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Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015.  p.In 2015 the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) come to the end of their term, and a post-2015 agenda, comprising 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), takes their place. This WHO report looks back 15 years at the trends and positive forces during the MDG era and assesses the main challenges that will affect health in the coming 15 years.
PEOPLE COUNT. 1994 Nov; 4(10):1-4.The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) can be optimistic about achieving the goals adopted for it at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development because its accomplishments of the past 25 years overcame strong obstacles. In 1969, there was little appreciation of the importance of population factors, population was a controversial element in the development debate, it was difficult to achieve funding for population programs, less than 10% of couples (versus 55% today) used family planning (FP), and population growth was more than 2% per year (it is 1.5% today). The proposed UNFPA program for the Philippines for 1994-98 aims to help the Philippine government achieve population growth and distribution which is consistent with sustainable development by 1) broadening awareness of and support for population programs, 2) improving FP services, 3) improving service delivery through nongovernmental organizations, 4) integrating population perspectives into development plans, 5) improving the quality of population data, 6) integrating gender and environmental concerns into population policies and programs, and 7) coordinating program implementation with other donors. Specific goals of the proposed program are to improve the health of women and children through maternal/child health and FP services, to increase contraceptive prevalence by 10%, to extend FP services to remote areas and provide a wide array of methods, to support IEC (information, education, and communication) activities, to strengthen data collection and analysis capabilities at a cost of $500,000, to provide $2.4 million to efforts to promote greater consideration of population factors in policy making and development planning, to contribute $700,000 to research on population dynamics, and to provide $3.7 million to improve the status of women. The program will be managed by the government and monitored in accordance with standard UNFPA guidelines with a mid-term review scheduled for 1996.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 36 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)In his address to national leaders in Nairobi, Kenya, Clausen expresses his views on population growth and development. Rapid population growth slows development in the developing countries. There is a strong link between population growth rates and the rate of economic and social development. The World Bank is determined to support the struggle against poverty in developing countries. Population growth will mean lower living standards for hundreds of millions of people. Proposals for reducing population growth raise difficult questions about the proper domain of public policy. Clausen presents a historical overview of population growth in the past 2 decades, and discusses the problem of imbalance between natural resources and people, and the effect on the labor force. Rapid population growth creates urban economic and social problems that may be unmanageable. National policy is a means to combat overwhelmingly high fertility, since governments have a duty to society as a whole, both today's generation and future ones. Peoples may be having more children than they actually want because of lack of information or access to fertility control methods. Family planning is a health measure that can significantly reduce infant mortality. A combination of social development and family planning is needed to teduce fertility. Clausen briefly reviews the effect of economic and technological changes on population growth, focusing on how the Bank can support an effective combination of economic and social development with extending and improving family planning and health services. The World Bank offers its support to combat rapid population growth by helping improve understanding through its economic and sector work and through policy dialogue with member countries; by supporting developing strategies that naturally buiild demand for smaller families, especially by improving opportunities in education and income generation; and by helping supply safe, effective and affordable family planning and other basic health services focused on the poor in both urban and rural areas. In the next few years, the Bank intends at least to double its population and related health lending as part of a major effort involving donors and developing countries with a primay focus on Africa and Asia. An effective policy requires the participation of many ministeries and clear direction and support from the highest government levels.