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  1. 1
    332932

    Challenging inequity through health systems. Final report: Knowledge Network on Health Systems. WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health.

    Gilson L; Doherty J; Loewenson R; Francis V

    [Johannesburg], South Africa, University of the Witwatersrand, Centre for Health Policy, Health Systems Knowledge Network, 2007 Jun. [146] p.

    The way that health systems are designed, financed and operated acts as a powerful determinant of health. The Health Systems Knowledge Network reviewed the evidence on different approaches to improving health equity outcomes through health systems. The focus was on innovative approaches that effectively incorporate action on the social determinants of health, and on strategies of policy development and implementation. Key themes were: Using the health sector to leverage inter-sectoral actions that address the social determinants of health; Enabling social empowerment in support of health equity; Identifying key elements of vision and health system architecture necessary to secure social protection and universal coverage; Building and maintaining national policy space for health policies that seek social justice; and Strengthening management and stewardship capacities within the health sector. The Health Systems Knowledge Network was chaired by Lucy Gilson of the Centre for Health Policy, and made up of 14 experienced policy-makers, academics and members of civil society from around the world. The Network engaged with other sections of the Commission and also commissioned a number of systematic reviews and case studies. This is the final report of the network.
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  2. 2
    345013

    Essential medicines for mothers and children: a key element of health systems. Access to medicines and public pharmaceutical policy.

    Joncheere K

    Entre Nous. 2009; (68):14-15.

    Medicines, when used appropriately, are one of the most cost effective interventions in health care. European countries spend an important part of their health budget on medicines, from 12% on average for the EU countries to more than 30% for the Newly Independent States (NIS) countries. Whereas in EU countries the larger part of the medicines expenditures are publicly funded through taxes and/or social health insurance, in the NIS and in the south eastern European countries it is often the patients who have to pay directly for the drugs themselves. This means that many patients simply do not get the drugs they need because they cannot afford them, and also may force families to incur enormous expenses as they sell their belongings in order to pay for their drugs and their health care.
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  3. 3
    332101

    Affordable Medicines Facility - Malaria. Frequently asked questions.

    Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

    [Geneva, Switzerland], Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 2010 Jan 12. 17 p.

    The AMFm is an innovative financing mechanism to expand access to affordable artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for malaria, thereby saving lives and reducing the use of inappropriate treatments. The AMFm aims to enable countries to increase the provision of affordable ACTs through the public, private not-for-profit (e.g. NGO) and private for-profit sectors. By increasing access to ACTs and displacing artemisinin monotherapies from the market, the AMFm also seeks to delay resistance to the active pharmaceutical ingredient, artemisinin.
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  4. 4
    273837

    The role of the health sector in supporting adolescent health and development. Materials prepared for the technical briefing at the World Health Assembly, 22 May 2003.

    Brandrup-Lukanow A; Akhsan S; Conyer RT; Shaheed A; Kianian-Firouzgar S

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2003. 15 p.

    I am very pleased to be here, and to be part of the discussion on Young Peoples Health at the World Health Assembly, for two reasons: because of the work we have been doing in adolescent health over the past years together with the Member States of the European Region of WHO, the work in cooperation with other UN agencies, especially UNICEF, UNFPA, and UNAIDS on adolescent health and development. Secondly, because Youth is a priority area of work of German Development Cooperation, and of the German Agency for Technical Cooperation, where I am working presently. Indeed, we have devoted this years GTZ´s open house day on development cooperation to youth I would also like to take this opportunity to remember the work of the late Dr. Herbert Friedman, former Chief of Adolescent Health in WHO, whose vision of the importance of working for and with young people has inspired many of the national plans and initiatives which we will hear about today. In many countries of the world, young people form the majority of populations, and yet their needs are being insufficiently met through existing health and social services. The health of young people was long denied the public, and public health attention it deserves. Adolescence is a driving force of personal, but also social development, as young people gradually discover, and question and challenge the adult world they are growing into. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    182080

    Micro-finance in rural communities in Southern Africa. Country and pilot site case studies, policy issues and recommendations.

    Human Sciences Research Council

    Pretoria, South Africa, Human Sciences Research Council, 2002. [6], 170 p.

    While micro-finance in its various forms has helped to make loan capital more accessible to low-income rural communities, much remains to be done to increase its outreach, impact and sustainability. The essential objective of this study is to make well-researched recommendations for IRDP policy and strategy to enable the micro-finance agents that it will shortly be appointing to maximize improvements in these key indicators in the three pilot sites. Chapter 1 outlines the institutional context and terms of reference of the report and briefly discusses its timeframe, methodology, value and limitations. Chapters 2 and 3 depict, on the one hand, the demand for financial services in the three pilot sites and, on the other, access to micro-finance in the respective communities. In Chapter 4 an account is given of the essential nature and capabilities of microfinance, of recent developments in this regard, of fundamental lessons from international experience and of best practices in a rural context. Chapter 5 identifies the key sets of policy issues facing, in the first instance, public policy makers seeking to promote micro-finance development and, in the second, donors/investors/wholesalers seeking to support individual micro-finance retailers. It then applies the findings of Chapter 4 to the three on-the-ground pictures sketched out in Chapters 2 and 3 to arrive at some initial and very tentative recommendations for policy for the IRDP in the respective pilot sites. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    114830

    Community availability of ARI drugs in Guatemala, Guatemala, Guatemala, July 23 to August 5, 1995.

    McCarthy D

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. [4], 11, [45] p. (Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 008-GU-01-015; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-Q-08-3032)

    As part of a series of activities designed to reduce morbidity and mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under the age of 5 in Guatemala, a consultant from the BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival) program visited Guatemala in 1995 to analyze, modify, and field test the protocol developed by the USAID Mission to document the degree to which drugs prescribed for pneumonia are available in the community through the private sector. This field report provides background information and describes the current situation in Guatemala in terms of availability of drugs in the public sector through the Ministry of Health, the Drogueria Nacional, municipalities, and the Pan American Health Organization. Relevant activities in the private sector are also described, including the for-profit businesses as well as services provided by UNICEF, the European Union, and nongovernmental organizations. A brief overview of one health area gives an example of the current situation. The result of this consultancy visit was the determination that the situation merited adjustment of the originally requested study and that the survey as designed would likely require modification and application within target communities. Included among the appendices is the original protocol developed for assessing community drug availability.
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  7. 7
    066486

    AIDS vaccine trials: bumpy road ahead.

    Cohen J

    SCIENCE. 1991 Mar 15; 251:1312-3.

    AIDS scientists met in February 1991 to discuss international trials of AIDS vaccines because of the urgency in conducting such trials since the US Food and Drug Administration approved 6 vaccines for trails. Major problems discussed were how to insure access to potential AIDS vaccines to developing countries, where to conduct future tests of vaccine efficacy, and which of the leading institutions should coordinate such an effort. The most difficult issue centered around who assumes the risks and who benefits. Many researchers considered conducting AIDS vaccine trials in developing countries since they have a large population varied in age and gender at high risk of HIV infection. Assuming an HIV vaccine is effective, additional questions must be addressed: How can a developing country afford a vaccine at free market prices? If that country does get the vaccine should not other developing countries also get it? Who will pay for it and distribute it? WHO has already contacted ministries of health about AIDS trials. Other organizations, e.g., the US Centers for Disease Control and the US National Institutes of Health, also already involved in international AIDS vaccine research do not want to be kept out of the Phase III trials. Some recommended that WHO be the international umbrella, others suggested that no organization control all the research. Nevertheless the vaccine will be produced in a rich country, and if left to the free market, it will be too expensive. 1 suggestions is a 2-tiered pricing plan in which rich countries pay higher prices thereby subsidizing the price in poor countries. Another is a patent exchange where the vaccine developers donate the vaccine patent to an international organization and they in turn can get an extension on an existing patent. Another alternative includes removing AIDS vaccines from the private sector altogether.
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