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Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Mar 21; 6(1):8-16.Add to my documents.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018. 100 p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual snapshot of the state of the world’s health. This 2018 edition contains the latest available data for 36 health-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators. It also links to the three SDG-aligned strategic priorities of the WHO’s 13th General Programme of Work: achieving universal health coverage, addressing health emergencies and promoting healthier populations.
Report 2017: Transformative accountability for adolescents: Accountability for health and human rights of women, children and adolescents in the 2030 agenda.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2017. 64 p.Adolescents, who number 1.2 billion, or 1 in 6 of the global population, are the key for progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Every year, 1.2 million adolescents die, often from preventable causes—such as violence, suicide, pregnancy-related complications among girls, HIV/AIDS, road injuries and drowning, as well as diseases and respiratory infections. As the report states, however, high impact, cost effective solutions to improve adolescent health can yield huge benefits and billions in savings that can place them on better tracks for life, reaping demographic dividends. The Independent Accountability Panel (IAP), under its mandate by the UN Secretary-General to assess progress on the 2016-2030 Global Strategy on Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health in the context of the SDGs from the specific lens of who is accountable to whom, and for what, launched its 2017 report. The IAP’s six recommendations are to: 1) Leverage Accountability to Achieve the Global Strategy and the SDGs, 2) Make adolescents visible and measure what matters, 3) Foster whole-of-government accountability to adolescents, 4) Make universal health coverage work for adolescents, 5) Boost accountability for investments, including for adolescent health and well-being, and 6) Unleash the power of young people, by meaningfully engaging them in decision-making, and empowering them to seize the full potential of the digital age.
[Washington, D.C.], FP2020, 2016. 139 p.This report marks the halfway point of the FP2020 initiative, and reflects the substantial progress made to date: 1) There are now more than 300 million women and girls using modern contraception in the world’s 69 poorest countries—a milestone that has taken decades to achieve. 2) More than 30 million of those users have been added since 2012, when FP2020 was launched. 3) In Eastern and Southern Africa, for the first time ever, more than 30% of women and girls are using a modern method of contraception. 4) In West Africa, where contraceptive use has been historically low, the Ouagadougou Partnership has surpassed its goal of reaching 1 million additional users between 2011 and 2015, and is now aiming to reach 2.2 million additional users between 2015 and 2020.
Global Public Health. 2016 Aug 6; 1-15.The drive for universal health coverage (UHC) now has a great deal of normative impetus, and in combination with the inauguration of the sustainable development goals, has come to be regarded as a means of ensuring the financial basis for the struggle against HIV and AIDS. The argument of this paper is that such thinking is a case of ‘the right thing at the wrong time’: it seriously underestimates the scale of the work against HIV and AIDS, and the speed with which we need to undertake it, if we are to consolidate the gains we have made to date, let alone reduce it to manageable proportions. The looming ‘fiscal crunch’ makes the challenges all the more daunting; even in the best circumstances, the time required to establish UHCs capable of providing both essential health services and a very rapid scale-up of the fight against HIV and AIDS is insufficient when set against the urgency of ensuring that AIDS does not eventuate as a global health catastrophe.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 May 27.  p. (EB139/8)WHO has issued a report that is strongly supportive of mHealth. New priorities for WHO in the area of mHealth include: to support and strengthen ongoing efforts to build evidence-based guidance on the use of mHealth in order to advance integrated person-centred health services and universal health coverage; to provide guidance on mHealth adoption, management and evaluation in order to aid good governance and investment decisions. These could include guidance to inform the development of national programmes and strategies, and the development of standard operating procedures; to work with Member States and partners to build platforms for sharing evidence, experience and good practices in mHealth implementation as a way to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. These could include building on existing networks to create regional hubs of knowledge and excellence on mHealth; to support building capacity and the empowerment of health workers and their beneficiary populations to use information and communication technologies, in order to foster their engagement and accountability, and to catalyse and monitor progress on specific Sustainable Development Goals using mHealth.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO , 2016.  p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health statistics for its 194 Member States. World Health Statistics 2016 focuses on the proposed health and health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and associated targets. It represents an initial effort to bring together available data on SDG health and health-related indicators. In the current absence of official goal-level indicators, summary measures of health such as (healthy) life expectancy are used to provide a general assessment of the situation.
[New York, New York], United Nations General Assembly, 2016 Apr 1.  p. (A/70/811)This new report warns that the AIDS epidemic could be prolonged indefinitely if urgent action is not implemented within the next five years. The report reveals that the extraordinary acceleration of progress made over the past 15 years could be lost and urges all partners to concentrate their efforts to increase and front-load investments to ensure that the global AIDS epidemic is ended as a public health threat by 2030. The review of progress looks at the gains made, particularly since the 2011 United Nations Political Declaration on HIV and AIDS, which accelerated action by uniting the world around a set of ambitious targets for 2015. The report outlines that the rapid treatment scale-up has been a major contributing factor to the 42% decline in AIDS-related deaths since the peak in 2004 and notes that this has caused life expectancy in the countries most affected by HIV to rise sharply in recent years. The report underlines the critical role civil society has played in securing many of the gains made and the leadership provided by people living with HIV. Community efforts have been key to removing many of the obstacles faced in scaling up the AIDS response, including reaching people at risk of HIV infection with HIV services, helping people to adhere to treatment and reinforcing other essential health services.
Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. Draft 1.0. Submitted to the Executive Board (138th Session).
[Unpublished] .  p.In May 2014, the Sixty-seventh World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA67.24 on Follow-up of the Recife Political Declaration on Human Resources for Health: renewed commitments towards universal health coverage. In paragraph 4(2) of that resolution, Member States requested the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop and submit a new global strategy for human resources for health (HRH) for consideration by the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly. 2. Development of the draft Global Strategy was informed by a process launched in late 2013 by Member States and constituencies represented on the Board of the Global Health Workforce Alliance, a hosted partnership within WHO. Over 200 experts from all WHO regions contributed to consolidating the evidence around a comprehensive health labour market framework for universal health coverage (UHC). A synthesis paper was published in February 2015(1) and informed the initial version of the draft Global Strategy. 3. An extensive consultation process on the draft version was launched in March 2015. This resulted in inputs from Member States and relevant constituencies such as civil society and health care professional associations. The process also benefited from discussions in the WHO regional committees, technical consultations, online forums and a briefing session to Member States’ permanent missions to the United Nations (UN) in Geneva. Feedback and guidance from the consultation process are reflected in the draft Global Strategy, which was also aligned with, and informed by the draft framework on integrated people-centred health services. 4. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 is primarily aimed at planners and policy-makers of WHO Member States, but its contents are of value to all relevant stakeholders in the health workforce area, including public and private sector employers, professional associations, education and training institutions, labour unions, bilateral and multilateral development partners, international organizations, and civil society. 5. Throughout this document, it is recognized that the concept of universal health coverage may have different connotations in countries and regions of the world. In particular, in the WHO Regional Office for the Americas, universal health coverage is part of the broader concept of universal access to health care.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, .  p.In October 2015, the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board adopted a new strategy to end the HIV epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. The UNAIDS 2016-2021 Strategy is one of the first in the United Nations system to be aligned to the Sustainable Development Goals framework. This framework, which guides global development policy over the next 15 years, includes ending the HIV epidemic by 2030. The strategy, informed by evidence and rights-based approaches, maps out the UNAIDS Fast-Track approach to accelerate the HIV response over the next five years so as to reach critical HIV prevention and treatment targets and achieve zero discrimination. The strategy also endorses achieving 90–90–90 treatment targets, closing the testing gap, and protecting the health of the 22 million people living with HIV who are still not accessing treatment. Additionally, it urges protecting future generations from acquiring HIV by eliminating all new HIV infections among children, and by ensuring that young people can access needed services for HIV and sexual and reproductive health. The strategy emphasizes that empowering young people, particularly young women, is of utmost importance to preventing HIV. This empowerment includes ending gender-based violence and promoting healthy gender norms.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2015.  p.This document, released on the World AIDS Day 2015, provides an update on the global status of the HIV epidemic. According to the press release, the epidemic has been forced into decline. New HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths have fallen dramatically since the peak of the epidemic. The document cites a 35 percent decrease in new HIV infections; a 42 percent decrease in AIDS-related deaths since the peak in 2004; a 58 percent decrease in new HIV infections among children since 2000; and an 84 percent increase in access to antiretroviral therapy since 2010. Additionally, the global response to HIV has averted 30 million new HIV infections and 7.8 million AIDS-related deaths since 2000. While acknowledging these achievements, the report also emphasizes that accelerating the AIDS response in low-and middle-income countries could avert 28 million new HIV infections and 21 million AIDS-related deaths between 2015 and 2030, saving US$24 billion annually in additional HIV treatment costs. The next phase of the global response must accommodate new circumstances, opportunities, and evidence, including a rapidly shifting context and a new, sustainable development agenda. The single priority of the HIV response for the next 15 years is to end the epidemic by 2030.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015.  p.In 2015 the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) come to the end of their term, and a post-2015 agenda, comprising 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), takes their place. This WHO report looks back 15 years at the trends and positive forces during the MDG era and assesses the main challenges that will affect health in the coming 15 years.
Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS, 2007. 83 p. (ED-2006/WS/43)The purpose of this publication is to share UNESCO's experience and our thinking behind a number of projects that have sought to address the needs of some of the disadvantaged and in particular those impacted by drug misuse. The experience of these projects demonstrates key factors that impinge progress towards social inclusion: homelessness; unemployment; discrimination and stigma; low levels of education; health inequalities; crime and violence. (excerpt)
Micro-finance in rural communities in Southern Africa. Country and pilot site case studies, policy issues and recommendations.
Pretoria, South Africa, Human Sciences Research Council, 2002. , 170 p.While micro-finance in its various forms has helped to make loan capital more accessible to low-income rural communities, much remains to be done to increase its outreach, impact and sustainability. The essential objective of this study is to make well-researched recommendations for IRDP policy and strategy to enable the micro-finance agents that it will shortly be appointing to maximize improvements in these key indicators in the three pilot sites. Chapter 1 outlines the institutional context and terms of reference of the report and briefly discusses its timeframe, methodology, value and limitations. Chapters 2 and 3 depict, on the one hand, the demand for financial services in the three pilot sites and, on the other, access to micro-finance in the respective communities. In Chapter 4 an account is given of the essential nature and capabilities of microfinance, of recent developments in this regard, of fundamental lessons from international experience and of best practices in a rural context. Chapter 5 identifies the key sets of policy issues facing, in the first instance, public policy makers seeking to promote micro-finance development and, in the second, donors/investors/wholesalers seeking to support individual micro-finance retailers. It then applies the findings of Chapter 4 to the three on-the-ground pictures sketched out in Chapters 2 and 3 to arrive at some initial and very tentative recommendations for policy for the IRDP in the respective pilot sites. (excerpt)
In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 129-57.This document (the sixth chapter in a UN Gender Working Group book on the overlay of science and technology [S&T], sustainable human development, and gender issues) considers health issues from women's viewpoint to highlight the fact that S&T has failed to guaranteed improved health for women. This failure is exemplified by the use of amniocentesis for sex selection that leads to abortion of female fetuses. The chapter explains why gender and health deserve consideration in the S&T debate by looking at women as victims of health care systems, the fact that women's contributions have been undervalued, and the failure of health research and statistics to treat gender as a scientific variable. The issues specific to national-level technology transfer are grouped for preliminary review into 1) women's access to health S&T, 2) the impact of S&T on gender equality, and 3) women's roles in the development of health S&T. After outlining the need for a national S&T policy across sectors, the chapter reviews global activities of such groups as the UN, women's nongovernmental organizations, and the World Health Organization to meet this challenge. Next, recommendations are offered for 1) strategic actions that focus on youth, build on previous successes, and emphasize IEC (information, education, and communication) and 2) research and development. It is concluded that women's right to health is a fundamental human right that, when achieved, will benefit entire societies.
In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 1-25.This document is the first chapter in a book complied by the UN Gender Working Group (GWG) that explores the overlay of science and technology (S&T), sustainable human development, and gender issues. The introduction defines these three domains and notes that the mandate of the GWG was to make S&T policy recommendations to national governments, suggest improvements to the UN system, and advise other organizations. The next section presents the GWG's diagnosis of gender inequity in education and careers in S&T and the gender-specific nature of technical changes. Section 3 describes the following: 1) improving gender equity in S&T education, 2) removing obstacles to women in S&T careers, 3) making science responsive to the needs of society, 4) making the S&T decision-making process more "gender aware," 5) relating better with local knowledge systems, 6) addressing ethical issues in S&T, and 7) improving the collection of gender-disaggregated data for policy makers. Section 4 reviews the conclusions the GWG made about the performance of the UN system and sets forth eight recommendations drawn from these conclusions. The chapter recommends that 1) all countries adopt a Declaration of Intent on Gender, Science, and Technology for Sustainable Human Development and 2) each country establish an ad hoc committee constituted with equitable participation of women and men and with the involvement of end users and stakeholders that will be charged with making recommendations on the implementation of the Declaration. In addition, each country should publish progress reports and all donor countries and agencies should help these national ad hoc committees target financial support to projects that enable countries to implement the recommendations of their committees.