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Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxfam International, 2009 Feb. 55 p. (Oxfam Briefing Paper No. 125)'The realization of the right to health for millions of people in poor countries depends upon a massive increase in health services to achieve universal and equitable access. A growing number of international donors are promoting an expansion of private-sector health-care delivery to fulfil this goal. The private sector can play a role in health care. But this paper shows there is an urgent need to reassess the arguments used in favor of scaling-up private-sector provision in poor countries. The evidence shows that prioritizing this approach is extremely unlikely to deliver health for poor people. Governments and rich country donors must strengthen state capacities to regulate and focus on the rapid expansion of free publicly provided health care, a proven way to save millions of lives worldwide. (Excerpt)
Reproductive Health Matters. 2005; 13(25):106-108.The year 2005 is a pivotal year for ensuring that sexual and reproductive health are fully addressed in the implementation and monitoring of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). When the MDGs were developed following the Millennium Summit in 2000, no goal was included on sexual and reproductive health, for reasons that are now history. Matters that have an impact on, or are components of, sexual and reproductive health were included – maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, gender equality and education – but sexual and reproductive health were left out. This year, however, there are real opportunities to redress the imbalance and to ensure that sexual and reproductive health are there for the rest of the time earmarked for the implementation of the MDGs, i.e. in the ten years to 2015. Targets and indicators were set shortly after the MDGs were agreed. As far as maternal health was concerned the target set was the reduction of maternal mortality by two-thirds and for HIV/AIDS of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, both by 2015. Whole other areas are not included, however, especially access to contraceptive services. There is an increasing trend among donor governments to tie development aid to the MDGs, and to use monitoring of implementation of the MDGs for this purpose. Hence, implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development 1994 would be more easily achieved if targets for achieving sexual and reproductive health were fully integrated into the MDG process. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2000. x, 95 p.During the 1990s, the UN held a series of global conferences addressing a number of economic and social issues of international concern. These conferences succeeded in forging a consensus on the development issues confronting the international community. This publication grew out of the participation of the Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, in activities aimed at ensuring a coordinated and system-wide implementation of the goals and commitments adopted by the conferences. Divided into 12 chapters, it provides basic statistical information and sources for 12 key indicators relevant to goals agreed upon by governments. The indicators are selected for their relevance to six of the main themes of the various global conferences: population; primary health care; nutrition; basic education; drinking water and sanitation; and shelter. The 12 indicators include: total population; access to health services; contraceptive prevalence; underweight prevalence among preschool children; maternal mortality; infant and child mortality; life expectancy at birth; school enrollment; adult illiteracy; access to safe water; access to sanitation; and floor area per person.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1996; 17:359-82.This overview describes current growth in the population of the world as well as the momentum which keeps populations expanding even after fertility rates decline. This background information precedes a discussion of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) which includes the preparatory activities, the position of the ICPD in the context of previous decennial population conferences, major innovations included in the Program of Action, and the process used to reach consensus. The following six major reproductive health concerns which arose from the ICPD are then considered: gender inequality; access to contraceptive services; sexually transmitted disease (including HIV/AIDS) prevalence, health effects, and programmatic effects; maternal mortality; unsafe abortion; and adolescent pregnancy. It is concluded that the ICPD was of enormous significance because it managed to gain consensus on some of the most controversial topics in the area of reproductive health and to mirror some of the most pressing population problems of the decade. The major drawback of the Program of Action is seen as the fact that its success will depend upon the political and financial will of governments.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 36 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)In his address to national leaders in Nairobi, Kenya, Clausen expresses his views on population growth and development. Rapid population growth slows development in the developing countries. There is a strong link between population growth rates and the rate of economic and social development. The World Bank is determined to support the struggle against poverty in developing countries. Population growth will mean lower living standards for hundreds of millions of people. Proposals for reducing population growth raise difficult questions about the proper domain of public policy. Clausen presents a historical overview of population growth in the past 2 decades, and discusses the problem of imbalance between natural resources and people, and the effect on the labor force. Rapid population growth creates urban economic and social problems that may be unmanageable. National policy is a means to combat overwhelmingly high fertility, since governments have a duty to society as a whole, both today's generation and future ones. Peoples may be having more children than they actually want because of lack of information or access to fertility control methods. Family planning is a health measure that can significantly reduce infant mortality. A combination of social development and family planning is needed to teduce fertility. Clausen briefly reviews the effect of economic and technological changes on population growth, focusing on how the Bank can support an effective combination of economic and social development with extending and improving family planning and health services. The World Bank offers its support to combat rapid population growth by helping improve understanding through its economic and sector work and through policy dialogue with member countries; by supporting developing strategies that naturally buiild demand for smaller families, especially by improving opportunities in education and income generation; and by helping supply safe, effective and affordable family planning and other basic health services focused on the poor in both urban and rural areas. In the next few years, the Bank intends at least to double its population and related health lending as part of a major effort involving donors and developing countries with a primay focus on Africa and Asia. An effective policy requires the participation of many ministeries and clear direction and support from the highest government levels.