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New York, New York, UNICEF, 1992 Jun.  p.This compendium provides statistical profiles for 136 UNICEF countries on the status of children. Statistics pertain to basic population, infant and child mortality, and gross national product data; child survival and development; nutrition; health; education; demography; and economics. Official government sources are used whenever possible. The nine major sources include the UN Statistical Office, UNICEF, the UN Population Division, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the World Bank, Demographic and Health Surveys, and UNESCO. Statistics rely on internationally standardized estimates, and whenever standardized estimates were unavailable, UNICEF field office data were used. Some statistics may be more reliable than others. Countries are divided into four groups for under-five mortality: very high (140 deaths per 1000 live births); high (71-140/1000); middle (21-70/1000); and low (20/1000 and under). The median value is the preferred figure, but the mean is used if the range in data is not extensive. Data are footnoted by definitions, sources, explanations of signs, and individual notation where figures are different from the general definition being used. Comprehensive and representative data are used where possible. Data should not be used to delineate small differences. Countries with very high child mortality include Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Yemen.
WORLD HEALTH. 1989 Nov; 14-5.Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major causes of death for children in 4 Western Pacific Region nations: the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, and Viet Nam. They are also among the most frequent childhood illnesses in 18 of 35 countries and areas of the region. Many children die because physicians, health workers, and mothers do not know that oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is the single most effective treatment for diarrhea. All too often, older or hospital based physicians prescribe antidiarrheal drugs or antibiotics. ORT can successfully treat 90-95% of acute diarrheal cases. The oral rehydration salts (salt, glucose, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride) are mixed with potable water so the child with diarrhea can drink it. The mixture replaces the water and salts removed from the body during diarrheal episodes. The 1st Diarrhoeal Training Unit (DTU) of the WHO Global Diarrhoeal Diseases Control programme in the region was found in Manila, the Philippines in December 1985. Its purpose continues to be the provision of hands-on training for health professionals in hospitals to convince them that ORT is effective. In 1988, 12 DTUs existed in such countries as China, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, and Viet Nam. They will soon also operate out of medical, nursing, and midwifery schools. Even though 60% of the population in the Western Pacific Region has access to ORT packets, too many mothers still do no use them to treat their children with diarrhea. Further, they do not know that they should continue to feed them. In 1988 in the region, an estimated 50,000 children lived who would have died without ORT.