 experts from all WHO regions contributed to consolidating the evidence around a comprehensive health labour market framework for universal health coverage (UHC). A synthesis paper was published in February 2015(1) and informed the initial version of the draft Global Strategy. 3. An extensive consultation process on the draft version was launched in March 2015. This resulted in inputs from Member States and relevant constituencies such as civil society and health care professional associations. The process also benefited from discussions in the WHO regional committees, technical consultations, online forums and a briefing session to Member States’ permanent missions to the United Nations (UN) in Geneva. Feedback and guidance from the consultation process are reflected in the draft Global Strategy, which was also aligned with, and informed by the draft framework on integrated people-centred health services. 4. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 is primarily aimed at planners and policy-makers of WHO Member States, but its contents are of value to all relevant stakeholders in the health workforce area, including public and private sector employers, professional associations, education and training institutions, labour unions, bilateral and multilateral development partners, international organizations, and civil society. 5. Throughout this document, it is recognized that the concept of universal health coverage may have different connotations in countries and regions of the world. In particular, in the WHO Regional Office for the Americas, universal health coverage is part of the broader concept of universal access to health care.
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  2. 2
    184910

    Gender, health and development in the Americas, 2003. [Data sheet].

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]; Population Reference Bureau [PRB]

    Washington, D.C., PAHO, 2003. [12] p.

    Around the world, efforts to reduce poverty and enhance development have had greater success where women and men have relatively equal opportunities. In much of Latin America, however, women’s low social status, poor health, and subordination to men persist. Governments in the region increasingly acknowledge the need to promote gender equity in health and other aspects of development, but the data to monitor disparities between men and women—and progress in closing the gaps—have not been readily available. This data sheet profiles gender differences in health and development in 48 countries in the Americas, focusing on women’s reproductive health, access to key health services, and major causes of death. Its objective is to raise awareness of gender inequities in the region and to promote the use of sex-disaggregated health statistics for policies and programs. This effort is consistent with the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals, adopted by 189 member countries at the UN Millennium Summit (2000), which focus on achieving measurable improvements in people’s lives, including greater gender equality. The data sheet also provides basic population and development indicators and information on other factors that influence health, including education, employment, political participation, and risk factors. Staff of the Pan American Health Organization and the Population Reference Bureau compiled this information using data from official national sources as well as data collected by specialized international agencies. (author's)
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  3. 3
    182215
    Peer Reviewed

    Poverty, equity, human rights and health. [Pauvreté, équité, droits de l'Homme et santé]

    Braveman P; Gruskin S

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Jul; 81(7):539-545.

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions’ work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions’ efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. (author's)
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  4. 4
    115597

    Report 1995.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1996]. 74 p.

    The introduction to the 1995 Annual Report of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) notes that, during the year, the UNFPA operated in 150 countries and represented the largest single source of population assistance. At the request of developing countries, the UNFPA helps to improve reproductive health care, to promote sustainable development, and to provide data on population. The $3.5 billion dispersed since the UNFPA's inception in 1969 has come solely from voluntary contributions from 167 nations. In 1995, 85 nations contributed $313 million. Another aim of the fund is to promote the goals of the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), which seek to expand the availability of education, reduce infant and child mortality, and increase access to reproductive health care, including family planning. This annual report highlights the ways in which the fund exercised its mandate during 1995. Graphs detail UNFPA assistance by major function, by geographical region, by country/intercountry category, and by executing agency. Activities in the core program areas are summarized, as are the ICPD follow-up efforts. Regional reviews are provided for Africa South of the Sahara, the Arab States and Europe, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. In addition, interregional and nongovernmental organization programs are described. The report ends with a consideration of the increased future resource requirements needed from donor countries to implement the ICPD Program of Action. Appendices include such 1995 data as an income and expenditures report, a record of government pledges and payments, project allocations, executive board decisions, and resolutions.
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