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  1. 1
    300923

    AIDS epidemic update. Special report on HIV prevention. December 2005.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Dec. [96] p. (UNAIDS/05.19E)

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. Despite recent, improved access to antiretroviral treatment and care in many regions of the world, the AIDS epidemic claimed 3.1 million [2.8--3.6 million] lives in 2005; more than half a million (570 000) were children. The total number of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reached its highest level: an estimated 40.3 million [36.7--45.3 million] people are now living with HIV. Close to 5 million people were newly infected with the virus in 2005. There is ample evidence that HIV does yield to determined and concerted interventions. Sustained efforts in diverse settings have helped bring about decreases in HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in many Western countries, among young people in Uganda, among sex workers and their clients in Thailand and Cambodia, and among injecting drug users in Spain and Brazil. Now there is new evidence that prevention programmes initiated some time ago are finally helping to bring down HIV prevalence in Kenya and Zimbabwe, as well as in urban Haiti. The number of people living with HIV has increased in all but one region in the past two years. In the Caribbean, the second-most affected region in the world, HIV prevalence overall showed no change in 2005, compared with 2003. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    279857

    Ensuring equitable access to antiretroviral treatment for women. WHO / UNAIDS policy statement.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 6 p.

    WHO and UNAIDS are actively promoting the scale-up of programmes to deliver antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the aim of reaching three million people by the end of 2005 ('3 by 5 Initiative'). Equity in access to HIV treatment is a critical element of the '3 by 5' and will contribute to the broader 'right to health' for all. Attention must therefore be given to ensuring access to ART and other treatment, care and prevention, for people who risk exclusion including on the basis of their sex. Currently there is limited information available on the sex and age distribution of those receiving ART, however, we know that gender-based inequalities often affect women's ability to access services. Attention is therefore required to ensure that women and girls have equitable access to ART as it becomes available. Gender-based inequalities put women and girls at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Women's limited ability to negotiate safer sex practices with their partners, including condom use, can place even women who are faithful to one partner at risk of HIV infection. Married adolescent girls may be particularly vulnerable. Sexual violence, including rape, likewise increases the risk of HIV for women and girls. In addition, they typically have less access to education, income-generating opportunities, property ownership and legal protection than men. This means many women are not able to leave relationships even when they know that they may be at risk of HIV. (excerpt)
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