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Essential medicines for mothers and children: a key element of health systems. Access to medicines and public pharmaceutical policy.
Entre Nous. 2009; (68):14-15.Medicines, when used appropriately, are one of the most cost effective interventions in health care. European countries spend an important part of their health budget on medicines, from 12% on average for the EU countries to more than 30% for the Newly Independent States (NIS) countries. Whereas in EU countries the larger part of the medicines expenditures are publicly funded through taxes and/or social health insurance, in the NIS and in the south eastern European countries it is often the patients who have to pay directly for the drugs themselves. This means that many patients simply do not get the drugs they need because they cannot afford them, and also may force families to incur enormous expenses as they sell their belongings in order to pay for their drugs and their health care.
Reaching communities for child health and nutrition: a proposed implementation framework for HH/C IMCI.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 2001.  p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-99-00007-00; USAID Contract No. FAO-A-00-98-00030-00)The Household and Community component of IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) was officially launched as an essential component of the IMCI strategy at the First IMCI Global Review and Coordination Meeting in September 1997. Participants recognized that improving the quality of care at health facilities would not by itself be effective in realizing significant reductions in childhood mortality and morbidity because numerous caretakers do not seek care at facilities. Since that first meeting, several efforts were undertaken to strengthen interagency collaboration for promoting and implementing community approaches to child health and nutrition. (excerpt)
In: Health care of women and children in developing countries, [edited by] Helen M. Wallace, Kanti Giri. Oakland, California, Third Party Publishing, 1990. 85-95.Primary health care (PHC) taken alone is not enough to significantly reduce the death and suffering currently experienced by 3rd world nations. There are a variety of other factors such as severe poverty, lack of education, contaminated environments, social fragmentation, and political instability that prevent people from leading healthy and productive lives. The purpose of this chapter is to make some brief observations about the nature of health problems of mother and children in developing countries and use some of these problems as models for discussing broader issues, followed by an examination of some approaches to the design, management, and evaluation of PHC systems. The discussion includes social, economic, and political factors that determine health outcomes. It is clear from the available data that recurrent health problems exist for mothers and children in the 3rd world. The primary causes of ill health and death for children are malnutrition, immunizable diseases, diarrheal diseases, and acute respiratory infection. The primary cause of ill health and death for mothers are associated with pregnancy and child birth. In order to achieve health care for everyone, the World Health Organization follows 5 essential rules; universal coverage with care based on need or risk; effective, affordable, accessible, culturally acceptable care; promotive, preventive, curative, rehabilitative; community participation that promote self-reliance; and interaction with other sectors of development.