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Guidelines on improving delivery and evaluation of population and family planning programmes in African countries.
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, 1991 Dec. vi, 82 p. (ECA/POP/TP/91/2 [1.2(ii)])In December, 1991, the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) released guidelines geared toward professionals involved in population and family planning programs in Africa. By this time, many African countries had adopted such programs either for health and human rights reasons or to influence demographic trends. Yet several countries still had laws against family planning from the colonial days. UNECA stressed that programs should be central to socioeconomic development planning, since changes in population affect socioeconomic development and vice versa. It also emphasized the importance of planning and formulation of programs and policies. This included political commitment and leadership; involvement of women, men, youth, and communities; consideration of resource allocation, institutional arrangements, and infrastructure; and wide discussion of policies and programs at all levels including the grass roots levels. UNECA pointed out the need for policy makers and program managers to clearly state objectives and that the objectives be tied with socioeconomic development and improvement of the welfare of the people. It encouraged population and family planning professionals to give consideration to the delivery and evaluation of programs. For example, they should incorporated information, education, and communication efforts designed to improve attitudes and encourage quality services into these programs. Leaders should strive to reform legislation which acts against population and family planning programs. UNECA also stressed the need to integrate evaluation activities into these programs. The guidelines ended with experiences on implementation of programs from Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Tunisia, Zimbabwe, China, and Thailand.
Journal of Family Law. 1981-1982; 20(2):241-61.Abortion, a topic which challenges the religious and moral values of many individuals, has an impact on population control relied upon by some nation-states in achieving economic and social development. This is seen in India, and previously in the Eastern European states of Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania after WW II. In these states abortion is accepted largely for economic reasons. Abortion has strongly emerged as an issue in the development of international law, particularly in the area of human rights. This article studies that emergence by looking at the right to privacy, its expression in various human rights documents, and both the restrictive and liberal view of its application to woman's right to terminate a pregnancy, without external interference. The fetus' right to life is discussed and finally the interests of women, the fetus, and the public are analyzed to determine the importance of each of these interests to world peace and public order. International human rights agreements, e.g., the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, express the right to privacy in general terms, making it difficult to determine the scope of the right. In a case brought before the European Commission on Human Rights, 2 West German nationals' claimed the scope of the right to privacy includes the right of the woman to decide whether to terminate her pregnancy the commission held that such interference was not a breach of the woman's right to respect for her private life. The primary goal of human rights is to establish maximum respect for the individual and it is in this context that the right of a woman to choose to terminate a pregnancy is analyzed. Autonomy is an element of respect for the individual. Denying women the legal right or information to control fertility limits their ability to control their health, educational, political, social and cultural status. The fact that fertility control substantially affects the status of women is recognized in international human rights agreements. Sex equality is achieved by giving women the right to abortion. Legal proscriptions against abortion are inconsistent with the goals and objectives of human rights, especially the individual woman's right to respect and autonomy.