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Your search found 134 Results

  1. 1
    394406
    Peer Reviewed

    A New World Health Era.

    Pablos-Mendez A; Raviglione MC

    Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Mar 21; 6(1):8-16.

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  2. 2
    375173

    Task sharing to improve access to family planning / contraception

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 12 p. (Summary Brief WHO/RHR/17.20)

    Contraception is an inexpensive and cost-effective intervention, but health workforce shortages and restrictive policies on the roles of mid- and lower-level cadres limit access to effective contraceptive methods in many settings. Expanding the provision of contraceptive methods to other health worker cadres can significantly improve access to contraception for all individuals and couples. Many countries have already enabled mid- and lower-level cadres of health workers to deliver a range of contraceptive methods, utilizing these cadres either alone or as part of teams within communities and/or health care facilities. The WHO recognizes task sharing as a promising strategy for addressing the critical lack of health care workers to provide reproductive, maternal and newborn care in low-income countries. Task sharing is envisioned to create a more rational distribution of tasks and responsibilities among cadres of health workers to improve access and cost-effectiveness.
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  3. 3
    375903

    World health statistics 2018: monitoring health for the SDGs, sustainable development goals.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018. 100 p.

    The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual snapshot of the state of the world’s health. This 2018 edition contains the latest available data for 36 health-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators. It also links to the three SDG-aligned strategic priorities of the WHO’s 13th General Programme of Work: achieving universal health coverage, addressing health emergencies and promoting healthier populations.
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  4. 4
    375813

    State of health inequality, Indonesia.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Indonesia. Ministry of Health

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 184 p. (Interactive Visualization of Health Data)

    In order to reduce health inequalities and identify priority areas for action to move towards universal health coverage, governments first need to understand the magnitude and scope of inequality in their countries. From April 2016 to October 2017, the Indonesian Ministry of Health, WHO, and a network of stakeholders assessed country-wide health inequalities in 11 areas, such as maternal and child health, immunization coverage and availability of health facilities. A key output of the monitoring work is a new report called State of health inequality: Indonesia, the first WHO report to provide a comprehensive assessment of health inequalities in a Member State. The report summarizes data from more than 50 health indicators and disaggregates it by dimensions of inequality, such as household economic status, education level, place of residence, age or sex. This report showcases the state of inequality in Indonesia, drawing from the latest available data across 11 health topics (53 health indicators), and eight dimensions of inequality. In addition to quantifying the magnitude of health inequality, the report provides background information for each health topic, and discusses priority areas for action and policy implications of the findings. Indicator profiles illustrate disaggregated data by all applicable dimensions of inequality, and electronic data visuals facilitate interactive exploration of the data. This report was prepared as part of a capacity-building process, which brought together a diverse network of stakeholders committed to strengthening health inequality monitoring in Indonesia. The report aims to raise awareness about health inequalities in Indonesia, and encourage action across sectors. The report finds that the state of health and access to health services varies throughout Indonesia and identifies a number of areas where action needs to be taken. These include, amongst others: improving exclusive breastfeeding and childhood nutrition; increasing equity in antenatal care coverage and births attended by skilled health personnel; reducing high rates of smoking among males; providing mental health treatment and services across income levels; and reducing inequalities in access to improved water and sanitation. In addition, the availability of health personnel, especially dentists and midwives, is insufficient in many of the country’s health centres. Now the country is using these findings to work across sectors to develop specific policy recommendations and programmes, such as the mobile health initiative in Senen, to tackle the inequalities that have been identified.
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  5. 5
    391293
    Peer Reviewed

    Allocation of antiretroviral drugs to HIV-infected patients in Togo: Perspectives of people living with HIV and healthcare providers.

    Kpanake L; Sorum PC; Mullet E

    Journal of Medical Ethics. 2017 Dec; 43(12):845-851.

    Aim To explore the way people living with HIV and healthcare providers in Togo judge the priority of HIV-infected patients regarding the allocation of antiretroviral drugs. Method From June to September 2015, 200 adults living with HIV and 121 healthcare providers living in Togo were recruited for the study. They were presented with stories of a few lines depicting the situation of an HIV-infected patient and were instructed to judge the extent to which the patient should be given priority for antiretroviral drugs. The stories were composed by systematically varying the levels of four factors: (a) the severity of HIV infection, (b) the financial situation of the patient, (c) the patient's family responsibilities and (d) the time elapsed since the first consultation. Results Five clusters were identified: 65% of the participants expressed the view that patients who are poor and severely sick should be treated as a priority, 13% prioritised treatment of patients who are poor and parents of small children, 12% expressed the view that the poor should be treated as a priority, 4% preferred that the sickest be treated as a priority and 6% wanted all patients to get treatment. Conclusions WHO's guideline regarding antiretroviral therapy allocation (the sickest first as the sole criterion) currently in use in many African countries does not reflect the preferences of Togolese people living with HIV. For most HIV-infected patients in Togo, patients who cannot get treatment on their own should be treated as a priority.
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  6. 6
    390049
    Peer Reviewed

    American Mock World Health Organization: An Innovative Model for Student Engagement in Global Health Policy.

    Lei M; Acharya N; Kwok Man Lee E; Catherine Holcomb E; Kapoor V

    Global Health: Science and Practice. 2017 Mar 24; 5(1):164-174.

    The American Mock World Health Organization (AMWHO) is a model for experiential-based learning and student engagement in global health diplomacy. AMWHO was established in 2014 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a mission to engage students in health policy by providing a simulation of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the policy-forming body of the World Health Organization that sets norms and transforms the global health agenda. AMWHO conferences are designed to allow students to take their knowledge of global health beyond the classroom and practice their skills in diplomacy by assuming the role of WHA delegates throughout a 3-day weekend. Through the process of developing resolutions like those formed in the WHA, students have the unique opportunity to understand the complexities behind the conflict and compromise that ensues through the lens of a stakeholder. This article describes the structure of the first 2 AMWHO international conferences, analyzes survey results from attendees, and discusses the expansion of the organization into a multi-campus national network. The AMWHO 2014 and 2015 post-conference survey results found that 98% and 90% of participants considered the conference "good" or "better," respectively, and survey responses showed that participants considered the conference "influential" in their careers and indicated that it "allowed a paradigm shift not possible in class."
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  7. 7
    323933

    Monitoring human rights in contraceptive services and programmes.

    Gruskin S; Kumar S; Nicholson A; Ali M; Khosla R

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2017. 73 p.

    This tool for Monitoring human rights in contraceptive services and programmes contributes to the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) ongoing work on rights-based contraceptive programmes. This work builds directly on WHO’s 2014 Ensuring human rights within contraceptive programmes: a human rights analysis of existing quantitative indicators and the 2015 publication Ensuring human rights within contraceptive service delivery implementation guide by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and WHO. This tool is intended for use by countries to assist them in strengthening their human rights efforts in contraceptive programming. The tool uses existing commonly-used indicators to highlight areas where human rights have been promoted, neglected or violated in contraceptive programming; gaps in programming and in data collection; and opportunities for action within the health sector and beyond, including opportunities for partnership initiatives.
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  8. 8
    374581

    HIV and young people who sell sex.

    Armstrong A; Baer J; Baggaley R; Verster A; Oyewale T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 44 p.

    Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young people who belong to one or more of these key populations – or who engage in activities associated with these populations – are made especially vulnerable to HIV by factors including widespread discrimination, stigma and violence, combined with the particular vulnerabilities of youth, power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, alienation from family and friends. These factors increase the risk that they may engage – willingly or not – in behaviours that put them at risk of HIV, such as frequent unprotected sex and the sharing of needles and syringes to inject drugs. This technical brief is one in a series addressing four young key populations. It is intended for policy-makers, donors, service-planners, service-providers and community- led organizations. This brief aims to inform discussions about how best to provide services, programmes and support for young people who sell sex. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning the HIV risk and vulnerability of young people who sell sex; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate services; examples of programmes that may work well in addressing their needs and rights; and approaches and considerations for providing services that both draw upon and build the strengths, competencies and capacities of young people.
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  9. 9
    374580

    HIV and young men who have sex with men.

    Armstrong A; Baer J; Baggaley R; Verster A; Oyewale T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 40 p.

    Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young people who belong to one or more of these key populations – or who engage in activities associated with these populations – are made especially vulnerable to HIV by factors including widespread discrimination, stigma and violence, combined with the particular vulnerabilities of youth, power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, alienation from family and friends. These factors increase the risk that they may engage – willingly or not – in behaviours that put them at risk of HIV, such as frequent unprotected sex and the sharing of needles and syringes to inject drugs. This technical brief is one in a series addressing four young key populations. It is intended for policy-makers, donors, service-planners, service-providers and community-led organizations. This brief aims to inform discussions about how best to provide health services, programmes and support for young MSM. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning the HIV risk and vulnerability of young MSM; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate services; examples of programmes that may work well in addressing their needs and rights; and approaches and considerations for providing services that both draw upon and build to the strengths, competencies and capacities of young MSM.
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  10. 10
    374579

    HIV and young transgender people.

    Armstrong A; Baer J; Baggaley R; Verster A; Oyewale T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 36 p.

    Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young people who belong to one or more of these key populations – or who engage in activities associated with these populations – are made especially vulnerable to HIV by factors including widespread discrimination, stigma and violence, combined with the particular vulnerabilities of youth, power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, alienation from family and friends. These factors increase the risk that they may engage – willingly or not – in behaviours that put them at risk of HIV, such as frequent unprotected sex and the sharing of needles and syringes to inject drugs. This brief aims to inform discussions about how best to provide health services, programmes and support for young transgender people. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning the HIV risk and vulnerability of young transgender people; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate services; examples of programmes that may work well in addressing their needs and rights; and approaches and considerations for providing services that both draw upon and build the strengths, competencies and capacities of these young people.
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  11. 11
    374578

    HIV and young people who inject drugs.

    Armstrong A; Baer J; Baggaley R; Verster A; Oyewale T

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 34 p.

    Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young people who belong to one or more of these key populations – or who engage in activities associated with these populations – are made especially vulnerable to HIV by factors including widespread discrimination, stigma and violence, combined with the particular vulnerabilities of youth, power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, alienation from family and friends. These factors increase the risk that they may engage – willingly or not – in behaviours that put them at risk of HIV, such as frequent unprotected sex and the sharing of needles and syringes to inject drugs. This brief aims to inform discussions about how best to provide health services, programmes and support for young people who inject drugs. It offers a concise account of current knowledge concerning the HIV risk and vulnerability of young people who inject drugs; the barriers and constraints they face to appropriate services; examples of programmes that may work well in addressing their needs and rights; and approaches and considerations for providing services that both draw upon and build the strengths, competencies and capacities of young people who inject drugs.
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  12. 12
    388112
    Peer Reviewed

    Scaling up proven innovative cervical cancer screening strategies: Challenges and opportunities in implementation at the population level in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

    Holme F; Kapambwe S; Nessa A; Basu P; Murillo R; Jeronimo J

    International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2017 Jul; 138 Suppl 1:63-68.

    The problem of cervical cancer in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) is both urgent and important, and calls for governments to move beyond pilot testing to population-based screening approaches as quickly as possible. Experiences from Zambia, Bangladesh, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, where scale-up of evidence-based screening strategies is taking place, may help other countries plan for large-scale implementation. These countries selected screening modalities recommended by the WHO that are within budgetary constraints, improve access for women, and reduce health system bottlenecks. In addition, some common elements such as political will and government investment have facilitated action in these diverse settings. There are several challenges for continued scale-up in these countries, including maintaining trained personnel, overcoming limited follow-up and treatment capacity, and implementing quality assurance measures. Countries considering scale-up should assess their readiness and conduct careful planning, taking into consideration potential obstacles. International organizations can catalyze action by helping governments overcome initial barriers to scale-up. (c) 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
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  13. 13
    377140
    Peer Reviewed

    Projected Uptake of New Antiretroviral (ARV) Medicines in Adults in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Forecast Analysis 2015-2025.

    Gupta A; Juneja S; Vitoria M; Habiyambere V; Nguimfack BD; Doherty M; Low-Beer D

    PloS One. 2016; 11(10):e0164619.

    With anti-retroviral treatment (ART) scale-up set to continue over the next few years it is of key importance that manufacturers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic are able to anticipate and respond to future changes to treatment regimens, generics pipeline and demand, in order to secure continued access to all ARV medicines required. We did a forecast analysis, using secondary WHO and UNAIDS data sources, to estimate the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the market share and demand for a range of new and existing ARV drugs in LMICs up to 2025. UNAIDS estimates 24.7 million person-years of ART in 2020 and 28.5 million person-years of ART in 2025 (24.3 million on first-line treatment, 3.5 million on second-line treatment, and 0.6 million on third-line treatment). Our analysis showed that TAF and DTG will be major players in the ART regimen by 2025, with 8 million and 15 million patients using these ARVs respectively. However, as safety and efficacy of dolutegravir (DTG) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) during pregnancy and among TB/HIV co-infected patients using rifampicin is still under debate, and ART scale-up is predicted to increase considerably, there also remains a clear need for continuous supplies of existing ARVs including TDF and EFV, which 16 million and 10 million patients-respectively-are predicted to be using in 2025. It will be important to ensure that the existing capacities of generics manufacturers, which are geared towards ARVs of higher doses (such as TDF 300mg and EFV 600mg), will not be adversely impacted due to the introduction of lower dose ARVs such as TAF 25mg and DTG 50mg. With increased access to viral load testing, more patients would be using protease inhibitors containing regimens in second-line, with 1 million patients on LPV/r and 2.3 million on ATV/r by 2025. However, it will remain important to continue monitoring the evolution of ARV market in LMICs to guarantee the availability of these medicines.
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  14. 14
    377078
    Peer Reviewed

    Assessing the availability of LLINs for continuous distribution through routine antenatal care and the Expanded Programme on Immunizations in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Theiss-Nyland K; Lynch M; Lines J

    Malaria Journal. 2016 May 04; 15(1):255.

    BACKGROUND: In addition to mass distribution campaigns, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the continuous distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to all pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) and all infants attending the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) services in countries implementing mosquito nets for malaria control. Countries report LLIN distribution data to the WHO annually. For this analysis, these data were used to assess policy and practice in implementing these recommendations and to compare the numbers of LLINs available through ANC and EPI services with the numbers of women and children attending these services. METHODS: For each reporting country in sub-Saharan Africa, the presence of a reported policy for LLIN distribution through ANC and EPI was reviewed. Prior to inclusion in the analysis the completeness of data was assessed in terms of the numbers of LLINs distributed through all channels (campaigns, EPI, ANC, other). For each country with adequate data, the numbers of LLINs reportedly distributed by national programmes to ANC was compared to the number of women reportedly attending ANC at least once; the ratio between these two numbers was used as an indicator of LLIN availability at ANC services. The same calculations were repeated for LLINs distributed through EPI to produce the corresponding LLIN availability through this distribution channel. RESULTS: Among 48 malaria-endemic countries in Africa, 33 malaria programmes reported adopting policies of ANC-based continuous distribution of LLINs, and 25 reported adopting policies of EPI-based distribution. Over a 3-year period through 2012, distribution through ANC accounted for 9 % of LLINs distributed, and LLINs distributed through EPI accounted for 4 %. The LLIN availability ratios achieved were 55 % through ANC and 34 % through EPI. For 38 country programmes reporting on LLIN distribution, data to calculate LLIN availability through ANC and EPI was available for 17 and 16, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These continuous LLIN distribution channels appear to be under-utilized, especially EPI-based distribution. However, quality data from more countries are needed for consistent and reliable programme performance monitoring. A greater focus on routine data collection, monitoring and reporting on LLINs distributed through both ANC and EPI can provide insight into both strengths and weaknesses of continuous distribution, and improve the effectiveness of these delivery channels.
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  15. 15
    379205
    Peer Reviewed

    Developing global indicators for quality of maternal and newborn care: a feasibility assessment.

    Madaj B; Smith H; Mathai M; Roos N; van den Broek N

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2017 Jun; 95(6):445-452I.

    Objective To assess the feasibility of applying the World Health Organization’s proposed 15 indicators of quality of care for maternal and newborn health at health-facility level in low- and middle-income settings. Methods Six of the indicators are about maternal health, five are for newborn health and four are general cross-cutting indicators. We used data collected routinely in facility registers and obtained as part of facility assessments from 963 health-care facilities specializing in maternity services in 10 countries in Africa and Asia. We made a feasibility assessment of the availability of data and the clarity of indicator definitions and identified additional information and data collection processes needed to apply the proposed indicators in real-life settings. Findings Of the indicators evaluated, 10 were clearly defined, of which four could be applied directly in the field and six would require revisions to operationalize them. The other five indicators require further development, with one of them being ready for implementation by using information readily available in registers and four requiring further information before deployment. For indicators that measure coverage of care or availability of services or products, there is a need to further strengthen measurement. Information on emergency obstetric complications was not recorded in a standard manner, thus limiting the reliability of the information. Conclusion While some of the proposed indicators can already be applied, other indicators need to be refined or will need additional sources and methods of data collection to be applied in real-world settings.
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  16. 16
    374222

    Quality of care in contraceptive information and services, based on human rights standards: a checklist for health care providers.

    Kiarie J; Khosla R; Ali M; Cottingham J

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 32 p.

    Unmet need for contraception remains high in many settings, and is highest among the most vulnerable in society: adolescents, the poor, those living in rural areas and urban slums, people living with HIV, and internally displaced people. The latest estimates are that 225 million women have an unmet need for modern contraception, and the need is greatest where the risks of maternal mortality are highest. There is increasing recognition that promotion and protection of human rights in contraceptive services and programs is critical to addressing this challenge. However, despite these efforts, human rights are often not explicitly integrated into the design, implementation and monitoring of services. A key challenge is how to best support health care providers and facility managers at the point of service delivery, often in low-resource real-world settings, to ensure their use of human rights aspects in provision of contraceptive services. The point of service delivery is the most direct point of contact where potential violations/omissions of rights come into play and requires special attention. This checklist covers five areas of competence needed by health care providers to provide quality of care in contraceptive information and services including: respecting users’ privacy and guaranteeing confidentiality, choice, accessible and acceptable services, involvement of users in improving services and fostering continuity of care and follow-up. International and regional human rights treaties, national constitutions and laws provide guarantees specifically relating to access to contraceptive information, commodities and services. In addition, over the past few decades, international, regional and national legislative and human rights bodies have increasingly applied human rights to contraceptive information and services. They recommend, among other actions, that states should ensure timely and affordable access to good quality sexual and reproductive health information and services, including contraception, which should be delivered in a way that ensures fully informed decision making, respects dignity, autonomy, privacy and confidentiality, and is sensitive to individuals’ needs and perspectives. This document presents a user friendly checklist specifically addressed to health care providers, at the primary health care level, who are involved in the direct provision of contraceptive information and services. It is complimentary to WHO guidelines on Ensuring human rights in the provision of contraceptive information and services: Guidance and recommendations, and the Implementation Guide published jointly with UNFPA in 2015. This checklist also builds on WHO vision document on Standards for Improving Quality of Care for Maternal and Newborn Care and its ongoing work under the Quality, Equity and Dignity initiative. The checklist should be read along with other guidance from WHO and also from partners.
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  17. 17
    344566

    Quality of care in contraceptive information and services, based on human rights standards: a checklist for health care providers.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 32 p.

    International and regional human rights treaties, national constitutions and laws provide guarantees specifically relating to access to contraceptive information, commodities and services. In addition, over the past few decades, international, regional and national legislative and human rights bodies have increasingly applied human rights to contraceptive information and services. This document presents a user friendly checklist specifically addressed to health care providers, at the primary health care level, who are involved in the direct provision of contraceptive information and services. It is complimentary to WHO guidelines on Ensuring human rights in the provision of contraceptive information and services: Guidance and recommendations, and the Implementation Guide published jointly with UNFPA in 2015. This checklist also builds on WHO vision document on Standards for Improving Quality of Care for Maternal and Newborn Care and its ongoing work under the Quality, Equity and Dignity initiative. The checklist should be read along with other guidance from WHO and also from partners.
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  18. 18
    375396

    Community health worker programmes in the WHO African Region: Evidence and options. Policy brief.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa. Health Systems and Services Cluster

    Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo, WHO, Regional Office for Africa, 2017. 23 p. (Policy Brief)

    Community health worker (CHW) programmes have seen a renaissance in the last two decades and now many countries in Africa boast of such national or substantial sub-national programmes. The 2013 Third Global Forum on Human Resources for Health concluded that CHWs and other frontline primary health care workers “play a unique role and can be essential to accelerating MDGs and achieving UHC”, and called for their integration into national health systems. The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak of 2014-2015 highlighted the imperative of ensuring the functioning of the health systems at the community level for both their day-to-day resilience and disaster preparedness. The purpose of this policy brief is to inform discussions and decisions in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region on policies, strategies and programmes to increase access to primary health care (PHC) services and make progress towards universal health coverage (UHC) by expanding the implementation of scaled-up CHW programmes. This brief summarizes the existing evidence on CHW programmes with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa and offers a number of context-linked policy options for countries seeking to scale up and improve the effectiveness of their CHW programmes, particularly with regard to needs such as those of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, the three countries that were the most affected by the 2014-2015 EVD outbreak. For the purposes of this policy brief, a broad definition of CHW is used. CHWs are individuals “carrying out the functions related to health care delivery [who are] trained in some way in the context of the intervention [but have] no formal professional or paraprofessional certificated or degreed tertiary education [in a health-related field]”). WHO states that CHWs “should be members of the communities where they work, selected by the communities, answerable to the communities for their activities, and supported by the health system but not necessarily a part of its organization”. For the purposes of this brief, a working definition for a scaled-up CHW programme has been developed, where the term refers to a programme that is designed to be more than a pilot or demonstration project and has the intention of covering a substantial population size or geographic area, depending on the country’s context. (Excerpts)
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  19. 19
    378468

    The mental health of HIV-positive adolescents.

    Kidia K; Ndhlovu C; Jombo S; Abas M; Makadzange AT

    Lancet. Psychiatry. 2015 Jun; 2(6):487-8.

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  20. 20
    374002
    Peer Reviewed

    Development, updates, and future directions of the World Health Organization Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use.

    Chen MJ; Kim CR; Whitehouse KC; Berry-Bibee E; Gaffield ME

    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2016 Dec 13; 7 p.

    Correct and consistent use of contraception decreases the risk of unintended pregnancy; yet, outdated policies or practices can delay initiation or hinder continuation of contraceptive methods. To promote the quality of, and access to, family planning services, WHO created a series of evidence-based guidance documents for family planning, known as WHO's Four Cornerstones of Family Planning Guidance. The Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use (MEC), first published in 1996, provides guidance on the safety of various contraceptive methods in users with specific health conditions or characteristics (i.e. who can use a contraceptive method safely). The Selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use (SPR) is the second cornerstone, outlining how to safely and effectively use contraceptive methods. These two documents can serve as a reference for policymakers and program managers as they develop their own national family planning policies in the context of local needs, values, and resources. The two other cornerstone documents -- the Decision making tool for family planning clients and providers and Family planning: a global handbook for providers -- provide guidance to healthcare providers for applying these recommendations in practice. Between 2013 and 2014, WHO convened a Guideline Development Group (GDG) to review and update the MEC and SPR in line with current evidence. As a result of these meetings, the fifth edition of the MEC was published in 2015, and the third edition of the SPR will be released on December 14, 2016. The purpose of the present report is to describe the methods used to develop the SPR recommendations, research gaps identified during the guideline development process, and future directions for the dissemination and implementation of the SPR among policymakers and family planning program managers worldwide. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    340408

    mHealth: Use of mobile wireless technologies for public health. Report by the Secretariat.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Secretariat

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 May 27. [4] p. (EB139/8)

    WHO has issued a report that is strongly supportive of mHealth. New priorities for WHO in the area of mHealth include: to support and strengthen ongoing efforts to build evidence-based guidance on the use of mHealth in order to advance integrated person-centred health services and universal health coverage; to provide guidance on mHealth adoption, management and evaluation in order to aid good governance and investment decisions. These could include guidance to inform the development of national programmes and strategies, and the development of standard operating procedures; to work with Member States and partners to build platforms for sharing evidence, experience and good practices in mHealth implementation as a way to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. These could include building on existing networks to create regional hubs of knowledge and excellence on mHealth; to support building capacity and the empowerment of health workers and their beneficiary populations to use information and communication technologies, in order to foster their engagement and accountability, and to catalyse and monitor progress on specific Sustainable Development Goals using mHealth.
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  22. 22
    340304

    World health statistics 2016. Monitoring health for the SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO , 2016. [136] p.

    The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health statistics for its 194 Member States. World Health Statistics 2016 focuses on the proposed health and health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and associated targets. It represents an initial effort to bring together available data on SDG health and health-related indicators. In the current absence of official goal-level indicators, summary measures of health such as (healthy) life expectancy are used to provide a general assessment of the situation.
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  23. 23
    340991

    Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. Draft 1.0. Submitted to the Executive Board (138th Session).

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] [2015]. [40] p.

    In May 2014, the Sixty-seventh World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA67.24 on Follow-up of the Recife Political Declaration on Human Resources for Health: renewed commitments towards universal health coverage. In paragraph 4(2) of that resolution, Member States requested the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop and submit a new global strategy for human resources for health (HRH) for consideration by the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly. 2. Development of the draft Global Strategy was informed by a process launched in late 2013 by Member States and constituencies represented on the Board of the Global Health Workforce Alliance, a hosted partnership within WHO. Over 200 experts from all WHO regions contributed to consolidating the evidence around a comprehensive health labour market framework for universal health coverage (UHC). A synthesis paper was published in February 2015(1) and informed the initial version of the draft Global Strategy. 3. An extensive consultation process on the draft version was launched in March 2015. This resulted in inputs from Member States and relevant constituencies such as civil society and health care professional associations. The process also benefited from discussions in the WHO regional committees, technical consultations, online forums and a briefing session to Member States’ permanent missions to the United Nations (UN) in Geneva. Feedback and guidance from the consultation process are reflected in the draft Global Strategy, which was also aligned with, and informed by the draft framework on integrated people-centred health services. 4. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 is primarily aimed at planners and policy-makers of WHO Member States, but its contents are of value to all relevant stakeholders in the health workforce area, including public and private sector employers, professional associations, education and training institutions, labour unions, bilateral and multilateral development partners, international organizations, and civil society. 5. Throughout this document, it is recognized that the concept of universal health coverage may have different connotations in countries and regions of the world. In particular, in the WHO Regional Office for the Americas, universal health coverage is part of the broader concept of universal access to health care.
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  24. 24
    340742

    Health in 2015: From MDGs, Millennium Development Goals to SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals.

    Boerma T; Mathers C; AbouZahr C; Chatterji S; Hogan D; Stevens G; Mahanani WR; Ho J; Rusciano F; Humphreys G

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. [216] p.

    In 2015 the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) come to the end of their term, and a post-2015 agenda, comprising 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), takes their place. This WHO report looks back 15 years at the trends and positive forces during the MDG era and assesses the main challenges that will affect health in the coming 15 years.
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  25. 25
    385935
    Peer Reviewed

    The WHO's medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use: 20 years of global guidance.

    Altshuler AL; Gaffield ME; Kiarie JN

    Current Opinion In Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2015 Dec; 27(6):451-9.

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to revisit the inception of the WHO's medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use (MEC), particularly its objectives and methodology, and to describe its impact over the last 20 years in the field of family planning. New recommendations are summarized from the newly released fifth edition of the guidance. RECENT FINDINGS: Fourteen topics, encompassing over 575 recommendations were reviewed for the MEC, fifth edition. New recommendations include: changes for combined hormonal contraceptive use among postpartum women; progestogen-only methods among breastfeeding women; and women at high risk for HIV infection, women living with HIV, and women living with HIV using antiretroviral therapy and hormonal contraception. New methods reviewed include subcutaneously administered depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, Sino-implant (II), ulipristal acetate, and progesterone-releasing vaginal ring. SUMMARY: Over the past 20 years, the MEC has become a remarkably influential document for practitioners and policy makers in family planning, as it provides up-to-date, evidence-based recommendations for contraceptive use for women with various medical conditions and medically relevant characteristics.
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